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TRANSACTIONS 



OV THE 



AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, 



HELD AT PHILADELPHIA, 



FOR PROMOTING USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 



VOL. V.— NEW SERIES. 



J0 SS °%\ 







U 



PUBLISHED WTHE SOCIETY. 



PRINTED BY JAMES KAY, JUN. & BROTHER, PRINTERS TO THE SOCIETY. 

No. 122, Chestnut Street. 

1837. 

I-P 




EXTRACT 



FROM THE 



LAWS OF THE SOCIETY RELATING TO THE TRANSACTIONS. 



1. The Transactions shall be published in numbers, at short intervals, under the direction 
of the Committee of Publication. 

2. Every communication to the Society, which may be considered as intended for a place 
in the Transactions, shall immediately be referred to a committee to consider and report 
thereon. 

3. If the committee shall report in favour of publishing the communication, they shall 
make such corrections therein, as they may judge necessary to fit it for the press ; or if they 
shall judge the publication of an abstract or extracts from the paper to be most eligible, they 
shall accompany their report with such abstract or extracts. But if the author do not approve 
of the corrections, abstract, or extracts, reported by the committee, he shall be at liberty to 
withdraw his paper. 

4. The order in which papers are read before the Society shall determine their places in 
the Transactions, priority of date giving priority of location. 



COMMITTEE OF PUBLICATION. 



Isaac Lea. 

Isaac Hays, M.D. 

R. Eglesfeld Grifiith, M.D. 



OFFICERS 



OF THE 



AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 

FOR THE YEAR 1837. 



Patron, 
President, 

Vice-Presidents, 

Secretaries, 

Counsellors elected for three years, 
In 1835, 

In 1836, 



In 1837, 



Curators, 

Treasurer and Librarian, 
YOL. V. b 



His Excellency the Governor of Pennsylvania. 
Peter S. Du Ponceau. 

{Nathaniel Chapman, 
Joseph Hopkinson, 
R. M. Patterson. 

f Franklin Bache, 
J John K. Kane, 
I Alexander D. Bache, 
^.Charles D. Meigs. 

("Robert Hare, 
J William Hembel, Jun., . 
1 E. Nulty, 
\J. F. Fisher. 

("William Short, 
J George Ord, 
1 W. H. Keating, 

[C. C. Biddle. 

f Nicholas Biddle, 
J James Mease, 
1 Thomas Biddle, 

^Governeur Emerson. 

{John P. Wetherill, 
Isaac Lea, 
Isaac Hays. 

John Vaughan. 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



OF THE 



AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, 

Elected since the Publication of the Fourth Volume, New Series, of their Transactions. 



Henry D. Rogers, of Philadelphia. 

James P. Espy, of Philadelphia. 

Edward H. Courtenay, Professor of Mathematics in the University of Pennsylvania. 

Charles W. Short, M.D., Professor of Materia Medica and Botany in Transylvania Univer- 
sity. 

John Brockenbrough, of Richmond, Virginia. 

John Wickham, of Richmond, Virginia. 

John Torrey, M.D., Professor of Chemistry and Botany in the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons, city of New York. 

Joseph Henry, Professor of Natural Philosophy, Princeton College, New Jersey. 

D. Francis Condie, M.D., of Philadelphia. 

Colonel William Drayton, of South Carolina. 

William B. Rogers, Professor of Natural Philosophy, in the University of Virginia. 

Thomas Sully, of Philadelphia. 

Charles A. Agardh, of Lund, Sweden. 

C. C. Von Leonhard, of Heidelberg, Germany. 

C. G. C. Reinwardt, of Leyden. 

Don Manuel Naxera, of Mexico. 

Chevalier Morelli, Consul-General of the King of the Two Sicilies. 

Job R. Tyson, of Philadelphia. 

Nathan Dunn, of Philadelphia. 

John Griscom. 

J. J. Da Costa, de Macedo, Perpet. Sec. Roy. Acad, of Lisbon. 

Nicholas Carlisle, Sec. Soc. Antiq., London. 

Granville Penn, of Stoke Park, England. 

Colonel Joseph G. Totten, U. S. Corps of Engineers. 

M. Roux de Rochelle, of Paris. 

Dr C. Mariano Galvez, Governor of Guatemala. 

Edward Turner, Professor of Chemistry, London. 



OBITUARY NOTICE 



Since the publication of the last volume of these Transactions, the 
Society has been deprived, by death, of the fellowship of the following 
members : — 



Rt. Rev. William White, D.D., of Philadelphia. 

M. Barbe de Marbois, of France. 

James Madison, late President of the United States. 

Gilbert Motier de La Fayette. 

William Rawle, of Philadelphia. 

Benjamin Vaughan, of Maine. 

Simeon De Witt, of Albany, New York. 

Edward Stevens, M.D., of St Croix. 

Thomas C. James, M.D., of Philadelphia. 

Sir Robert Listen, of Scotland. 

Rev. John Prince, L.L.D., Salem, Massachusetts. 

Charles Smith, of Pennsylvania. 

Destutt Tracy, of France. 

Irene Du Pont de Nemours, of Wilmington, Delaware. 

Edward Penington, of Philadelphia. 

William Johnson, of South Carolina, an Associate Justice of the Supreme 

Court of the United States. 
David Hosack, M.D., F. R. S., of New York. 
Thomas Say, of Philadelphia. 
Roberts Vaux, of Philadelphia. 
William Marsden, L.L. D., F. R. S., of England. 
Baron William Von Humboldt, of Berlin. 
Professor Gottlob Ernst Schulze, of Goetingen. 
The Chevalier Du Ponceau, of Fontenay le Comte, France. 
Julius Klaproth, of Paris. 
Count Real, of Paris. 
Edward Livingston, of Louisiana. 

VOL. V. C 



X LIST OF DECEASED MEMBERS. 

Charles Tait, of Alabama. 
James Brown, of Louisiana. 
Joseph Roberts, of Philadelphia. 
John Marshall, Chief Justice of the United States. 
John P. Hopkinson, M.D., of Philadelphia. 
Don Francisco Antonio Gonzales, of Madrid. 

Chevalier Lorich, Charge d' Affaires and Consul General of Sweden and 
Norway. 



CONTENTS. 



Laws of the Society relating to the Transactions. - - - iii 

Officers of the Society for the Year 1837. ------- v 

List of the Members of the Society elected since the Publication of the Fourth Vo- 
lume, New Series. .._...-- vii 

Obituary Notice. - - - . - - - - - ix 



ARTICLE I. 

On the Diurnal Variation of the Horizontal Needle. By Alexander Dallas Bache, 
Professor of Natural Philosophy and Chemistry in the University of Pennsylva- 
nia. -...---.-- 



ARTICLE II. 

Observations on the Naiades ; and Descriptions of New Species of that, and other 

Families. By Isaac Lea. ....... 23 



ARTICLE III. 

On the Visceral Anatomy of the Python (Cuvier), described by Daudin as the Boa 

Reticulata. By J. P. Hopkinson, M. D. and J. Pancoast, M. D. - - 121 



ARTICLE IV. 

On the Longitude of the Hall of the American Philosophical Society, deduced from 

an Occultation of Aldebaran observed by S. C. Walker January 5th 1830. - 135 



Xll CONTENTS. 



ARTICLE V. 



On the Crystals developed in Verraiculite by Heat. By Andres Del Rio, Professor 

of Mineralogy in the Mexican School of Mines. - - - - - 137 



ARTICLE VI. 

Collections towards a Flora of the Territory of Arkansas. By Thomas Nuttall. - 139 

ARTICLE VII. 

A Remarkable Arrangement of Numbers, constituting a Magic Cyclovolute. By E. 

Nulty, Philadelphia. - - - - - - - -205 

ARTICLE VIII. 

Observations to determine the Magnetic Dip at Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York, 
West Point, Providence, Springfield and Albany. By A. D. Bache, professor of 
Natural Philosophy and Chemistry, and Edward H. Courteuay, Professor of 
Mathematics, in the University of Pennsylvania. ----- 209 

ARTICLE IX. 

Contributions to Electricity and Magnetism. By Joseph Henry, Professor of Natu- 
ral Philosophy in the College of New Jersey, Princeton, late of the Albany Acade- 
my. — No. I. Description of a Galvanic Battery for producing Electricity of differ- 
ent Intensities. - - - - - - - - .21? 

ARTICLE X. 

Contributions to Electricity and Magnetism. By Joseph Henry, Professor of Natural 
Philosophy in the College of New Jersey, Princeton, late of the Albany Academy. 
— No. II. On the Influence of a Spiral Conductor in increasing the Intensity of 
Electricity from a Galvanic Arrangement of a Single Pair, &c. - - - 223 



9» ft 



CONTENTS. Xlll 



ARTICLE XI. 



Collection of Observations on the Solar Eclipse of November 30th, 1834, made at 
Philadelphia, Haverford, West-Hills, Baltimore, the University of Virginia, Nor- 
folk, Cincinnati and Nashville. - - - - - . - - 233 



ARTICLE XII. 

De Lingua Othomitorum Dissertatio ; Auctore Emmanuele Naxera, Mexicano, Acade- 
mic Literaria? Zacatecarum Socio. - - - - - 249 



ARTICLE XIII. 

Practical Rule for Calculating, from the Elements in the Nautical Almanac, the Cir- 
cumstances of an Eclipse of the Sun, for a Particular Place. By John Gummere, 
Teacher of Natural Philosophy and Mathematics in the Friends' School at Haver- 
ford, Pennsylvania. - - - -'.--.'.*■ - - 297 



ARTICLE XIV. 

Contributions to the Geology of the Tertiary Formations of Virginia. By William 
B. Rogers, Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University of Virginia, and 
Henry D. Rogers, Professor of Geology in the University of Pennsylvania. - 319 



ARTICLE XV. 

On the Difference of Longitude of several places in the United States, as determined 
by Observations of the Solar Eclipse of November 30th, 1834. By Edward H. 
Courtenay, Professor of Mathematics in the University of Pennsylvania. - - 343 



ARTICLE XVI. 

Observations on Sulphurous Ether, and Sulphate of Etherine (the true Sulphurous 
Ether). By R. Hare, M.D., Professor of Chemistry in the University of Penn- 
sylvania. .'...'- . . .. .. . . 347 

VOL. v. — d 



XIV CONTENTS. 



• ARTICLE XVII. 

Of the Reaction of the Essential Oils with Sulphurous Acid, as evolved in Union with 
Ether in the Process of E Aerification, or otherwise. By R. Hare, M.D., <fec, 
&c, <fcc. ......... 355 



ARTICLE XVIII. 

Of Sassarubrin, a Resin evolved by Sulphuric Acid from Oil of Sassafras, which is 
remarkable for its efficacy in Reddening that Acid in its concentrated State. By R. 
Hare, M.D., &c, &c, &c. ....... 360 



ARTICLE XIX. 

Process for Nitric Ether, or Sweet Spirits of Nitre, by means of an approved Appa- 
ratus. By R. Hare, M.D., <fcc, &c, <fec. ..... 363 



ARTICLE XX. 

Description of an Electrical Machine, with a Plate four feet in Diameter, so construct- 
ed as to be above the Operator : also of a Battery Discharger employed therewith : 
and some Observations on the Causes of the Diversity in the Length of the Sparks 
erroneously distinguished by the terms Positive and Negative. By R. Hare, M.D., 
<fec, &c, <fec. .....---- 365 



ARTICLE XXI. 

On the Causes of the Tornado, or Water Spout. By R. Hare, M.D., <fec, <fec, &c. 375 

ARTICLE XXII. 

Description of an Air Pump of a new Construction, which acts either as an Air Pump, 
or a Condenser, or as both ; enabling the operator to exhaust, to condense, to 
ransfer a Gas from one cavity to another, or to pass it through a Liquid. By R. 
Hare, M.D., <fec, <fcc, &c. - - - - - - - 385 



CONTENTS. XV 

ARTICLE XXIII. 
Of an Improved Barometer Gage Eudiometer. By R. Hare, M.D., &c, &c, &c. - 389 

ARTICLE XXIV. 

On the Cause of the Collapse of a Reservoir while apparently subjected within to 

great Pressure from a Head of Water. By R. Hare, M.D., &c, &c, &c. - 395 

ARTICLE XXV. 

Sundry Improvements in Apparatus, or Manipulation. By R. Hare, M.D., &c, 

&c, &c. . .'.- - - - - - - - - 399 

ARTICLE XXVI. 

Notes and Diagrams, illustrative of the Directions of the Forces acting at and near the 
surface of the Earth, in different parts of the Brunswick Tornado of June 19th 1835. 
By A. D. Bache, Professor of Natural Philosophy and Chemistry in the University 
of Pennsylvania ; one of the Secretaries of the American Philosophical Society. - 407 

ARTICLE XXVII. 

Deductions from Observations made, and Facts collected on the Path of the Bruns- 
wick Spout of June 19th 1835. By James P. Espy, Member of the American 
Philosophical Society. - - - - - - - - 421 

ARTICLE XXVIII. 

On the Relative Horizontal Intensities of Terrestrial Magnetism at several Places in 
the United States, with the Investigation of Corrections for Temperature, and Com- 
parisons of the Methods of Oscillation in Full and Rarefied Air. By A. D. Bache, 
Professor of Natural Philosophy and Chemistry, and Edward H. Courtenay, Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics, in the University of Pennsylvania. - - - 427 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF 



THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY. 



ARTICLE I. 



On the Diurnal Variation of the Horizontal Needle. By Alexander 
Dallas Bache, Professor of Natural Philosophy anil Chemistry in 
the University of Pennsylvania. Read November 16, 1832. 

During the month of August, and part of September, of this year, 
the usual summer vacation of the University permitted my absence 
from the city, and finding myself favourably situated for meteorologi- 
cal observations, I undertook to observe the diurnal fluctuation of the 
barometer and thermometer, and, ultimately, the hourly variation of 
the horizontal needle. It was a source of great regret to me, that, in 
these latter observations, I was not also furnished with a dipping 
needle, or with the means of directly measuring the variation of mag- 
netic intensity: the observations could all have been accomplished 
with little more inconvenience than the hourly observations of the 
horizontal needle gave ; and the last named subject is more interesting 
than the point which I was enabled to observe. This being the case, 
I had determined not to make public these observations, but to use 
vol. v. — A 



2 ON THE DIURNAL VARIATION 

the experience obtained when occasion might offer an opportunity of 
prosecuting more extended researches. This resolution has given 
way to the consideration, that magnetic phenomena have not yet been 
observed with that closeness of scrutiny to which other branches of 
experimental science have been subjected ; that the inconvenience of 
hourly observations by day and by night have prevented many from 
entering this particular field ; and, finally, that my observations appear 
to warrant interesting deductions not afforded by the printed observa- 
tions which I have been able to examine. 

It would be out of place, in a brief essay like the present, to attempt 
a sketch of the observations, either systematic or casual, made upon 
the diurnal variation of the needle; the references which will be 
made to other experiments, for the purpose of a comparison of results, 
will supply the place of such an outline. In making such comparisons, 
it is hardly necessary to observe, that I disclaim any intention of claim- 
ing for my results any more weight than is due to careful and frequent 
observation during the time for which they were obtained. 

In the following account, I purpose, first, to give a description of the 
instrument, and of its location, and of the mode of observing ; next, to 
present the observations ; and, lastly, the conclusions which they may 
warrant. 

The needle was thirty-six inches long, .04 of an inch thick, broader, 
in its horizontal section, at the middle than at the two ends : it was 
supported by a steel pivot playing into a ruby cap, and was contained 
in a prismatic box of mahogany, covered by sliding plates of glass. 
The weight of the needle was three hundred and fifty-five grains. At- 
tached to each end of the box was a brass arc, divided into degrees 
and tenths. The zero of each arc, and the pivot on which the needle 
rested, were in the same line ; but the point in the ruby cap, upon which 
the needle rested, was found to be out of the line joining the two ends. 
On which account, as well as to render the observations more accurate, 
two readings were always made : one on the scale near the north pole, 
the other on that near the south pole of the needle. The nature of the 
suspension of this needle, though sufficiently delicate for the purposes 
immediately in view, did not warrant my using its oscillations to 
obtain the intensity ; its shape and length rendering it, besides, un- 



OF THE HORIZONTAL NEEDLE. 3 

suitable to such observations, and inducing the fear that it might be 
liable to changes of magnetism, which would have been fatal to such 
results. 

The relative amount of variation being the object sought, it was only 
necessary that. the needle box should remain in a fixed position during 
the observations. Wishing, however, further to determine the mean 
variation of the place of observation, I employed, for tracing a meridian 
line, the best means which were at hand ; namely, equal altitudes of 
the sun before and after noon, as shown by the passage of the bright 
image of a circular opening in a metallic plate attached to a style, 
over a horizontal circle, the centre of which corresponded with the ver- 
tical passing through the middle of the opening. This method is well 
known, and needs no particular description here ; the platform used 
was of wood, the top planed and levelled by a spirit level. Only a 
portion of the form was truly level, and this portion was used in 
observing the altitudes. Concentric circles were drawn upon the 
platform, their centre being in the vertical passing through the centre 
of a round hole in a copper plate attached to a style ; the style was 
fastened to the middle of the south side of the platform. The shadow 
of the plate first fell upon the edge of the platform at 10^ A.M., and 
left it at 2 P.M. ; nine observations were made of the passage of the 
centre of the image of the aperture over different circles, from which 
the meridian line was determined. The points given by seven ob- 
servations were in the line ; and of those given by two others, the far- 
thest departed but one minute and a half from the same line. The 
limit of the error by this method is small, though much beyond that 
which other methods would have furnished. I repeat, however, that 
this error affects only the mean variation, and not the horary varia- 
tions. 

This platform, upon which the needle rested, was supported upon 
three posts, about six inches high, and firmly planted ; to these it was 
attached by wooden pins : the same kind of pins had been used in the 
construction of the platform itself. The location of the platform was 
in a garden, more than forty feet from the house, and fifteen from a 
small paling which formed the inclosure. The garden was upon the 
side of a hill, the ground sloping towards a meadow : a hill enclosed 



4 ON THE DIURNAL VARIATION 

this gorge both on the east and west: behind the western hill the sun 
passed about eighteen minutes before the time of sunset. 

The meridian line having been determined, the box containing the 
needle was placed upon it, the zero line coinciding with the meridian ; 
the points at which the edge of the box was cut by the line were 
then marked, so that any change of position might be detected. A tem- 
porary inclosure of shingles was next placed around and over the plat- 
form, to defend both the platform and the needle from the sun and 
rain. 

The labour of prosecuting hourly observations, by night as well as 
by day, could not well be endured by a single individual for any 
number of successive days ; and mine, though extending through parts 
of ten days, would have met with more interruptions, but for the in- 
telligent aid afforded by my friend and former pupil, John F. Frazer, 
who took a share in the labour of watching. It did not take many 
nights to perceive that the period from 1 A.M. to seven or eight o'clock, 
did not include any remarkable points ; and when circumstances seemed 
to permit it, I did not continue the observations between those hours. 

A few trials enabled me to determine that the space between the 
tenths on the scale was readily divisible by the eye into fourths, with 
accuracy as to the nearest quarter, both by my assistant and myself : 
the observed variation was therefore thus registered, and the limit of 
accuracy of one reading was one minute and a quarter. The observa- 
tions have been turned into minutes and decimals of a minute. To 
show the errors of reading, no better test can be had than to compare 
the differences of two readings of both the north and south pole, when 
either one was at or near the same position. As the most unfavourable 
specimen of such readings, may be taken the time of the first twenty- 
four hours, when the observers were the least practised : such a spe- 
cimen is given in the first table, and it is to be understood that the 
observations of subsequent days presented much smaller errors of ob- 
servation, than the average of those there recorded. The observations 
were begun a few hours before noon, and each table comprehends 
twelve hours of two successive days. 

The temperature of the air was noted at the same time with the 
variation ; the place of the thermometer was in the shade near the 



OF THE HORIZONTAL NEEDLE. 5 

house, unless when specially noted to give the temperature of the 
needle itself. I regretted not having at command instruments to notice 
both these points at the same time ; as the case was, I endeavoured to 
vary the observations, so as to procure, by separate observation, the 
same results as far as practicable. The character of the weather, the 
prevailing clouds, &c, were noted in the column of remarks. Ob- 
servations were made also upon the barometer and dew point, which 
I may make the subject of a separate communication to the society. 

In the table, under the column for the hour, M. is used to signify 
noon, and m. midnight. The days of the month are in the column 
of remarks. 

TABLE I. 



Hour. 
Mean time. 


Variation. 


Differ- 
ences. 


Mean. 
N. Pole W. 


Temp. 
Fah. 


State of the Weather and Remarks. 


N. F 


ole W. 


S. Pole E. 




Deg 


. Min. 


Deg 


. Min. 




Deg 


. Min. 


Deg. 


(Aug. 29th. 


12 M. 


3 


29.6 


3 


25.7 


3.9 


3 


27.6 


74* 


< Cumulus. Moon near first 


1 P.M. 


3 


28.3 


3 


25.0 


3.3 


3 


26.6 


76| 


£ quarter. 


2 P.M. 


3 


25.1 


3 


24.2 


0.9 


3 


24.6 


78 £ 




3 P.M. 


3 


23.5 


3 


21.8 


1.7 


3 


22.6 


78J 


Cumulus. Clear before sun. 


41 P.M. 


3 


22.6 


3 


21.8 


0.8 


3 


22.2 




C Sun striking on end of needle. 
1 Further covering added. 


5J P.M. 


3 


21.8 


3 


21.0 


0.8 


3 


21.4 


76 




6J P.M. 


3 


20.2 


3 


17.3 


2.9 


3 


18.7 




Sun sets at 6 h. 33 m. 


7 P.M. 


3 


20.2 


3 


17.3 


2.9 


3 


18.7 


74| 


Clear. 


8 P.M. 


3 


22.6 


3 


21.8 


0.8 


3 


22.2 


71 


Clear. 


9 P.M. 


3 


28.3 


3 


27.2 


1.1 


3 


27.7 




Clear. 


10 P.M. 


3 


27.5 


3 


26.4 


1.1 


3 


26.9 


69| 


Clear. 


11 P.M. 


O 


27.5 


3 


26.4 


1.1 


3 


26.9 


68i 


Clear. 


12 m. 


3 


28.3 


3 


27.2 


1.1 


3 


27.7 


661 


Clear. 


1 A.M. 


3 


2S.3 


3 


27.2 


1.1 


3 


27.7 


66i 


Clear. Aug. 30th. 


2 A.M. 


3 


26.7 


3 


25.7 


1.0 


3 


26.2 




C Clear. Needle vibrating. 
1 Observation not good. 


3 A.M. 


3 


23.5 


3 


22.6 


0.9 


3 


23.0 


66§ 


Hazy. 


4 A.M. 


3 


21.0 


3 


20.3 


0.7 


3 


20.6 


66^ 


Clear. 


5 A.M. 


3 


21.0 


3 


20.3 


0.7 


3 


20.6 


66^ 


Dense fog. 


5§ A.M. 


3 


21.0 


3 


20.3 


0.7 


3 


20.6 


66$ 


Dense fog. Time of sunrise. 


6 A.M. 


3 


21.8 


3 


21.0 


0.8 


3 


21.4 


66 


Fog less dense. 


7i A.M. 


3 


21.8 


3 


21.0 


0.8 


3 


21.4 


67i 


Foggy. 


8| A.M. 


3 


20.2 


3 


19.6 


0.6 


3 


19.9 




Foggy- 


9 A.M. 


3 


21.0 


3 


18.9 


2.1 


3 


19.9 


70| 


Fog clearing off. 


10 A.M. 


3 


25.9 


3 


24.2 


1.7 


3 


25.0 


72 


Cumulus. Sun out. Fog gone. 


11 A.M. 


3 


25.9 


3 


25.0 


0.9 


3 


25.4 


771 


Cumulus. 


12 M. 


3 


27.5 


3 


25.0 


2.5 


3 


26.2 


78| 


Cumulus. 



VOL. V. 



-li 



6 ON THE DIURNAL VARIATION 

The greatest difference of the numbers of the second and third 
column in the foregoing table is at the beginning, as might have been 
expected, where it amounts to nearly four minutes, and shows that the 
first two observations are of little value ; the greatest subsequent varia- 
tion from the mean difference is about one minute and a half. 

To have a perspicuous view of the results of the observations for 
every twenty-four hours, I traced, at the close of each series, a curve, 
the ordinates of which represented the variation, and the equidistant 
abscissae the hours. By writing, at the side of each ordinate, the 
remarks on the weather, the view was rendered more complete. To 
compare the progress of the variation with that of the temperature, a 
curve was traced below the former, in which the ordinates represented 
the temperatures. The crude observations suggested by the visible 
representation of the day's results, given in chart No. 1, (see Plate I.*) 
are not here added ; it may not be amiss, however, to state, that my 
object at this time in tracing the curve of temperature, as well as that 
of variation, was to ascertain whether the directive force underwent 
correlative changes with the temperature, as the intensities were sup- 
posed to do by M. Kupffer from his first experiments.* 

Two maxima of westerly variation, and two minima were distinctly 
seen in this day's results. The first maximum was at noon day ; the 
second between midnight and 1 A.M. The first minimum was be- 
tween 6^-and 7 in the afternoon, and the second between 8^ and 9 in 
the morning. There is, on the contrary, but one tide of temperature, 
rising until between 2 and 3 in the afternoon, descending with vari- 
able rapidity until 6 in the morning, half an hour after sunrise. The 
descent of the curve is interrupted by the fog, and it was not unnatural 
to suppose this to have its effect on the hour of the minimum. The 
hour of evening minimum variation differs, it will be observed, from 
that obtained by Canton and Gilpin, suggesting a close attention to 
the results furnished by the subsequent observations. 

In the following tables the mean of the observed variations shown 
by the north and south pole of the needle is given. The hours from 



* Recherches sur les Variations de la duree Moyenne des oscillations horizontales de l'ai- 
guille aimente, &c. A. T. Kupffer, Annales de China, et de Phys. vol. 35 (1827). 



OF THE HORIZONTAL NEEDLE. 



noon to midnight of the 30th of August are in one column; and in 
the parallel column, those from midnight to noon of the 31st. 



TABLE II. 



Hour. 


Variation. 
N. Pole W. 


Temp. 


Remarks. 


Hour. 


Variation. 
N. Pole W. 


Temp. 


Remarks. 




Deg 


. Min. 


Deg. 








Deg 


•. Min. 


Deg. 




12 M. 


3 


26.2 


7S| 


Aug. 30. Clear. 
C Sun under cloud. 


12 


m. 


3 


26.9 


71| 


Aug. 31. Fog. 
fFog. Thermom. 
hung near needle 


1 P.M. 


3 


25.8 


80| 


< Sky generally 
{ clear. 


1 


A.M. 


3 


25.4 


70f 


<{ box. Temp, the 
same as before 
(^ removal. 


2 P.M. 


3 


25.8 


79* 


Clear. 


2 


A.M. 


3 


23.8 


711 




3 P.M. 


3 


27.0 


80 


Clear. 


3 


A.M. 


3 


22.2 


71f 




41 P.M. 


3 


23.9 


811 


Clear. 


4 
5 


A.M. 
A.M. 


3 
3 


22.2 
21.0 


711 
71# 




51 P.M. 


3 


23.9 


79^ 


Clear. 


5i 

6 


A.M. 
A.M. 


3 
3 


20.3 
20.7 


724 
721 


Hazy. 


61 P.M. 


3 


21.9 


751 

8 


Clear. 


61 


A.M. 


3 


19.9 


72 


Mist. 


7 P.M. 


3 


19.9 


73| 


Clear. 


71 


A.M. 


3 


18.7 


721 




8 P.M. 


3 


26.2 


73 


Sky cloudless. 


8 


A.M. 


3 


19.1 






9 P.M. 


3 


28.5 


71| 


Sky cloudless. 


9 


A.M. 


3 


18.7 


77f 


C Sun gleams out. 


10 P.M. 


3 


28.5 


701 


Sky cloudless. 
C Stars not visible 


10 


A.M. 


3 


19.9 


771 


<j Therm, remov- 
£ ed to house. 
C Sun out. Cumu- 
i lus. 

C Variation greater 
I than at 11. 


11 P.M. 


n 
O 


26.9 


70§ 


< through fog. 


11 


A.M. 


3 


23.8 


80f 


m P.M. 


3 


26.9 


711 


£ Wind variable. 


111 


A.M. 








12 m. 


3 


26.9 


711 




12 


M. 


3 


26.3 


811 


c Cumulus. Sky 
I generally clear. 



The curves in No. 2, Plate I.*, are those of the variation and tem- 
perature from the table just given. We see that the general features are 
the same, but the details vary very much. We may trace the causes 
of these variations in the curves of temperature, though the knowledge 
which we possess on the subject of the variation of the needle does not 
permit us to do so for it. Both days were clear about noon, with flying 
clouds (cumulus) ; the second was a day of settled weather succeeding 
the first, and the maximum temperature was higher ; but about noon 
in No. 2, the sun was frequently obscured by clouds, and the hour 
of maximum was removed to between 4 and 5 P.M. No. 1 was de- 



8 



ON THE DIURNAL VARIATION 



scending to the sunrise minimum, when the observation at 3 A.M. showed 
a rise of temperature, and a haze is noted at the same time ; No. 2 
in like manner is descending to the same minimum, when, at between 
10 and 11 P.M., an irregular rise commences, and a fog is noted, 
varying only in density, until late in the morning : this fog checked 
more or less completely the powerful radiation from the earth, which 
was going on before the screen of fog was interposed between the earth 
and sky. 

It is worthy of note, that in No. 1, at the observation preceding the 
remark " hazy," we find the memorandum, " needle vibrating." 

TABLE III. 



Hour. 


N. Pole W. 


Temp. 


Remarks. 


Hour. 


N. Pole W. 


Temp. 


Remarks. 




Deg. Min. 


Deg. 






Deg. Min. 


Deg. 




12 M. 


3 26.3 


814 


Aug. 31. 








Sept. 1. 


1 P.M. 


3 25.4 


S3 


fShowercomesup, 
lasts4m.;recom- 










2 P.M. 


3 26.5 


841 


■> mences at 2h. 
11m. and rains 
^ until 2h. 27m. 
C Ceases to rain for 










2i P.M. 


3 10.7 


84f 


3 an instant, then 
£ recommences. 










3 P.M. 


3 25.S 


82^ 


Sun out. 










4 P.M. 


3 23.8 


85^ 


Sununderacloud. 










5| P.M. 


3 23.2 


84* 


f Sun under a cloud. 
\ Gust to N. of W. 










5| P.M. 


3 10.3 


79f 


Rain just begun. 
C Heavy part of 










6 P.M. 


3 14.3 


78§ 


J gust has passed. 
1 Thunder to S.E. 
'Needlevibrating. 










7 P.M. 


(3 32.0? 
<3 36.8$ 


773 


No rain. Much 
] thunder and 
[_ lightning. 
C Raining steadily. 










8 P.M. 


3 32.4 


78f 


< Gust has entire- 
£ ly passed. 


8 A.M. 


3 23.8 


711 


Clear. 
C Cloudy. Therm. 
<. placed in com- 
^ pass box. 


9 P.M. 


3 31.7 


77f 


f Not raining. 
\ Cloudy. 


9 A.M. 


3 18.3 


64 


10 P.M. 


3 32.0 


75 


Cloudy. 


10 A.M. 


3 19.1 


65 


C Cumulus. Sky 
l generally clear. 


11 P.M. 


3 26.5 


75 


Raining slightly. 


11 A.M. 


3 19.9 






12 m. 


3 26.2 


71 


C Perfectly clear. 
1 Wind N. W. 


12 M. 


3 20.4 


67 


C Approximate, 
< calculated from 
( that at 12* P.M. 



OF THE HORIZONTAL NEEDLE. 9 

The meteorological phenomena of this day were particularly inter- 
esting, and will be referred to in detail : the curves of observations 
are on No. 3, Plate I.* The variation evidently diminishing at mid- 
night, and the sky being clear, the observations were intermitted until 
8 A.M. Great pains were bestowed in noting the fluctuations before, 
during, and after the shower and the gust in the afternoon ; the 
periods of change being seized for observation. 

TABLE IV. 



Hour. 


N. Pole W. 


Temp. 


Remarks. 


Hour. 


N. Pole W. 


Temp. 


Remarks. 




Deg 


. Min. 


Deg. 


Cept. 1. 
C Clear. Therm. 


12 m. 


Deg. Min. 
3 34.9 


Deg. 
58 


C Sept. 2. 

£ Cloudless night. 


124 P.M. 


3 


21.0 


674 


< on the platform 
{ with needle. 


124 A.M. 






Cloudless. 


1 P.M. 










1 A.M. 


3 33.2 


58 


Cloudless. 


n p.m. 


3 


21.9 


63 


Clear. 


14 A.M. 








2 P.M. 










2 A.M. 


3 32.0 


56 


Cloudless. 


2| P.M. 


3 


21.4 


70 


Stratus to west. 


24 A.M. 








3 P.M. 


3 


22.2 


6S# 


Clear. 


3 A.M. 


3 32.0 


48 


Cloudless. 


4 P.M. 










4 A.M. 


3 32.0 


47 


Cloudless. 


5 P.M. 


O 

O 


22.6 




Clear. 


5 A.M. 


3 31.7 


464 


Cloudless. 


51 P.M. 










54 A.M. 


3 32.0 


44 


Cloudless. 


6 P.M. 


3 


15.1 


69 


Clear. 


6 A.M. 


3 30.8 


47 


Clear. 


61 P.M. 








Sun sets. 


64 A.M. 


3 21.9 


48 


Clear. 


7 P.M. 


3 


14.7 


67i 


Cloudless. 


7 A.M. 








74 P.M. 










74 A.M. 


3 19.1 


58 


Clear. 


8 P.M. 


3 


16.0 


624 


C Cloudless. Moon 
I in first quarter. 


8 A.M. 


3 12.6 


61 


Clear. 


8£ P.M. 










8| A.M. 


3 10.6 


64 


Clear. 


9 P.M. 


3 


28.5 




Cloudless. 


9 A.M. 


3 12.6 


66 


Clear. 


10 P.M. 


3 


28.9 


60 


Cloudless. 


10 A.M. 


3 13.5 


72 


Clear. 


11 P.M. 


3 


34.9 


59| 


CMoon sets. 

1 Cloudless night. 


11 A.M. 
114 A.M. 


3 15.1 
3 12.7 


76 
76 


Clear. 
Clear. 





















The weather of the first part of this twenty-four hours was slightly 
affected by the storm of the day before ; there was a stratus to the west 
at 2^ in the afternoon, which, when it disappeared, left a cloudless 
day, succeeded by a perfectly clear and still night. The thermometer 
was, throughout the observations, placed in the inclosure containing 
vol. v. — c 



10 



ON THE DIURNAL VARIATION 



the platform, and half hourly observations were resorted to about some 
of the times remarked by former observations as containing maxima or 
minima of variation. 

The curves given by these observations are traced on No. 4, Plate I.* 
The free radiation of heat during the night from the earth, caused a 
great depression in the temperature of the air near to it, the sunrise 
minimum of the thermometer being as low as 44°, the maximum of 
the day having been 69|°. 

TABLE V. 



Hour. 


N. Pole W. 


Temp. Remarks. 


Hour. 


N. Pole W. 


Temp. 


Remarks. 




Deg. Min. 


Deg. 






Deg. Min. 


Deg. 




12 M. 


3 18.7 


76 


Sept. 2. Clear. 








Sept. 3. 


12| P.M. 


3 19.9 


77£ 


Clear. 










1 P.M. 


3 25.4 


80§ 


Clear. 










n p.m. 


3 25.4 


80 


Clear. 










2 P.M. 


3 25.4 


81 


Clear. 










2h P.M. 


3 26.9 


79i 


Clear. 










3 P.M. 


3 26.9 


79j 


Clear. 










3| P.M. 


3 26.9 


79| 


Clear. 










4 P.M. 


3 26.9 


79J 


Clear. 










5 P.M. 


3 25.4 


76 


Clear. 










6 P.M. 


3 23.0 


70 


Clear. 
" Sun sets. Sky 










ei P.M. 


3 23.0 




generally clear. 
' Cirrus and light 
. cumulus. 










7 P.M. 


3 25.4 


63 


Clear. 
(" Cloudy. Moon 
wading through 
j dark cirro-cu- 
l_ mulus. 








f Therm, near 


8 P.M 


3 29.3 


60 


8 A.M. 


3 26.2 


64 


house. Cloudy. 
1 Dark cumulo- 














|_ stratus. 


9 P.M. 


3 29.3 


58 


Cloudy. 


9 A.M. 


3 21.9 


64 


f Cloudy. Wind 
1 N. E. 


10 P.M. 


3 27.7 


58 


C Clouds more 
I dense. 


10 A.M. 


3 22.6 




Cloudy. 


11 P.M. 


3 26.2 


58 


fMoon dips be- 
l hind hill. 


11 AM. 


3 23.0 


65| 


Cloudy. 










12 M. 


3 22.6 


65h 


Raining. 



OF THE HORIZONTAL NEEDLE. 



11 



The night maximum having decidedly passed before 1 1 P.M., the 
observations were not made after that hour during the night. The 
curves of variation and temperature are traced on No. 5, Plate II.* 



TABLE VI. 



Hour. 


N. Pole W. 


Temp. 


Remarks. 


Hour. 


N. Pole W. 


T mp. 


Remarks. 




Deg. Min. 


Deg. 






Deg 


. Min. 


Deg. 




12 M. 


3 22.6 


65i 


Sept. 3. Raining. 
C Rain ceased. 


12 m. 


3 


30.1 


60J 


Sept. 4. 
C Raining fast. 


1 P.M. 


3 23.0 


65i 


< Rain recom- 
£ menced. 


1 A.M. 


3 


29.3 


60S 


< Wind draws 
^ more to south. 


2 P.M. 


3 26.9 


66 


C Not raining. 
1 Nimbus high. 












3| P.M. 


3 26.9 


64§ 


Not raining. 












5 P.M. 


3 26.2 


66 














6 P.M. 


3 21.9 


65 














6| P.M. 


3 23.4 


65 














7§ P.M. 


3 24.6 


64 














8 P.M. 








8 A.M. 


3 


16.0 


64| 


Nimbus. 


8| P.M. 


3 26.2 


63 




81 A.M. 










9| P.M. 


3 24.6 


63 




9§ A.M. 


3 


16.8 


66£ 


Drizzle. 


10§ P.M. 


3 27.7 


62 


C Slightrain. Wind 
i S. E. 


10§ A.M. 










11 P.M. 








11 A.M. 


3 


1S.3 


67§ 


Slight rain. 




















r Slight rain. 


12 m. 


3 30.1 


60| 




12 M. 


3 


21.0 


68£ 


< 


Clouds lighter 
than at last ob- 




















servation. 



This table will be found interesting, as showing the effect of a steady 
rain upon the variation. The maximum being passed at 1 A.M., the 
observations were discontinued until 8 in the morning. The results 
are traced on No. 6, Plate II.* The thermometer was not in the 
needle inclosure, but in a fair exposure on the outside of the house. 



12 



ON THE DIURNAL VARIATION 



TABLE VII. 



Hour. 



12 M. 

1 P.M. 

2 P.M. 

2| P.M. 

4 P.M. 

5 P.M. 

6 P.M. 

7 P.M. 

8 P.M. 

9 P.M. 

10 P.M. 

11 P.M. 

12 m. 



N. Pole W. 



Deg. Min. 

3 21.0 

3 21.4 

3 21.8 

3 25.8 

3 25.S 

3 24.6 

3 25.8 

3 25.8 

3 26.6 

3 26.6 

3 26.2 

3 26.9 



Temp. 



Deg. 
68§ 

6H 

71* 

74 
73| 

6S 
68 

6S 
68 

6S 

69 



Remarks. 



C Sept. 4. 
I Gentle rain. 



CNot raining. 
i Nimbus. 

C Sun gleams out. 
J Nimbus. Cumu- 
l lus. Wind S.W. 
^Cumulus. Cu- 
l mulo-stratus. 

Cumulus, 
f Cumulus. Sun 
I sets in clouds 
r Clear. Cumulus 
I scattered. 
C Clear. Fog col- 
l lectingin valley 



{ 



Fog in valley. 
Fog dense. 

Moon obscured 
Dense fog. Wind 

hauling to W. 
Fog less dense. 

Wind N. of W. 



Hour. 



12 m. 



1 A.M. 



8 A.M. 



9 

10 



A.M. 
A.M. 



11 A.M. 



12 M. 



N. Pole W. 



Deg. Min. 
3 26.9 

3 26.2 



3 24.9 

3 20.3 

3 22.2 

3 24.3 

3 24.6 



Temp 



Deg. 
69 

6S 



62* 

63 
64 

64*. 

65*. 



Remarks. 



Sept. 5. 
Fog less dense, 
Wind N. of W 
"Needle vibrating 
slightly. Fog 
more dense. Air 
almost still. 



Needlevibrating, 
Cloudless. Wind 
[ N. W. 

Clear generally, 
Cumulus. 

Clear generally. 

Clear generally. 

Scattered cumu 
lus. 



The weather was very unsettled during these twenty-four hours; 
there was a rain, then the sky cleared ; a fog, which occupied the former 
part of the night, was dispersed before 8 o'clock in the evening. The 
wind, at first S. E., shifted to S. W., gradually drew more to the W. 
and N.j and finally settled at N. W. The thermometer was observed 
on the outside of the house. The curves of variation and temperature 
are traced on No. 7, Plate II.* 

The weather now became settled, and the observations for every 
hour are given in the following table. 



OF THE HORIZONTAL NEEDLE. 



13 



TABLE VIII. 



Hour. 


N. Pole W. 


Temp. 


Remarks. 


Hour. 


N. Pole W. 


Temp. 


Remarks. 




Deg 


Min. 


Deg. 






Deg 


Min. 


Deg. 




12 M. 


O 

O 


24.6 


65| 


C Sept. 5. 

-2 Scattered Cumu- 

( lus. WindN.W. 


12 m. 


3 


34.9 


54 


^ Sept. 6. 
1 Clear. 


1 P.M. 


3 


25.5 


66 


Ditto. 


1 A.M. 


3 


30.1 


53 


C Clear. Moon (in 
(_ 2d quarter) sets. 


2 P.M. 


3 


25.8 


66| 


Ditto. 


2 A.M. 


3 


31.7 


52| 


C Cloudless.Therrn. 


3 P.M. 


3 


25.8 


671 


Ditto. 


3 A.M. 


3 


32.8 


45| 


< in inclosure 
£ with needle box. 


4 P.M. 


3 


26.5 


68 


Ditto. 


4 A.M. 


3 


32.8 


44* 




4§ P.M. 


3 


26.2 


67£ 


Ditto. 


5 A.M. 


3 


31.7 


44 




6 T VP.M. 


3 


21.0 


64 


C Wind has lulled. 
i Sun behind hill. 


6 A.M. 


3 


30.5 


471 




7 P.M. 


3 


19.9 


63s 




7 A.M. 


3 


21.7 


55 


C Therm, removed 


8 P.M. 


3 


25.8 


60| 


Cloudless. 


8 A.M. 


3 


21.4 


62 


< to house, where 
£ it stood at 59*. 


SI P.M. 










8| A.M. 


3 


22.2 






9 P.M. 


3 


26.2 


57 


Cloudless. 


9 A.M. 


3 


21.0 


60| 


C Slight haze (stra- 
l tus). 


10 P.M. 


3 


26.2 


57 


Cloudless. 


10 A.M. 


3 


21.7 


62 


Ditto. 


11 P.M. 


3 


32.1 


55| 


C Scattered cumu- 
? lus to S. 


11 A.M. 






63 




12 m. 


3 


34.9 


54 


Clear. 


12 M. 


3 


22.2 


64 


C Stratus. Cumu- 
l lus. Wind W. 



From 3 until 8 A.M. the thermometer was in the inclosure with 
the needle. On its removal to the house, it fell 2^° below its tem- 
perature at the former station. 

These curves are given in No. 8, Plate II.* 

The afternoon of September 6th was clear, with occasional cirrus 
and collecting cumulus ; dew was deposited immediately at sun set, 
and a dense fog occupied a part of the morning of the 7th. It was 
proposed to make at least one day's observations with the needle 
exposed to the direct action of the sun, and by mistake the covering 
was removed before twelve o'clock on the 7th, as will be seen by the 
remark in the subjoined table. The curve (No. 9, Plate III.*) repre- 
senting the observations of this day, terminates at the observation for 
9i A.M. 

VOL. V. D 



14 



ON THE DIURNAL VARIATION 



TABLE IX. 



Hour. 


N. 


Pole W. 


Temp. 


Remarks. 


Hour. 


N. Pole W. 


Temp. 


Remarks. 


12 M. 


Deg. Min. 
3 22.2 


Deg. 
64 


C Sept. 6. 

< Stratus. Cumu- 


12 m. 


Deg. Min. 
3 26.6 


Deg. 
54 


Sept. 7. 










( lus. Wind W. 










1 P.M. 


3 


22.6 


65 




1 A.M. 


3 26.2 


53 




2 P.M. 


3 


22.6 


66 












3 P.M. 


3 


22.6 


67 












4 P.M. 


3 


22.6 




<J Dark cumulo- 
~l stratus to W. 








C Low stratus driv- 


5J P.M. 


3 


21.0 


67 


5i A.M. 


3 24.1 


54 


< ing fr. E. High 
( cumulus fr.S.W. 


6 P.M. 


3 


21.4 


64§ 


Cirrus. 










6h P.M. 


3 


23.0 


62| 


cDew deposited at 
l sunset. 










71 P.M. 


3 


23.0 


58 


C Cirrus. Rare Cu- 
l mulus. 










S P.M. 










8 A.M. 


3 22.2 


60 


Dense fog. 


9 P.M. 


3 


26.6 


54 


Cloudless. 


9 A.M. 


3 23.3 


64 


C Fog has disap- 

£ peared. 

( Clear. Cumulus 

< sometimes over 

^ sun. 

'Roof removed, 


n p.m. 










H A.M. 


3 23.5 




































variation dimin- 


9| P.M. 










H A.M. 


2 57.8 




ished rapidly, 
i and at 9i had 

increased again 
L to 2 57.8. 


10 P.M. 


3 


26.6 


54 




10 A.M. 


2 58.2 


66j 




11 P.M. 


3 


26.6 


52 


Very slight haze. 
C Cumulo-stratusto 


11 A.M. 


3 16.0 


67 




12 m. 


3 


26.6 


54 


< W. Wind draw- 
l ing to S. of W. 


12 M. 


3 33.2 


69 


Vibrating. 



On the removal of the covering from the needle, much water was 
evaporated from the bottom and sides of the box, collecting in drops on 
the glass at the N. and S. ends of the box; this was wiped off as it 
collected, by removing the glass. The sudden diminution of variation, 
and its rapid increase, are points worthy of remark. 

The remaining observations were made with the sun upon the 
needle, a thermometer being inclosed in the box so as to have, hourly, 
the temperature of the needle. A day intervened between the last 
observations and those in the table which follows ; during that day the 



OF THE HORIZONTAL NEEDLE. 



15 



box became thoroughly dry, and at night the needle was covered over 
to prevent a reduction of temperature which would have produced a 
deposit of dew upon it. The effects shown in the following table are 
therefore due to comparatively sudden variations of temperature.* 

The broken lines representing the observations will be found on 
No. 10, Plate III* 

TABLE X. 



Hour. 


N. Pole W. 


Temp. 


Remarks. 




Deg. Min. 


Deg. 




7§ A.M. 


3 17.5 




C Sept. 8. 

\ Clear. Needle covered. 


S§ A.M. 


3 '06.0 




Needle uncovered. 


n A.M. 


3 13.5 




Hazy. Cumulus. 


10 A.M. 


3 22.2 


94 


C Vibrating between 3° 20'.6 and 3° 23'. 8. 
1 Therm, in needle box. 








11 A.M. 


3 39.6 


104 


Scattered cumulus. 
C Vibrating between 3° 38'.3 and 3° 26'. 2. 


12 M. 


3 32.2 




3 Scattered cumulus. Sun occasionally 
£ clouded. 


1 P.M. 


3 38.3 


97 


Ditto. 


2 P.M. 


2 59.2 


94 




3 P.M. 


2 59.2 


86 


Sun under a cloud. 


4 P.M. 


2 59.2 


82 


Cloudy. 


61 P.M. 


2 26.0 


67 


Sun has set clear. 


8 P.M. 


2 44.9 


60 


Cumulus. Cumulo-stratus. 


10 P.M. 


2 52.0 


54 





The first conclusion which I would draw from a review of the 
entire series of observations is, that there were, for the time embraced by 
them, two maxima and two minima of westerly variation, within every 
twenty-four hours. This fact is distinctly shown in each of the curves, 
and will be pointed out particularly by endeavouring to determine the 
hours of maximum and minimum variation. 

This result agrees with that obtained by Mr Canton, from his ex- 
tended series of observations, and subsequently by Mr Gilpin. Col. 
Beaufoy, still later (1S13 to 1822), had evidence of the occurrence of 
the same maxima and minima, though he seems not to have been able 
to fix the time of the evening minimum. 

* Very little consideration will serve to show that these effects cannot be ranked with those 
recorded by Mr Fox in the Philosophical Magazine for October 1833. 



16 



ON THE DIURNAL, VARIATION 



The observations of Capt. Parry and Lieut. Foster at Port Bowen, 
are of the more interest, that, from the peculiarity of their situation, 
there was but one point of maximum and one of minimum variation 
during twenty-four hours. These observations were made nearly 
every hour of the day and night. The latitude of Port Bowen is 
73° 14' N., and the variation of the needle 124° W. 

As far as the observations of Lieut. Hood, at Fort Enterprize, war- 
rant any conclusion, it is coincident with that just noticed ; the point 
of maximum easterly variation and that of minimum easterly varia- 
tion are clearly shown in his observations. Fort Enterprize is in lati- 
tude 64° 28' N., and the mean variation is about 36° 24' E. 

The second conclusion which the foregoing observations seem to me 
to warrant is, that, through the irregularities which they present, there 
is shown a general horary variation as the primary phenomenon and 
the effects of meteorological changes as modifying causes; often over- 
coming the diurnal variation, and impressing their own alterations 
upon the variation of the needle. 

To examine the first part of this deduction, I will follow, in their 
general features, the several curves traced to represent the observations, 
omitting No. 3 on account of its peculiarities. 

1. The variation is at its maximum during the day, at or near the 
hour of highest temperature. The greatest difference between these 
times is two hours and a half. But the day maximum seems subject 
to great changes of position ; in one case occurring at noon, in another 
not until 5 P.M. These deductions are shown in the tabular view 
which follows. 



Number of 
Curve. 


Hour of Maxi- 
mum Variation. 


Hour of Maxi- 
mum Temp. 


General character of the weather. 


No. 1. 


12 M. 


2$ P.M. 


C Nimbus before noon, and clear just before 
I noon. 


No. 2. 


3 P.M. 


4* P.M. 


Clear, with floating clouds. 


No. 4. 


3 to 5 P.M. 


2\ P.M. 


Generally clear, follows unsettled weather. 


No. 5. 


2 Ho 4 P.M. 


2 P.M. 


f Clear. Needle stationary from 2k to 4 
\ P.M. No proper maximum. 


No. 6. 


2 to 3i P.M. 


2 J to 4 P.M. 


Raining in (he morning. Weather variable. 


No. 7. 


4§ P.M. 


4 P.M. 


Cloudy. Weather variable. 


No. 8. 


4 P.M. 


3| P.M. 


Clear. 


No. 9. 


1 to 4 P.M. 


4 P.M. 


C Cloudy. The observation of the needle 
\ at 4 P.M. was uncertain. 



OF THE HORIZONTAL NEEDLE. 



17 



2. The westerly variation decreases from this variable maximum to 
a minimum, which is near the hour of sunset. The time of this 
minimum is included within the narrow limits of 5| and 7 o'clock.* 



Number of Curve. 


Hour of Minimum 
Variation. 


Hour of Sunset. 


Remarks. 


No. 1. 
No. 2. 
No. 4. 
No. 5. 
No. 6. 
No. 7. 

No. 8. 


H. Min. 

6 45 P.M. 

7 00 P.M. 
7 00 P.M. 
6 20 P.M. 
6 00 P.M. 
6 00 P.M. 

6 45 P.M. 


H. Min. -, 
6 33 P.M. 
6 32 P.M. 
6 29 P.M. 
6 28 P.M. 
6 27 P.M. 
6 26 P.M. 


Clear in the afternoon and at sunset. 

Sun sets clear. 

Sun sets clear. 

Cirrus. 

Cloudy. Weather variable. 

Sun sets in clouds. 


6 24 P.M. 


C Sun sets clear. Sinks below hill at 
(_ 6h. 5m. 


No. 9. 
No. 10. 


5 45 P.M. 
7 16 P.M. 


6 23 P.M.- 
6 21 P.M. 


Sun sets in clouds. 
C Sun sets clear. The hour of minimum 
< is calculated, the observations show 
£ that it was after 6|h. 



3. The variation increases from the minimum just determined to a 
variable maximum which is reached at or about midnight. On the 
nights when the weather was not variable, this appears, from the fol- 



lowing table, to be true. 



Number of Curve. 


Hour of Maximum 
Variation. 


1 
Remarks. 

■ 




H. Min. 




No. 1. 


12 40 A.M. 


Clear. 


No. 2. 


9 25 P.M. 


Succeeded by a fog. 


No. 4. 


11 10 P.M. 


Clear. 


No. 5. 


8 15 P.M. 


Cloudy. Clouds increase in density after this hour. 


No. 6. 


12 00 m. 


Raining before and after this hour. 


No. 7. 


12 00 m. 


Fog. 


No. 8. 


11 40 P.M. 


Clear. 


No. 9. 




Stationary from 9 until 12. 



4. From this maximum there is a descent, more or less irregular, 
to a morning minimum, between 8 and 9 o'clock, 



* This places the evening minimum at a much earlier hour than that given by other ob- 
servers, and from results which I have obtained since, in the city of Philadelphia, I am 
inclined to suppose it to have resulted from some peculiarity in the locality or season. 
VOL. V. E 



18 



ON THE DIURNAL VARIATION 



Number of Curve. 


Hour of minimum 
westerly variation. 


Remarks. 




H. Min. 




No. 1. 


8 52 


Fog clearing away. 


No. 2. 


9 00 


Fog not breaking until near ten. 


No. 3. 


9 00 


Cloudy. 


No. 4. 


f8 30 
(_8 02 


f Clear. The curve seems to indicate that the true 
\ minimum was earlier than 8 h. 30 m. or at 8 h. 2 m. 


No. 5. 


9 00 


Cloudy. _. 


No. 6. 


8 00 


c Nimbus. There is a doubt if the true minimum was 
£ observed. 


No. 7. 


9 00 


Cloudless. 


No. 8. 


9 00 


Slight haziness. 


No. 9. 


8 00 


Dense fog, which entirely disappeared before 9 o'clock. 



It cannot be affirmed that this minimum was not placed at this particu- 
lar hour, by the effect of the weather, for there are but two observations 
when the weather was clear, and but three when it was steady, in one 
of which (No. 6) the minimum may have occurred before any obser- 
vation was made. It agrees, however, with the recorded observations 
of others. The observed minima did not depart in any two observa- 
tions more than one hour from each other. 

In order to determine these points still more unexceptionably, and 
with the further view of observing the effect of meteorological causes, 
I have taken the mean of the results of eight of the days of observa- 
tion, including No. 3, for each hour. They are given in the following 
table ; and curve No. 1 1 , Plate III.* is traced from them. The last co- 
lumn of the table shows the number of observations from which each 
mean has been deduced, giving, therefore, the relative authority of each. 

When the observations were made at the half hours, the mean of 
half an hour before and half an hour after was taken, as the number 
for the variation or temperature at the hour. A similar calculation 
was made for the variation at any particular hour, when no observa- 
tion had been made, whenever the interval between two observations 
did not exceed an hour and a half. The mean temperature of the 
day having varied considerably in the changes of weather, it was 
thought more correct to enter into the columns of temperature, at the 
several hours on which observations were not made, an average of the 
next preceding and succeeding observation, whenever the intervals 



OF THE HORIZONTAL NEEDLE. 



19 



were considerable. After making this correction, the daily maximum 
appears to be nearly at the hour on which it occured in clear weather. 



Table of Mean Variation 


and Temperature from noon of August 29th to noon 


of Sept 


amber 7tl 


i, 1832. 


Hour. 


N. Pole W. 


No. of 
Obs. 


Temp. 
Fahr. 


No. of 
Obs. 


Hour. 


N. Pole W. 


No. of 
Obs. 


Temp. 
Fahr. 


No. of 
Obs. 




Deg. Min. 




Deg. 






Deg. Min. 




Deg. 




12 M. 


3 23.3 


9 


71.2 


9 


12 m. 


3 29.3 


8 


63.0 


8 


1 P.M. 


3 24.1 


9 


72.6 


9 


1 A.M. 


3 28.3 


7 


61.6 


7 


2 P.M. 


3 24.5 


9 


73.5 


9 


2 A.M. 


3 28.4 


4 


60.1 


3 


3 P.M. 


3 24.9 


9 


73.5 


7 


3 A.M. 


3 27.5 


4 


57.S 


4 


4 P.M. 


3 24.7 


9 


74.0 


6 


4 A.M. 


3 26.9 


4 


57.4 


4 


5 P.M. 


3 24.4 


8 


73.5 


6 


5 A.M. 


3 26.2 


4 


57.0 


4 


6 P.M. 


3 20.5 


9 


70.5 


8 


6 A.M. 


3 25.1 


4 


58.3 


4 


7 P.M. 


3 22.8 


9 


68.7 


9 


7 A.M. 


3 20.7 


4 


63.3 


4 


8 P.M. 


3 25.4 


9 


66.3 


9 


8 A.M. 


3 20.7 


9 


65.4 


8 


9 P.M. 


3 27.8 


9 


64.5 


7 


9 A.M. 


3 19.2 


9 


66.2 


9 


10 P.M. 


3 27.8 


9 


63.7 


9 


10 A.M. 


3 20.2 


8 


67.9 


7 | 


11 P.M. 


3 28.3 


9 


63.2 


9 


11 A.M. 


3 21.4 


7 


67.7 


8 | 



The two tides of variation appear distinctly from the mean results, 
and with but slight irregularities in their increase or decrease. The day 
maximum is at 3 P.M. The evening minimum at 7, or with pro- 
bably more truth, as shown by the dotted lines in No. 11, Plate III.*, 
at 6 h. 26 m. The night maximum is at midnight. The morning 
minimum at 9 o'clock. 

The mean variation, according to this table, for the place of obser- 
vation, is 3° 24'.7. 

The greatest observed variation 3° 3 4'. 9, and the least 3° 10'. 6 in- 
cluding all the curves traced. The first of these is the midnight 
maximum of No. 8, and the second the morning minimum of No. 4. 
The latitude of the place, which was about one mile from the village of 
West Chester, is about 39° 58', and its longitude about 21 miles west 
from Philadelphia. 

The effect of ordinary meteorological phenomena upon the variation 
was first noticed, I believe, by Mr Christie, who gives a table illustra- 
tive of the effect produced by the occurrence of a rain ; he has not, that 
I am aware, followed up the observation to which I allude. Lieut. 
Foster infers that ordinary meteorological phenomena do not affect the 
variation of the needle ; a result which the different nature of the 



20 ON THE DIURNAL VARIATION 

instruments used or the localities of observation may perhaps be found 
to explain. In regard to the latter point, there was of course a marked 
difference in the nature of the meteorological phenomena at the two 
places. In the whole of the abstract of the meteorological observa- 
tions given by Lieut. Foster, there is no record of rain, and no notice 
of thunder storms, while my results, obtained during part of the last 
month of summer and of the first of autumn, were diversified by 
steady rains, showers, fogs, &c. 

In showing the effects of meteorological phenomena on the varia- 
tion, I purpose to appeal to the direct evidence afforded by curve No. 
3 (Plate I.*); the peculiarities of the other curves may afford collateral 
testimony, but comparatively of less value. The morning of August 
3 1st was clear with flying white clouds ; towards two o'clock a dark cloud 
came up from the westward and a shower fell ; this was not accom- 
panied by thunder or lightning, and soon passed over. Just at the 
beginning of this shower the variation was 3° 2 6'. 5 W., and as soon 
as it had ceased, the needle was again observed and was found but 
3° 1 0'.7 W. In saying that there was no extraordinary electrical excite- 
ment during this shower, I do not mean to assert that the changes of 
the variation were not due to the usual electrical changes which al- 
ways attend such phenomena. Being unprovided with means of esti- 
mating electrical changes, I only refer to the visible indications of 
lightning. The sun now shone out, and at 3 P.M. the variation had 
increased to 3° 25'. 8. Towards 4 P.M. clouds began to gather, and 
at 5 h. 20 m. black clouds to the N. W. indicated an approaching gust. 
At the moment the rain commenced the needle was noted, the varia- 
tion had decreased, between 5 h. 30 m., the time of the last observa- 
tion, and 5 h. 48 m., 13 minutes. The rain was violent, accompa- 
nied by thunder and lightning. At 7 P.M. the rain had ceased, and the 
gust had passed to the eastward, the needle vibrated violently between 
3° 32' W. and 3° 37' W. Such irregularities are conclusive as to the 
influence of the phenomena attending a shower and a gust. The va- 
riations noticed will be seen, from curve No. 3, to precede the effects 
produced on the thermometer; after a general coincidence, the curves 
depart from each other, the curve of variation rising abruptly, and that 
of temperature but slightly. 



OF THE HORIZONTAL NEEDLE. 21 

The ill sustained nightly maximum of No. 2 was accompanied by 
a fog ; so was the variable nightly part of curve No. 7, where a fog 
began to collect at eight in the evening. The nightly rise of curves 
No. 5 and No. 9. ceased with the coming up of clouds and of haze. 
The well sustained height of No. 2 was during a clear night, as was 
the case with No. 4. 

The steady rain of Sept. 3d and 4th, does not seem materially to 
have affected the regularity of the curve. 

In conclusion, I would make two brief remarks. The first relates 
to the observation of two tides of variation while there is but one of 
temperature. This would seem to be adverse to the supposed influ- 
ence of heat were it not that we find the same agent producing two 
fluctuations of the barometer ; when we shall be as well acquainted 
with the effects of local and of general variation of temperature upon 
the magnet, as we are of its effects upon atmospheric air, the question 
will be near to its solution. 

The second remark relates to the effect of the electrical changes in 
the atmosphere, or of changes of temperature upon the needle ; the 
meteorological phenomena noticed to affect the variation, probably act 
through, if they are not produced by one or both of these changes. 
The experiments of Cavallo have shown, at least with regard to the 
parts of the atmosphere not very far from the earth's surface, that 
there is perpetual electrical excitement, and frequent change. If his 
experiments had led to any conclusions other than the most general, 
they might perhaps have thrown light upon our subject. Where 
so much yet remains to be known, even the imperfect labour here pre- 
sented may not be without its fruits. 



vol. v.- 



y v 



s 



23 



ARTICLE II 



Observations on the Naiades ; and Descriptions of New Species of thai, 
and other Families. By Isaac Lea. Read before the American 
Philosophical Society March 16, 1832. 



PRELIMINARY REMARKS. 

In presenting myself again before the Society with a new memoir in 
that department of conchology which has so much engaged my atten- 
tion for some years, an apology would seem almost necessary. My 
zeal and love for the science generally will, I trust, be sufficient for 
ray present intrusion on its time. 

The family Naiades seems to have excited very little interest with 
the older writers on natural history, and not much more among mo- 
dern zoologists until within the present century. 

The progress of general knowledge, and the improvements in the 
mechanic arts, have recently been greatly accelerated, and the disco- 
veries and improvements in the study of natural science, have gone on 
" pari passu" with them ; and we have every reason to believe that the 
momentum which they have acquired will" not be diminished, for, to 
use the words of one of the most successful writers of the present day. 
" there is growing up an enlightened public opinion" which no power 
is likely to arrest, and which must carry us far towards a perfect state 



24 ON THE NAIADES 



of knowledge, while there is such a " diffusion of existing knowledge 
among the mass of mankind" as we have at present. 

We can only account for the almost total neglect of the family 
Naiades by writers on natural history of the last century, in the fact 
that the fresh w T aters of Europe produce so few species that they had 
then scarcely attracted attention. The habits of these animals have 
been there so little studied and known, that some recent writers of 
reputation assert that they move with the beaks of the shell " down- 
ward," which is equivalent to saying they walk on their backs. The 
anterior part has been called the posterior part, which is as much as 
to say, that their locomotion is backward. 

These facts display a great want of attention to the animal in its 
element, — where it would be observed to possess many curious and 
striking characteristics. The great systematist, the immortal Linneus, 
w r hose name will be found recorded in the book of the last student of 
natural history, knew so few members of this family that he classed 
them indiscriminately with two marine genera, Mya and Mytilus. 

It was the rich and splendid productions of the rivers of the United 
States, and particularly those w r hich are tributary to the Mississippi, 
which first roused the attention of the zoologist to their extraordinary 
characters ; and they have within a few years become sought after by 
collectors as eagerly as the " most precious jewels of the ocean." 

Urged by the solicitations of numerous scientific friends, I have 
continued my efforts to obtain such specimens as appeared to me to be 
new and undescribed, and they are now submitted to the consideration 
of the Society. 

In my communications I have heretofore said little on the geogra- 
phical position of our Naiades. It has, however, been to me an inte- 
resting branch of the subject, and engaged much of my attention. 
The great dividing ridge or chain of mountains, the Alleghanies, which 
seems so completely to separate our eastern from our western waters, 
almost as completely separates the species of this family inhabiting 
those parts lying east and west of it. It is a matter of doubt if there 
be more than two or three species of all the genera of this family ex- 
isting in the eastern waters which have their analogues in the western 
waters. That shell, which we have considered the JJnio cariosus of 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 25 

the Ohio, certainly has a different aspect from that of our eastern rivers, 
and might with great propriety be referred to the name which Mr Say 
gave it long since, viz. XI. crassus.* There is another shell, however, 
in the Ohio, which has a stronger resemblance than this, and I believe 
it to be the analogue of the Masmodonta marginata (Say). I have 
examined numerous specimens of this species frequently and attentively? 
but cannot distinguish any difference except in the size, the western 
shell being generally much larger. Of the numerous species and 
genera of the families Lymneana, Melaniana and Peristomiana, I have 
never seen a single species common to both waters. To the genus 
Cyclas I have given but little attention, but believe the same observa- 
tions may be extended to this species. 

What an interesting field do these facts spread open to the inquiring 
philosopher! Why should the streams which flow down the sides of 
the same range of mountains, east and west, differ so essentially in 
their productions ? 

Let us now examine the extremities of this great chain. To the 
north, where it is lost in the high lands which spread out along the 
southern boundaries of the small lakes in the state of New York, great 
difficulty naturally occurs in defining the line of separation. So far as 
my observation has extended, the shells of the river Mohawk and its 
tributaries are the same with those of the Delaware, Potomac, &c. with 
the exception of a single species Symphynota compressa (nobis), which 
is found near Albany, and which exists also in the Ohio. The tribu- 
taries of the lakes Erie, Michigan, &c, with few exceptions, produce 
the western species, and consequently the lakes do also.f 

The great river Niagara, or rather strait connecting the lakes Erie 
and Ontario, furnishes us with the U. triangularis (Barnes), and other 
species, which are so peculiarly characteristic of our western waters. 
Never having visited the shores of lake Ontario, I cannot pronounce on 
its productions. The shells of the river St Lawrence are, I believe, 

* A shell which I have always considered as a truncated variety of U. crassus of the Ohio, 
has by this naturalist been made a new species under the name of U. abruptus. 

t Since writing the above I have received the U. complanatus (Soland.) from Lac Vaseux, 
which empties into Green Bay; and more recently the same species from lake Champlain. 
The U. nasutus (Say) has been observed in Grand river, which disembogues into lake Erie. 
VOL. V. G 



26 ON THE NAIADES, 

impressed with the character of those of the lake. In this river there 
is, however, little to my knowledge interesting to the conchologist. 

Lake Champlain, which empties its waters into the St Lawrence, 
is prolific in some of the western species. The Symphynota alata, the 
TJnio occidens and the Unio rectus, with some other western species, 
are found there in great perfection, but none of the tuberculated or 
undulated species. 

The southern extremity of the Alleghany ridge is supposed to reach 
into the upper part of the state of Alabama, where it terminates by 
spreading out into high lands east of the river Tennessee, and near to 
that part where the river makes its most eastern angle. The sources 
of the Alabama and Tombeckbee rivers, which discharge themselves 
into the Gulf of Mexico, are situated in these high lands, and the char- 
acter of the shells of these rivers is completely the same with those 
of the western waters. In no instance have I observed a shell from 
these rivers, or the Mississippi, which possessed the characters of those 
of our eastern rivers. To draw the exact line of distinction here, in 
the present state of our knowledge, is impossible ; but that such a line 
does exist there can scarcely be a doubt. 

The great difficulty experienced by naturalists in procuring speci- 
mens from newly settled and distant parts of the United States is such, 
as to deprive us of much desirable information. This impediment 
will, it is hoped, be overcome in time, and the natural history of our 
country become universally known. 

In the present state of our knowledge, we can only place this line 
somewhere between the Alabama and the Altamaha rivers. From 
the latter, I have seen but a single valve, which I owe to the kindness 
of Mr Nuttall. This is the U. complanatus (Soland.), and marks dis- 
tinctly the character of the shells of this river to appertain to that of 
the eastern waters. From the river Appalachicola I have never been 
able to procure a single specimen, and it remains yet to be proved 
whether it produces shells of the eastern or western character. As, 
however, it disembogues in the Gulf of Mexico, it is more than proba- 
ble that it possesses the same species as the western waters, and its 
neighbour the Alabama. 

In regard to the shells of the soil, it will naturally be asked if they 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 27 

also differ so completely as those of the rivers on the two sides of the 
great ridge ? In these the distinction does not exist, for we find almost 
every species which is common on the eastern, equally common on 
the western side. There are, however, some species which are not 
uncommon on the western side, hut which do not exist, so far as my 
information extends, on this side. If it be demanded why the line of 
demarcation should not be as perfect for terrestrial as fluviatile shells, 
we might say in answer, that the barrier of a mountain could in time 
be overcome even by the slowly travelling snail. Surely in the lapse 
of time the progeny of those which accidentally began to climb the 
steeps, might descend into the valleys of the opposite side. 

In finishing these introductory remarks, I wish to call the attention 
of those naturalists who are conveniently located, to make further ob- 
servations on this branch of the science, which certainly has great in- 
terest. 

In describing the Valvata arenifera in my last memoir, Vol. IV. 
page 104, 1 was impressed with the idea, from the circumstance of 
finding a true operculum combined with a spiral tube, that the animal 
must have belonged to the family Peristomiana. I have reason, how- 
ever, since, to doubt the truth of my conclusions. Professor Troost, 
now at Nashville, Tennessee, originally sent the specimens from that 
neighbourhood ; and from his description of the animal, which he has 
recently communicated to me, I am induced to believe it to be a spe- 
cies of Linnean Fhrygania. 



28 ON THE NAIADES 



Unio Nicklinianus. Plate I. figr. 1. 



&' 



Testa subtrigond, insequilaterali, obliqud, maxime undulatd, usque ad natium 
apices; valvulis crassissimis ; dentibus lateralibus crassis curvisque ; cardinalibus 
maxime O'assis; margaritd alba et iridescente. 

Shell subtriangular, inequilateral, oblique, very much undulated, even to the point 
of the beak; valves very thick; cardinal teeth very thick; lateral teeth thick and 
curved ; nacre pearly white and iridescent. 

Hab. China. 

My Cabinet. 
Diam. 2, Length 5, Breadth 5-8 inches. 

Shell subtriangular, oblique, very much spread out, with an elevated 
wing, flattened towards the beaks, the greatest diameter being near the 
posterior basal margin, covered with numerous undulations, except on 
the anterior and basal margins ; undulations diverge from the beak, and 
are largest near the posterior margin : substance of the shell very thick 
in the region of the basal margin ; beaks pointed but not elevated, cov- 
ered with numerous beautiful Iterations to the very point ; epidermis 
dark brown ; cardinal teeth very large, thick and sulcate ; lateral teeth 
thick and curved ; anterior cicatrices rough and distinct ; posterior cica- 
trices slight and confluent ; dorsal cicatrices situated on the under side 
of the cardinal tooth ; cavity of the beaks angular ; nacre pearly white, 
very iridescent on the posterior part, where the undulations are visible 
from without. 

Remarks. — I met with this very interesting species in the autumn of 
1S31 at a dealer's in New York. I was informed that it was supposed 
to be from China. A single valve only could be obtained, and this 
unfortunately not entirely perfect. The characters are, however, so 
distinct from any species I have seen, that I have not hesitated to give 
it a place among my new species. It is remarkable for its great extent 
from the top of the wing to the basal margin, and for its numerous 
undulations. In outline and diameter it resembles the Symphynota 
complanata (nobis) (Alasmodonta complanata of Barnes), but diners in 
being less transverse, higher in the wing, and more thickly covered 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 29 

with undulations. In the possession of many folds, it resembles the 
U. multiplicahis (nobis), but differs in outline (being much less trans- 
verse), as well as in the size of the undulations, which are much smaller. 
The point of its greatest diameter is much nearer the posterior basal 
margin than in the multiplicatus. The imperfect state of this speci- 
men has prevented me from describing the ligament. Judging from 
its elevated wing, I am much inclined to believe that when perfect 
specimens are procured they will be found to be connate. If so, it 
will belong to a natural division removed from Unto, viz. Symphynota. 
I have dedicated this fine species to my friend P. H. Nicklin, Esq., of 
Philadelphia. 



Unio capillaris. Plate II. fig. 2. 

Testa suborbiculatd, ventricosd, subsequilaterali, postice subangulatd ; valvulis 
subcrassis ; natibus prominentibus ; epidermide nitide rugatd; radiis numerosis 
capillaribusque ; dentibus cardinalibus valde elevatis ; lateralibas lamellatis et sur- 
sam subreclivis ; margaritd albd et iridescente. 

Shell suborbicular, ventricose, subequilateral, subangular posteriorly; valves rather 
thick; beaks elevated ; epidermis finely wrinkled ; rays numerous and capillary ; car- 
dinal teeth much elevated ; lateral teeth lamellar, and inclined to curve upwards; nacre 
pearly white and iridescent. 

Hab. Ohio. T. G. Lea. 

My Cabinet. 

Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Diam 1-2, Length 1-5, Breadth 1-9 inches. 

Shell suborbicular, ventricose, subequilateral, subangular posteriorly ; 

substance of the shell rather thick anteriorly; thinner posteriorly; 

beaks thick and elevated ; ligament short and thick ; epidermis dark 

and finely wrinkled, smoother towards the beaks; rays numerous, 

capillary, and spreading over nearly the whole disk; cardinal teeth 

elevated, crenate, deeply cleft in the left valve, and rising from a pit 

in the right ; lateral teeth lamellar, crenate, inclined to turn upwards ; 

anterior cicatrices distinct; posterior cicatrices confluent; dorsal cica- 

vol. v. — H 



30 ON THE NAIADES, 

trices situated on the under side of the cardinal tooth ; cavity of the 
beaks obtusely angular ; nacre pearly white and iridescent. 

Remarks. — 1 have had a single specimen of this shell for some years, 
and although satisfied it differed from any described species, I deferred 
bringing it forward until I should have an opportunity of examining 
more. In the fine collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences 
I found a second specimen, which so completely coincided in all its 
characters with mine, that I deemed it unnecessary to hesitate erecting 
it into a species. Both the specimens have that enlargement of the 
inferior portion of the umbonial slope mentioned in the remarks on the 
U. Haysianus herein described, which usually causes a remarkable and 
curious denticulation of the margin, and a poverty of the deposition of 
the nacre in that region. It has, perhaps, a stronger resemblance to 
U. ellipsis (nobis) than to any other species. It is however more 
rotund, more minutely rayed, and less oblique. 



Unio subglobosus. Plate II. fig;. 3. 



»• 



Testa subglobosd, subaequilaterali, inflatd et postice subangulatd ; valvulis 
crassis ; natibus prominulis rotundatisque ; dentibus cardinalibus latis striatis- 
que, lateralibus subcurvis ; margaritd subrufd, vel colore caryophylli tinctd. 

Shell subglobose, nearly equilateral, inflated, subangular behind ; valves thick ; 
beaks slightly prominent, rounded ; cardinal teeth wide and striated ; lateral teeth 
somewhat curved ; nacre pearly and pink coloured. 

Hab. Bayou Teche, Louisiana. W. M. Stewart. 

My Cabinet. 
Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 
Cabinet of Mr Stewart. 
Cabinet of William Hyde. 
Cabinet of P. H. Nicklin. 
Diam. 1*6, Length 2-1, Breadth 2-9 inches. 

Shell subglobose, subequilateral, subangular behind, inflated; sub- 
stance of the shell thick ; umbonial slope carinate ; beaks slightly pro- 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 31 

minent, rounded ; ligament rather short and thick ; epidermis dark 
brown or black ; cardinal teeth wide, striate, but not divided ; lateral 
teeth somewhat curved, serrate and separated from the cardinal teeth 
by the absence of a plate ; anterior cicatrices distinct, posterior cica- 
trices confluent and large ; dorsal cicatrices situated across the cavity 
of the beaks and very distinct ; cavity of the beaks large and rounded ; 
nacre pearly and pink coloured. 

Remarks. — This very distinct species is one of the many fine shells 
collected by Mr Stewart in the Bayou Teche. It perhaps most re- 
sembles an inflated specimen of U. cuneatus (Barnes). It may, how- 
ever, at once be distinguished from that species by its peculiarly beau- 
tiful pinky lustre and striate cardinal teeth, as well by its globosity. 
The striae of the cardinal teeth diverge from a point beneath the 
point of the beaks, and in its flatness and absence of a cleft these 
teeth resemble those of the U. rubiginosus (nobis). 



Unio capsjeformis. Plate II. fig. 4. 

Testa elliplicd, transversa, insequilaterali, subinflatd, postice subtriangulatd ; 
valvulis antice crassioribus ; naiibus prominulis ; dentibus utriusque valvulse car- 
dinalibus, elevatis duplicibusque ; lateralibus elevatis et lamellatis ; margaritd 
alba et iridescente. 

Shell elliptical, transverse, inequilateral, somewhat inflated, sub-biangulate poste- 
riorly ; valves thicker anteriorly ; beaks slightly elevated ; cardinal teeth elevated and 
double in both valves ; lateral teeth elevated and lamellar ; nacre pearly white and iri- 
descent. 

Hab. Cumberland River. W. Cooper. 

My Cabinet. 

Cabinet of W. Cooper. 

Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Diam. .9, Length 1.3, Breadth 1.9 inches. 

Shell elliptical, transverse, inequilateral, somewhat inflated, flattish 

before the umbonial slope, sub-biangulate posteriorly ; substance of the 






32 ON THE NAIADES, 

shell thick anteriorly and thin posteriorly ; beaks slightly elevated and 
rounded ; ligament short and thick ; epidermis yellow, with numerous 
small green rays ; cardinal teeth elevated, double and crested in both 
valves ; lateral teeth elevated and lamellar ; anterior cicatrices distinct ; 
posterior cicatrices confluent; dorsal cicatrices situated within the 
cavity of the shell on the plate between the cardinal and lateral teeth 
and on the base of the cardinal tooth ; cavity of the beaks wide and 
obtusely angulate ; nacre white on the anterior and iridescent on the 
posterior portion. 

Remarks. — While engaged in my last memoir, this shell attracted 
my attention. I had not, however, then, an opportunity of examining 
more than two or three specimens, and finding they differed much in 
some characters, I deferred noticing them. I owe to Mr Cooper the 
advantage of examining his specimens, which convinced me the species 
was distinct. This is one of those species which sometimes dilate or 
increase about the region of the umbonial slope, and in this and its 
rays it resembles, in a slight degree, the U. perplexus (nobis). The 
enlargement of this portion of the shell, which is generally a deep 
green, causes it to have a different outline, being there more rounded 
and causing the basal margin to be arcuate. 



Unio Ravenelianus. Plate III. fig. 5. 

Testa late ovatd, obliqud, indequilaterali, post ice subanguhttd ; valvulis anticc 
crassioribus ; dentibus cardinalibus crassis brevibusque ; luteralibus crassis rec- 
tisque; margaritd albd et iridescente. 

Shell widely ovate, oblique, inequilateral, subangulate posteriorly; valves thicker 
anteriorly ; cardinal teeth short and thick; lateral teeth straight and thick ; nacre pearly 
white and iridescent. 

Hab. French Broad River, tributary to the Tennessee, near Ashe- 
ville, N. C. Professor Ravenel. 

My Cabinet. 
Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 33 

Cabinet of Professor Kavenel, Charleston, S. C. 
Cabinet of P. H. Nicklin. 
Cabinet of Professor Vanuxem. 
Diam. *7, Length -9, Breadth 1*5 inches. 

Shell widely ovate, oblique, inequilateral, subangulate posteriorly, 
slightly inflated, compressed at posterior and inferior margins; substance 
of the shell thick and white anteriorly, thin and iridescent posteriorly ; 
ligament short and thick; epidermis dark brown and finely wrinkled; 
cardinal tooth short, thick and deeply divided in the left valve, single 
and rising from a pit in the right valve ; lateral teeth oblique, straight 
and thick, having a direction over the lateral tooth ; anterior and pos- 
terior cicatrices both distinct; dorsal cicatrices situated within the cavity 
of the shell on the plate between the cardinal and lateral teeth ; cavity 
of the beaks shallow and rounded ; nacre white in the anterior, and 
iridescent in the posterior portion. 

Remarks. — This shell, which I owe to the kindness of Professor 
Ravenel, has, I believe, been first noticed by that gentleman, who, sup- 
posing it to be new, sent it to me about a year since. It diners in its 
outline from any of our eastern species, as it does also in its obliquity. 
In these characters it most resembles the U. patulus (nobis) ; it is, how- 
ever, more dilated, — in some specimens the margin being subrotund. 
The only specimens obtained by Professor Ravenel being imperfect, 
and much eroded at the beaks, I have not described that part, leaving 
it for future observation. There are no rays to be observed on the 
specimens I have. In young or fine specimens, it is very possible they 
may exist. 



Unio Murchisonianus. Plate III. fig. 6. 

Testa angulato-ellipticd, transversa, insequilaterali, valvulis tenuiculis ; natibus 
perplicatis ; dentibus cardinalibus in valvuld utrdque daplicibus, lateralibus rectis ; 
margaritd pulchrd, iridescente, et salmonis colore subtinctd. 

Shell narrow-elliptical, transverse, inequilateral; valves rather thin; beaks much 
VOL. V. 1 



34 ON THE NAIADES, 

plicated; cardinal teeth double in both valves; lateral teeth straight; nacre splendidly 
pearly, slightly salmon coloured, and beautifully iridescent. 

Hab. China. Mrs Murchison. 

My Cabinet. 
Diam. *7, Length -8, Breadth 1-9 inches. 

Shell narrow-elliptical, transverse, inequilateral, angular behind, and 
slightly emarginate at basal margin ; substance of the shell rather thin ; 
beaks and unibones beautifully plicated ; umbonial slope subcarinate 
and rough with the angles of the folds ; posterior slope finely plicate : 
ligament yellow and narrow; epidermis dark green; cardinal teeth 
double in both valves; lateral teeth straight ; anterior cicatrices distinct; 
posterior cicatrices confluent; dorsal cicatrices in the centre of the 
cavity of the beaks ; cavity of the beaks shallow ; nacre rich, and splen- 
didly pearly, slightly salmon coloured, and beautifully iridescent. 

Remarks.— This splendid species I owe to the great kindness of 
Mrs Murchison, the wife of the present learned president of the Geo- 
logical Society of London. Among many fine and rare shells received 
from her I found this, which appears not to have been before de- 
scribed. It perhaps most resembles the U. cceruleus (nobis), particu- 
larly in the outline : it is, however, rather more transverse. It diners 
greatly from the cceruleus in the number and size of the folds. These, 
behind the umbonial slope, are parallel to the ligament ; while those on 
the anterior margin are oblique. The acute angles formed by the 
folds on the umbonial slope are very remarkable. The inferior part 
of the shell is free from folds : this may not, however, prove a constant 
character. Its nacre is without exception finer than any I have ever 
seen, and rich beyond description. The folds being visible from the 
interior, add greatly to its lustre.* 



* Since writing these remarks I have seen several specimens of this shell in Europe. At 
the Jardin des Plantes, Monsieur de Blainville showed me two or three specimens recently 
received, and not yet placed in the cabinet. He considered the shell undescribed, until I 
mentioned the name I had given it. 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 35 



Unio Haysianus. Plate III. fig. 7. 

Testa subrotundd, subventricosd, ad baseos marginem posteriorem deniatd ; 
valvulis subcrassis ; natibus prominent ibus ; epidermide luteo-fuscd Isevissimaqtie ; 
radiis obsohtis ; dentibus cardinalibus in lobos divisis, lateralibus crassis rectisque ; 
margaritd cacao colore tinctd. 

Shell subrotund, slightly ventricose, dentate at posterior basal margin ; valves scarcely- 
thick ; beaks elevated ; epidermis yellowish brown and very smooth ; rays obsolete ; 
cardinal teeth lobed ; lateral teeth thick and straight; nacre chocolate coloured. 

Hab. Cumberland River. Professor Troost. 

My Cabinet. 
Cabinet of Mr Cooper. 
Cabinet of Professor Troost, Nashville. 
Diam. -6, Length -8, Breadth 1 inch. 

Shell subrotund, nearly equilateral, slightly ventricose, dentate at 
posterior margin, depressed before the umbonial slope ; substance of the 
shell scarcely thick ; beaks thick and elevated ; epidermis yellowish- 
brown, very smooth and shining ; rays obsolete ; cardinal teeth lobed, 
double in the left valve, single and rising from a pit in the right valve ; 
lateral teeth short, thick and straight ; posterior and anterior cicatrices 
both distinct ; dorsal cicatrices situated within the cavity of the shell 
on the plate between the cardinal and lateral teeth ; cavity of the beaks 
deep and angulated ; nacre chocolate coloured and iridescent posteriorly. 

Remarks.— -It has been in my power to examine only four or five 
specimens of this exceedingly interesting shell. In each of these there 
is more or less of a dentate appearance, which is so unusual among the 
Naiades that it may, perhaps with propriety, be said to belong to some 
American species only. In the early stages of growth there is no den- 
tate appearance. The U. sulcatus (nobis) and the U. arcseformis 
(nobis), are frequently furnished with this curious appendage. The 
dentate variety, mentioned in my description of U. sulcatus, has been, 
by Mr Say, erected into a separate species, under the name of ridi- 
hundus; in the propriety of which, however, I cannot agree with that 
naturalist. In. outline the present species resembles the U. subrolun- 



36 ON THE NAIADES, 

dus; it is, however, more oblique, and in the epidermis more shining. 
It is not so oblique as the sulcatus, but has a furrow anterior to the 
umbonial slope similar to that species. In the epidermis it differs very 
much, the sulcatus being finely wrinkled and finely rayed. In some 
specimens the successive rows of teeth along the posterior margin cause 
that portion of the shell to swell out, which gives it a rich and beauti- 
ful appearance. It is, though small, among the most interesting of 
our species. The specimen here represented, I owe to the kindness of 
Mr Cooper. It is with pleasure I dedicate this species to my friend, 
Isaac Hays, M.D., whose talents have been actively and successfully 
engaged many years in the promotion of natural as well as medical 
science. 



Unio Hildrethianus. Plate III. fig. 8. 

Testa angusto-ellipticd, subcylindraccd, valde transversa, insequilaterali ; valvu- 
les tenuibus ; dente cardinali in valvuld utrdque unico, later ali nulla ; margaritd 
superne fused, inferne albd et iridescente. 

Shell narrow-elliptical, subcylindrical, very transverse, inequilateral; valves thin; 
cardinal teeth single in each valve; without lateral teeth; nacre, above brown, below 
white and iridescent. 

Hab. Ohio, near Marietta. Dr Hildreth. 

My Cabinet. 
Cabinet of Dr Hildreth. 
Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences. 
Diam -5, Length -7, Breadth 1-6 inches. 

Shell narrow-elliptical, subcylindrical, very transverse, inequilateral, 
somewhat compressed at basal margin ; substance of the shell thin be- 
hind, thicker before ; beaks slightly elevated ; ligament long and thin ; 
epidermis dark brown; cardinal teeth lobed, single in each valve, larger 
and wider in the left valve ; lateral teeth none ; anterior and posterior 
cicatrices both confluent; dorsal cicatrices in the centre of the cavity 
of the beaks; cavity of the beaks shallow and tinged with dull purple ; 
nacre white and iridescent. 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 37 

Remarks. — Among the Vhiones there is a group to which this species 
naturally belongs. This group is characterized by the imperfection of 
the hinge, the cardinal teeth being so immature as to present scarcely any 
thing but lobes. Like the soleniformis it lives under stones and other 
protected places. In the present species the tooth of the right valve 
shuts before that of the left, and the lateral teeth, if not entirely want- 
ing, are obsolete. The group, as far as I know it at present, consists 
of the U. oriens (nobis), U. soleniformis (nobis), and the present species. 
In size and outline of the margin, this species resembles the U. iris 
(nobis). It has not, however, the brilliant nacre, nor the fine rays of 
that species, and in the conformation of the teeth it difFers very much. 
Some individuals vary from the cylindrical form, being somewhat com- 
pressed. As a mark of respect for the talents of Dr Hildreth, and his 
assiduity in promoting a knowledge of the natural history of his vici- 
nity, I dedicate this species to him. 



Unio Schoolcraftensis. Plate III. fig. 9. 

Testa subrotundatd, subasquilaterali, compressd, post clivum umboniale subtu- 
berculatd ; valvulis subcrassis ; naiibus prominentibus ; epidermide fulvd, lato- 
radiatd ; deniibus cardinalibus prominentibus, lateralibus laminatis rectisque ; 
margaritd alba et iridescente. 

Shell subrotund, nearly equilateral, compressed, slightly tuberculated behind the 
umbonial slope ; valves rather thick ; beaks elevated ; epidermis yellow with broad 
rays ; cardinal teeth elevated ; lateral teeth straight and lamellar; nacre pearly white 
and iridescent. 

Hab. Fox River of Green Bay. Mr Schoolcraft. 
Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 
Diam. -7, Length 1-1, Breadth 1-3 inches. 

Shell subrotund, somewhat angular at posterior dorsal margin, nearly 
equilateral, compressed, slightly tuberculated posterior to umbonial 
slope ; substance of the shell rather thick ; beaks elevated ; ligament 
short ; epidermis smooth, somewhat yellow, with several broad green 
rays — that over the centre of the disk being broadest ; cardinal teeth 

V0E. V. K 



38 ON THE NAIADES, 

elevated and cleft in the left valve, single and rising from a pit in the 
right; lateral teeth elevated, straight and lamellar; anterior cicatrices 
distinct; posterior cicatrices confluent; dorsal cicatrices within the 
cavity of the shell on the base of the cardinal tooth ; cavity of the 
beaks angular and deep; nacre pearly white and iridescent. 

Remarks. — Among the many fine shells presented to the Acade- 
my of Natural Sciences by Mr Schoolcraft from the region of the 
upper lakes, there was a single specimen of the present species. It 
does not seem referable to any described species, and I have conse- 
quently been induced to give it a separate place in the genus. It re- 
sembles most the U. rubiginosus (nobis) in outline, but diners from it 
in being more rounded on the inferior and posterior portions of the 
margins, as well as in the cardinal tooth being more elevated and more 
deeply cleft. In the rays it diners very much from that species. In 
this specimen they are very remarkable, there being a very distinct 
broad one anterior to the umbonial slope, covering one third of the side 
of the disk, and two smaller, posterior to the umbonial slope. When 
there is but a single specimen to describe from, it should be remem- 
bered that many characters are not permanent, and I should not be 
surprised if specimens of this species be found without a single ray, 
although they are so striking in this. The tubercles, which are so 
indistinct, may in other specimens be more distinct and more numerous. 
In this case it will approach so closely to the asperrimus (nobis), that 
it may prove to be only a variety. 



Unio geometrtcus. Plate IV. fig. 10. 

Testd trapezoidali, valde inequilaterali, transversa, compressd ; valvulis tenui- 
bus ; naiibus prominulis, rugis concentricis ; dentibus cardinalibus in valvuld 
utrdque obliquis duplicibusque, lateralibus subrectis ; margaritd purpurea. 

Shell trapezoidal, very inequilateral, transverse, compressed ; valves thin ; beaks 
slightly prominent and concentrically wrinkled ; cardinal teeth oblique and double in 
both valves ; lateral teeth nearly straight ; nacre purple. 

Hab. Bayou Teche, Louisiana. W. M. Stewart. 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 39 

My Cabinet. 
Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 
Cabinet of Mr Stewart. 
Cabinet of Mr Hyde. 
Diam. -9, Length 1 # 4, Breadth 2*7 inches. 

Shell trapezoidal, very inequilateral, transverse, compressed, angular 
behind ; substance of the shell rather thin ; umbonial slope subcarinate ; 
beaks slightly prominent, placed near the anterior margin and concen- 
trically wrinkled ; carina much elevated ; ligament long, narrow and 
nearly straight ; epidermis dark brown, wrinkled and sometimes ob- 
scurely rayed ; cardinal teeth oblique and double in both valves ; lateral 
teeth nearly straight and lamelliform ; anterior cicatrices distinct, pos- 
terior cicatrices confluent ; dorsal cicatrices situated in the centre of 
the cavity of the beaks ; cavity of the beaks shallow : nacre purple and 
iridescent. 

Remarks. — This interesting species is one of the collection made by 
Mr Stewart in the Bayou Teche. It is a very distinct and beautiful 
species. Its form is more like a trapezium than that of any other spe- 
cies with which I am acquainted. It resembles most the U. compla- 
natus (Soland.). It differs from it, however, in its remarkable outline, 
in its teeth, in the concentric wrinkles of the beaks, and in the beaks 
being placed nearer to the anterior margin. The angle of the poste- 
rior margin is also more acute. In the deep brown colour of the epi- 
dermis and in outline of the margin it approaches the U. obesus (nobis). 
It is, however, much less inflated. 



Unio Taitianus. Plate IV. fig. 11. 

Testa subtriangulari, obliqud crassdque ; valvulis antice crassioribus ; dentibus 
cardinalibus grandibus et elevatis, lateralibus crassis et subcurvis ; margaritd 
alba. 

Shell subtriangular, thick and oblique; valves thicker anteriorly ; cardinal teeth large 
and elevated ; lateral teeth thick and slightly curved ; nacre pearly white. 



40 ON THE NAIADES, 

Hab. Alabama River. Judge Tait. 

My Cabinet. 
Diam. 1-1, Length 1*5, Breadth 1*5 inches. 

Shell subtriangular, thick, oblique, depressed anterior to umbonial 
slope ; substance of the shell very thick anteriorly and thin posteriorly ; 
beaks very thick and much elevated ; epidermis dark brown and wrin- 
kled ; cardinal teeth large, crenate and deeply cleft in the left valve, 
and emerging from a pit in the right ; lateral teeth thick, slightly curved 
and nearly parallel with the line of the cardinal teeth ; anterior cica- 
trices distinct, the great one forming a deep pit ; posterior cicatrices 
distinct, the smaller one being placed at the end of the lateral tooth ; 
dorsal cicatrices situated on the plate between the cardinal and lateral 
teeth ; cavity of the beaks shallow ; nacre pearly white. 

Remarks. — There is no species which this so closely resembles as 
the scalenius (Rafin.). It is, however, less oblique and more expanded 
along the posterior basal margin, and the posterior margin forms a more 
obtuse angle. It is with great pleasure I name it after my friend, 
Judge Tait of Claiborne, Alabama, to whom science is greatly indebted 
for his exertions in making known the natural history of his vicinity. 



Unio lacteolus. Plate VIII. fig. 19. 

Testd ellipticd, transversa, insequilaterali, subinfiatd; valvulis subcrassis ; nati- 
bus radiatis, plicis brevibus ; dentibus cardinalibus in valvuld ulrdque duplicibus 
longisque ; lateralibus longis, a cardinalibus separatis ; margaritd lacteold. 

Shell elliptical, transverse, inequilateral, somewhat inflated ; valves not thick ; beaks 
having short radiating folds; cardinal teeth long and double in both valves ; lateral 
teeth long and separate from the cardinal teeth ; nacre pearly and milk white. 

Hab. Rio de la Plata. 

My Cabinet. 

Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Cabinet of W. Hyde. 

Unio delodonta? Lam. 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 41 

Diam. 1-2, Length 2, Breadth 3-2 inches. 

Shell elliptical, transverse, inequilateral, somewhat inflated ; substance 
of the shell not thick ; beaks rounded, having short radiating folds ; 
ligament rather short ; epidermis dark brown and wrinkled ; cardinal 
teeth long, oblique, nearly parallel with the margin and double in both 
valves ; lateral teeth long, slightly curved and separated from the car- 
dinal teeth by the absence of a plate ; anterior and posterior cicatrices 
both confluent ; dorsal cicatrices situated across the cavity of the beaks ; 
cavity of the beaks rounded and not deep ; nacre very pearly, milk 
white, iridescent behind. 

Remarks. — I am indebted to the kindness of Dr Ward of Salem, for 
a perfect specimen of this species. In outline it approaches the 
U. marginalis (Lam.), but is less transverse. In the characters of 
its teeth it closely resembles that species. It differs from it in being 
more inflated, more wrinkled and in having a thicker nacre. In the 
possession of radiated folds on the beaks it diners altogether. 

On the base of the cardinal tooth, near to the great cicatrix, there is 
a small deeply impressed cicatrix, resembling in its characters that of 
the Hyria avicularis (Lam.), mentioned at page 67, Vol. IV. 

The specimen here figured belongs to the fine cabinet of Mr Hyde. 



Symphynota globosa. Plate IV. fig. 12. 

Testa valde globosa, insequilaterali, pellucidd ; valvulis tenuiculis, natibus ro- 
tundissimis, incurvis ; epidermide luted, Isevissimd ; dentibus cardinalibus lami- 
natis, lateralibus elevatis et laminatis ; margaritd alba et iridescente. 

Shell very globose, inequilateral, translucent ; valves rather thin ; beaks very round, 
incurved; epidermis very smooth and pale yellow; cardinal teeth lamellar; lateral 
teeth elevated and lamellar ; nacre pearly white and iridescent. 

Hab. River Ohio, 150 miles below Louisville. Col. Long. 

My Cabinet. 
Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 
Cabinet of Peale's Museum. 
vol. v. — L 



42 ON THE NAIADES, 

Diam 2-4, Length 2-5, Breadth 3-5 inches. 

Shell very globose, inequilateral, translucent, very smooth and 
bright ; connate before and behind the beaks ; substance of the shell 
rather thin ; beaks very round, incurved ; epidermis very smooth, and 
pale yellow or straw colour; umbones very round; cardinal teeth 
very lamellar, elevated, double in the right valve, and very crenate and 
single in the left ; the line of the lateral and cardinal teeth form two 
curves; anterior cicatrices distinct; posterior cicatrices confluent; 
dorsal cicatrices situated in the cavity of the beaks on the under side 
of the cardinal teeth ; palleal cicatrix deeply impressed ; cavity of 
the beaks very round and very deep ; nacre thicker near the margin, 
beautifully pearly white and iridescent. 

Remarks. — We owe to Col. Long and Mr T. Peale the knowledge 
of this singular and distinct species. Without a tubercle and almost 
rayless, for those on the posterior slope are obsolete, it is among the 
most beautiful and interesting species known. The Academy is in 
possession of four fine specimens, making a complete suite of different 
ages. Three of them are perfect enough to display the character of 
this genus, Symphynota, notwithstanding their great globosity. It 
is more capacious than any of the Naiades I have seen, and the light 
yellow or straw coloured epidermis is very peculiar — in form it most 
resembles, perhaps, the Unio occidens (nobis), but it has no rays. In 
the younger individuals there is a transverse rib-like appearance which 
I have noticed in no other species of the family. 



Symphynota Woodiana. Plate V. fig. 13. 

Testa subpentagond, postice angiclatd, super umbones turgidd, insequilaterali, 
transversa; valvulis teiitiibus ; epidermide tenebroso-fuscd et obscuro-radiatd ; 
natibus undulatis ; margaritd alba et iridescente. 

Shell subpentagonal, angular behind, turgid over the umbones, inequilateral, trans- 
verse ; valves thin ; epidermis dark brown and obscurely rayed ; beaks undulated ; 
nacre pearly white and iridescent. 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 43 

Hab. China. W. W. Wood. 

My Cabinet. 
Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 
Diam. 1-5, Length 2-2, Breadth 3*5 inches. 

Shell subpentagonal, angular behind, transverse, inequilateral, irre- 
gularly swollen over the umbones, slightly compressed somewhat be- 
fore and below the umbones, posterior slope carinate ; substance of the 
shell thin ; epidermis wrinkled, dark brown with obsolete rays ; liga- 
ment long and somewhat thick ; beaks slightly inflated and undulated ; 
cicatrices scarcely perceptible posteriorly, more deeply impressed ante- 
riorly ; cavity of the beaks shallow ; cavity of the disk impressed im- 
mediately under the umbo ; nacre pearly white and iridescent. 

Remarks. — This species was first, I believe, brought to this city from 
Canton by Mr Wood* about five years since. To him I owe the first 
specimen I have seen. A younger and fine specimen I owe to the 
kindness of an estimable friend and accomplished conchologist, Mrs 
Corrie, who sent it to me from England about two years since, with a 
label " From China." It closely resembles the preceding species in 
many characters. All the specimens, however, which I have seen, 
perhaps half a dozen, retain the distinctive characteristics — the greater 
trans versen ess — the subpentagonal form — the slight compression ante- 
rior to the umbones — the dark epidermis — the absence almost entirely 
of rays and its want of a rich nacre — in all these it diners from the mag- 
nified herein described. It is usually larger than the specimen figured. 



Symphynota magnifica. Plate V. fig. 14. 

Testa subrotundd, prope nates valde inflatd, insequilaterali, postice obtuso- 
angulatd ; valvulis tenuibus f epidermide luted, multis radiis viridibus ; natibus 



* On my return from Europe I found a box of shells sent to me by Mr Wood from Canton, 
in which were several specimens of a tuberculated Unio, which, on examination, I perceived 
immediately to be anew species, which the distinguished naturalist, John Edward Gray, Esq., 
of London, did me the honour, while in that city last June, to name Leanus. 



44 ON THE NAIADES, 

inflatis, prope apices undulatis ; cicatricibus vix cernendis ; margaritd pulchrd et 
iridescente. 

Shell subrotund, much inflated near the beaks, inequilateral, obtusely angular behind; 
valves thin; epidermis yellow, with numerous green rays ; beaks inflated, near the tip 
undulated; cicatrices scarcely perceptible; nacre beautifully pearly and iridescent. 

Hab. China. W. W. Wood. 

My Cabinet. 
Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 
Cabinet of Mr Hyde. 
Diam. 1-6, Length 2-3, Breadth 3-4 inches. 

Shell subrotund, much inflated in the region of the beaks, inequi- 
lateral, connate before and behind the beaks, obtusely angular behind, 
rounded before, posterior slope carinate ; substance of the shell thin ; 
epidermis smooth, yellow with numerous beautiful green rays over the 
whole disk, which are darker on the posterior part and obsolete on the 
umbones ; ligament long and thin ; beaks inflated and terminated with 
about six nearly parallel undulations ; teeth, none ; cicatrices scarcely 
perceptible ; cavity of the beaks shallow and rounded ; nacre beautifully 
pearly and highly iridescent, sometimes tinged with salmon and pink. 

Remarks. — Several specimens of this species have been within a few 
years received from Canton, and Mr Wood, to whom I owe one of 
mine, informed me that he believes it to be a native of that country, and 
most probably dwelling in the waters of the neighbourhood of Canton. 
It is certainly among the most beautiful of the genus which has come 
under my notice, and is remarkable for its great area, its inflation of 
the region of the beaks, its smooth epidermis, its splendid rays and ex- 
quisitely beautiful nacre, which no pencil can imitate. I have it of 
several different ages — when very young it is less rotund, being some- 
what trapezoidal, the dorsal margin nearly straight and the rays obso- 
lete. The specimen figured is not half the size of the largest specimen 
in my cabinet, but I have chosen it for its great perfection in having 
the valves completely connate before and behind the beaks. 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 45 



Anodonta Ferussaciana. Plate VI. fig. 15. 

Testa subcylindraced, insequilaterali, inflatd ; margine dorsali sub natium 
apices curvd ; valvulis tenuibus ; epidermidefulgidd, obsolete radiald, olivae colorem 
tenebrosum habente ; natibus prominulis, binis ternisve undulis exiguis ad apices ; 
cicatricibus conspicuis ; margaritd cceruleoalbd et iridescente. 

Shell subcylindrical, inequilateral, inflated ; dorsal margin curved immediately 
under the point of the beak ; valves thin ; epidermis dark olive, shining, with obsolete 
rays ; beaks somewhat prominent with two or three small undulations at tip ; cicatrices 
perceptible ; nacre bluish white and iridescent. 

Hab. Ohio Riyer, near Cincinnati. T. G. Lea. 

My Cabinet. 
Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 
Cabinet of Mr Nicklin. 
Cabinet of Professor Vanuxem. 
Cabinet of the American Philosophical Society of Philadelphia. 
Diam. 1*4, Length 1*8, Breadth 3*5 inches. 

Shell subcylindrical, inequilateral, much inflated, more angular 
behind than before; dorsal margin curved immediately under the 
point of the beak ; basal margin disposed to be emarginate ; substance 
of the shell thin ; epidermis dark olive, shining, with numerous obso- 
lete rays, near the beaks lighter and destitute of rays ; ligament rather 
short and thin ; beaks somewhat prominent with two or three small 
undulations at tip ; cicatrices perceptible ; cavity of the beaks shallow ; 
cavity of the disk deep and rounded ; nacre bluish white and iridescent. 

Remarks. — This species was received with the A. incerta, here- 
in described, from the Ohio river. It differs from that species in 
having prominent beaks, in being more cylindrical, in its dark colour, 
and in the curve which exists immediately under the beaks, in which 
it resembles the A. areolus (Swainson). In the latter this curve is so 
strong and thick as to resemble an incipient tooth. In young speci- 
mens the epidermis is more on the yellow, and the rays greenish and 
bright.* 

* Since the above description was made and the figure printed, I am in possession of sev- 
eral specimens from Illinois, beautifully and very distinctly rayed. 
VOL. V M 



46 ON THE NAIADES, 



Anodonta incerta. Plate VI. fig. 16. 

Testa lato-ellipticd, postice subangulatd, inflatd, margine dorsali subrectd ; val- 
vulis tenuissimis ; epidermide subviride, obsolete radiatd ; nallbus complanatis et 
minute undulatis; cicatricibus vix cernendis; margaritdcozruleo-albd et iridescente. 

Shell wide-elliptical, subangular behind, inflated, nearly straight on the dorsal mar- 
gin ; valves very thin ; epidermis greenish with obsolete rays, beaks flattened and 
minutely undulated ; cicatrices scarcely perceptible ; nacre bluish white and iridescent. 

Hab. Ohio River near Cincinnati. T. G. Lea. 

My Cabinet. 
Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 
Cabinet of Professor Vanuxem. 
Cabinet of P. H. Nicklin. 
Diam. 1-2, Length 1-5, Breadth 3-2 inches. 

Shell wide-elliptical, subangular behind, inequilateral, inflated, dor- 
sal margin nearly straight, rounded before ; substance of the shell very 
thin; epidermis very smooth, green and olive green with obsolete 
rays, three being more distinct on the posterior part of each valve ; lig- 
ament long and thin ; beaks flattened, minutely undulated near the 
tip which terminates with a minute point from which an indistinct 
line runs towards the posterior margin ; cicatrices scarcely perceptible ; 
cavity of the beaks scarcely perceptible ; cavity of the disk deep and 
rounded ; nacre bluish white and iridescent. 

Remarks. — Among the earliest shells I procured from the Ohio, 
many years since, were several specimens of this fragile Anodonta. 
The difficulty of separating the species of a genus with so few tangible 
characters induced me to lay this aside with some other species until 
more leisure w r ould permit a thorough examination. It perhaps most 
closely resembles the Ji. catarada of Say, but diners from it peculiarly 
in the flatness of the beaks. It is generally more inflated, particu- 
larly near the umbonial slope. It resembles the A. Ferussaciana (nobis), 
the description of which see. The young differ from the old in being 
much compressed and in having rays only on the posterior part of the 
shell, where the three on each valve are distinctly visible — they are 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 47 

also more straight on the dorsal margin. The smoothness and polish, 
as well as the brightness of the green of some of the specimens are 
very remarkable. 



Anodonta Stewartiana. Plate VI. fig. 17. 

Testa rotundato-ovatd, valde inflatd ; valvulis pertenuibus ; epidermide subas- 
perd, te?iebroso-viridi, natibus prominentibus, apicibus granulatis ; cicatricibus 
subobsoletis aut vix perspicuis ; margarita cceruleo-albd. 

Shell rot un do-ovate, much inflated ; valves very thin ; epidermis roughish, olive 
green ; beaks prominent and granulate at tip ; cicatrices scarcely perceptible ; nacre 
bluish white. 

Hab. River Teche, Louisiana. W. M. Stewart. 

My Cabinet. 
Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 
Cabinet of Mr Stewart. 
Diam. 1*8, Length 2, Breadth 3*1 inches. 

Shell rotundo-ovate, much inflated, subangular behind ; dorsal line 
slightly curved ; substance of the shell thin ; epidermis somewhat 
rough, olive green and obsoletely rayed ; beaks prominent, granulate 
at tip in a short double series ; cicatrices scarcely perceptible ; cavity 
of the beaks deep and incurved ; cavity of the disk deep and rounded ; 
nacre bluish white and iridescent, sometimes tinged with salmon co- 
lour about the region of the beaks. 

Remarks. — I owe this species with numerous others to my friend 
Mr Stewart who procured and gave it to me more than two years since. 
I did not then describe it, although I believed it to be new, intending 
it to accompany some others which are now embodied in this memoir. 
It is an interesting species, being much inflated — the young specimens 
approached the globose form. It is most similar in form to the 
gibbosa (Say), but is perhaps less inflated, does not possess a polished 
epidermis, and has granulations at the termination of the beaks, while 
the gibbosa has undulations. The inflation of the Stewartiana is more 



48 ON THE NAIADES, 

spherical, the other is gibbous. The posterior slope of the young 
specimen is decorated with six distinct green rays, there being three 
on each valve. 



Anodonta palna. Plate VII. fig. 18. 

Testd subovatd, insequilaterali, subcompressa ; valvulis subcrassis ; epidermide 
olivaced et obsolete radiatd ; natibus prorninentibus ; apicibus granulatis ; cica- 
tricibus perspicuis ; mar garitd alba ; sed in natium cavo interdum colore salmo- 
nis tinctd. 

Shell subovate, inequilateral, rather compressed ; valves somewhat thick; epidermis 
olive with obsolete rays ; beaks prominent and granulate at tip ; cicatrices perceptible ; 
nacre white, sometimes salmon in the cavity of the beaks. 

Hab. Bear Grass Creek, near Louisville. Mr T. H. Taylor. 

My Cabinet. 

Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Cabinet of Mr Ronaldson. 

Diam. 2-3, Length 3-1, Breadth 5-6 inches. 

Shell subovate, inequilateral, rather compressed, subangular behind ; 

dorsal line slightly curved; substance of the shell thick; epidermis 

smooth, olive to dark green, brighter on the beaks; rays obsolete; 

ligament long and thick ; beaks elevated, granulate at tip ; cicatrices 

perceptible ; cavity of the beaks rather deep and rounded ; cavity of 

the disk somewhat flattened ; nacre white, sometimes salmon coloured 

in and about the cavity of the beaks. 

Remarks. — This species of Anodonta offers quite a large area in 
the circumference of the disk. Some specimens are, however, more 
transverse than the one here described. It has a predisposition to 
salmon colour in the region of the cavity of the beaks, and this is 
sometimes of a very deep tint. The colour is irregularly distributed, 
sometimes quite in spots, and a roughness, apparently a disease, often 
accompanies it and produces a carious state of the nacre. It perhaps 
most closely resembles the A. cataracta (Say) ; but is usually less in- 
flated, is thicker in the substance of the shell, and less transverse. 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 49 



Helicina lens. Plate XIX. fig. 56. 

Testa parvd, lenticulari, supra luted, subtus rufd; anfractibus tribus, quorum 
inferiori carinato; spirdplano-convexd ; aperturd dilatatd; labro crasso; columella 
subcallosd et luteold. 

Shell small, lenticular, yellow above and red below ; whorls three, inferior one 
carinate ; spire plano-convex ; aperture dilated ; outer lip thick ; columella thinly coated 
and yellowish. 

Hab. Feejee Islands. W. W. Wood. 

My Cabinet. 
Diam. 5-20ths, Length 4-20ths of an inch. 

The smaller figure is of the size of nature. 

Memarks.— The lenticular form and sharp carina of the body whorl 
distinguish this species. Within it is orange, and about the base of 
the shell there is a disposition to yellow. 



Helicina pulcherrima. Plate XIX. fig. 57. 

Testa subviridi, subglobosd, crassd, minute striata; anfractibus quaternis, 
quorum infimo fascid albo-fuscd induto ; spira obtusd ; aperturd dilatatd ; labro 
albo et refiexo ; columella callosd, albd,fulgenti, tuber culo parvo ad basim. 

Shell subglobose, greenish, thick, finely striate ; whorls four, the body whorl having 
an indistinct white and brown band ; spire obtuse ; aperture dilated ; outer lip white and 
reflected ; columella white, thickly coated and shining, with a small tubercle at the 
bottom. 

Hab. Java ? 

My Cabinet. 
Diam. -8, Length -7 of an inch. 

Remarks. — This is perhaps the finest species yet known of the 
vol. v. — N 



50 ON THE NAIADES, 

genus. It is remarkable for its size and weight, and the strong and 
wide callus on the columella. Under the epidermis it varies from a 
dark orange to lemon yellow. A depauperated specimen in my pos- 
session would scarcely he recognized as the same species, owing to the 
density of the orange colour. The apex of the perfect shell, having 
but a thin epidermis, presents an orange appearance, — this colour may 
also be observed on the inside of the shell. At the base of the colum- 
ella there is an obsolete tubercle. The band sometimes consists of a 
single white line only. It is believed these specimens formed part of 
the collection brought from Java bv Mr Shillaber. 



Helicina virginea. Plate XIX. fig. 58. 



Testa subconicd, apice acuta, subtus inflatd, c?'assd, transversim multisulcatd; 
anfractibus senis ; spira elevatd; aperturd valde dilatatd ; labro effuso ; colu- 
mella subcallosd. 

Shell subcorneal, acutely pointed, inflated below, thick, with many transverse fur- 
rows ; whorls six ; spire elevated ; aperture much dilated ; outer lip effuse ; columella 
thinly coated. 

Hab. Java? 

Helicina striata ? Lam. 

My Cabinet. 

Diam. '8, Length -8 of an inch. 

Remarks. — This species came in the same collection as that de- 
scribed last. It is nearly of the same diameter. It differs from it 
altogether in form and colour. It is remarkable for its acutely pointed 
apex, its milk-white appearance, and its numerous furrows. The 
outer lip may, with propriety, be said to be effuse rather than re- 
flected. 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 51 



Helix muscarum. Plate XIX. fig. 59. 

Testa globosd, crassd, politd, longiiudinaliter nitide striata, subfuscd ; maculis 
numerosis irregularibus minutis, et fasciis albis subnigris et fuscis indicia ; an- 
fractibus ternis ; spird rotundatd ; apice alba; aperturd subrotundd ; labro 
acuto, intus crassescenti ; labio subrufo ; columella Isevi albdque. 

Shell globose, thick, polished, longitudinally and finely striated, light brown, fur- 
nished with numerous irregular minute spots, and blackish brown and white bands ; 
whorls three ; spire rounded ; apex white ; aperture nearly round ; right lip sharp, 
growing thicker within ; left lip light red ; columella smooth and white. 

Hab. Society Islands, Pacific Ocean. Lieutenant Dornin. 

My Cabinet. 
Diam. -8, Length -7 of an inch. 

Remarks. — This curiously and elegantly painted shell I owe to Lieu- 
tenant Dornin, who, when on board the sloop of war Yincennes on 
her voyage round the world, very kindly collected for me many rare 
and fine specimens. It is eminently distinguished hy its compound 
band, its globosity, and its innumerable minute spots. The columella 
is somewhat thickened by a dark pink deposit. 



Helix purpuragula. Plate XIX. fig. 60. 

Testa obtuso-conicd, crassd, inferne plannlatd, politd, longitudinaliter minute 
striata, supcrne luted et fusco-virgatd, inferne luted, in medium anfractum ob- 
scuro-fasciatd, subsuturam maculatd, imp erf or at d ; anfractibus quinis ; spird 
obtuso-conicd; aperturd ovatd, intus purpurea ; labro reflexo, projje basim ma- 
jor i ; columella Ixvi, ad basim subconcavd. 

Shell obtusely conical, thick, flattened below, polished, minutely and longitudinally 
striate, above yellow and striped with brown, below yellow, obscurely banded on the 
middle of the whorl, irregularly spotted on the inferior part of the suture, imperforate; 
whorls five ; spire obtusely conical ; aperture oval, purple inside ; outer lip sub- 
reflected, enlarged towards the base ; columella smooth and impressed at base. 



52 ON THE NAIADES, 

Hab. Java? 

My Cabinet. 
Diam. -9, Length *6 of an inch. 

Remarks. — The solidity, smoothness and purple colour of this spe- 
cies, which is supposed to have been of Mr Shillaber's collection, will 
serve to distinguish it. Like the mamilla, herein described, it has a 
thick lip and is impressed at the base of the columella. The two 
specimens which I have differ much in the arrangement of colour. 
In one the inferior portion is almost white, and a dark interrupted band 
encircles the middle of the whorl. 



Helix ovum reguli. Plate XIX. fig. 61. 

Testa super et subtus planulatd, colore columbino tinctd, minutis irregirfaribus 
maculis numerosis, imperforatd ; anfractihus quaiernis; spird valde deprcssd ; 
aperturd subovaid, intus purpurascenti ; labro acuto, subreflexo ; columella laevi, 
ad basin subconcavd. 

Shell flattened above and below, dove coloured, with numerous irregular minute dots, 
imperforate; whorls four; spire much flattened; aperture suboval, purplish inside: 
outer lip somewhat reflected but sharp; columella smooth, at base impressed. 

Hab. Java? 

My Cabinet. 
Diam. -8, Length *4 of an inch. 

Remarks. — The very peculiar colour and the minute dots of this 
beautiful and interesting species eminently distinguish it from all other 
species which have come under my notice. The line of the superior 
part of the lip is almost parallel with the corresponding inferior part, 
and the outer posterior is consequently more round. In my specimens 
there are two very indistinct bands, rather lighter than the ground. 
In colour it greatly resembles a spotted small egg of a bird. It is sup- 
posed to have come from Mr .Shillaber's collection. 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 53 



Helix monodonta. Plate XIX. fig. 62. 

Testa superne subconicd, inferne inflaid, Isevi, alba, fasciis duabus fuscis, im- 
perforatd ; anfractibus ternis ; spird obtusd ; aperlurd subrotundd ; labro acuto, 
subreflexOy subtus unico dente induto ; columella Isevi. 

Shell subconical above, inflated below, smooth, white, with two brown bands, im- 
perforate ; whorls three ; spire obtuse ; aperture nearly round ; outer lip somewhat re- 
flected but sharp, having a single tooth on the lower limb ; columella smooth. 

Hab. Java? 

My Cabinet. 
Diam. 9-20ths, Length 7-20ths of an inch. 

Remarks. — The two brown bands and single tooth of this species, 
together with the absence of an umbilicus, may serve to distinguish it. 
The superior termination of the lip is bent down towards the base of the 
columella. It is supposed to be from the collection of Mr Shillaber. 



Helix cyclostomopsis. Plate XIX. fig. 63. 

Testa subglobosd, superne depressd, inferne inflata, longitudinaliter et minute 
striata, pellucidd, cornea, late umbilicatd; anfractibus quaternis ; spird depressd; 
aperturd subcirculari ; labro crassoet reflexo ; columella Isevi, ad basin crassescenti. 

Shell subglobose, depressed above, inflated below, longitudinally and minutely striate, 
translucent, horn coloured, widely umbilicate; whorls four ; spire depressed ; aperture 
nearly a circle ; outer lip thick and reflected ; columella smooth, at the base thickened. 

Hab 

My Cabinet. 
Diam -9, Length -6 of an inch. 

Remarks. — In its aperture this species has a strong resemblance to 
a Cyclostoma. The superior and inferior portions of the lip do not, 
however, join by one-fifth of a circle — the resemblance is strong in the 
vol. v. — o 



54 ON THE NAIADES, 

thickness and reflection of the lip. The last whorl is very round — 
the umbilicus large and partly covered. 



Helix mamilla. Plate XIX. fig. 64. 

Testa solidd, elevata, obtuso-conicd, inferne rotundatd, imperforald, colore colura- 
bino tincta, longitudinaliter nilide striata, fasciis duabus obsoletis indutd, apice 
subrufo ; anfractibus quints, rotundatis ; spird exsertd ; aperturd subrvfd, ovatd ; 
labro subreflcxo, crasso, prope basin majori ; columella lasvi, ad basin subconcavd. 

Shell solid, elevated, obtusely conical, rounded below, imperforate, dove coloured, 
transversely and finely striate, with two obsolete bands, pink at the apex ; whorls five 
and rounded ; spire elevated ; aperture pink, oval ; outer lip somewhat reflected, thick, 
enlarged towards the base; columella smooth, at the base impressed. 

Hab 

My Cabinet. 
Diam. -8, Length -7 of an inch. 

Remarks.— I have rarely met with a more beautiful and interesting 
species of the genus than the above. It is eminently distinguished by 
its solidity, its thick, smooth and beautifully coloured lip, its fine deli- 
cate colour, and its elevated and red tipped spire. The columella is 
somewhat thickened and deeply impressed at the base. 

It is to be regretted that the habitat of this species is not known. 
It was met with accidentally at a dealer's. 



Helix diaphana. Plate XIX. fig. 65. 

Testa lata, superne depressd, inferne inflatd, longitudinaliter et nilide striata ; 
subluted, obscure bifasciatd super medium anfractum, vmbilicatd; anfractibus 
quaternis ; spird planulaid ; aperturd magna et subrotundd ; labro simplici ; colum- 
ella brevissimd laevique. 

Shell wide, depressed above, inflated below, longitudinally and finely striate, pale 
yellow, obscurely banded above the centre of the whorl, umbilicated; whorls four: 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 55 

spire flattened ; aperture large and nearly round ; outer lip simple ; columella very short 
and smooth. 

Hab 

My Cabinet. 
Diam. 1*4, Length -7 of an inch. 

Remarks. — This species has a strong resemblance to H. citrina. It 
may be distinguished from that species by its colour, which is more 
pale, being almost a light horn colour; by its being more flattened, and 
by its band, which is white bordered on each side by a delicate brown 
line. The umbilicus is small. 



Helix Himalana. Plate XIX. fig. 66. 

Testa sinistrosd, subcarinatd, tenui, subdiaphand, urnbilicatd, superne subcon- 
vexd, inferne inflatd, longitudinaliter et transversim minute striata, superne fusco- 
luted, inferne fused, prope carinam tenebrosiori ; anfractibus quaternis ; spird 
obtusd ; aperturd late rotundatd ; labro simplici et acuto ; columella brevi. 

Shell sinistral, subcarinate, thin, translucent, umbilicated, obtusely convex above, 
inflated below, longitudinally, transversely and minutely striate, superior part brown- 
ish yellow, inferior part brown, being more intense near the carina ; whorls four ; spire 
obtuse ; aperture widely rounded ; outer lip simple and sharp ; columella short. 

Hab. Himalaya Mountains. Dr Burrough. 

My Cabinet. 

Cabinet of Dr Burrough. 

Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Cabinet of Mr Hyde. 

Diam. 1-1, Length -7 of an inch. 

Remarks. — In the splendid collection of objects of natural history 
brought from India and other countries by Dr Burrough was this spe- 
cies, which Dr B. procured himself among the Himalaya mountains. 
It is easily distinguished from any species I am acquainted with, and 
approaches most closely to the H. Ixvipes (Fer. ). Its sinistral opening, 



56 ON THE NAIADES, 

its translucency, and its colours are very characteristic. On the infe- 
rior part of the carina, which is obtuse, the brown colour is more in- 
tense — on the superior part the yellow is brightest. 



Helix vesica. Plate XIX. fig. 67. 



&• 



Testa tenni, pellucidd, svperne elevatd et fusco-hded, in feme inflatd albdque, 
transversim minute striata, umbilical a, anfractibus quinis ; spird obtuso-conicd ; 
aperturd subrotundd ; labro tenui et reflexo, infeme crassescenti ; columella Isevi. 

Shell thin, transparent, elevated and hrownish yellow above, inflated and white be- 
low, longitudinally and minutely striate, umbilicated; whorls five; spire obtusely 
conical ; aperture nearly round ; outer lip thin and reflected, on the lower part slightly 
thickened ; columella smooth. 

Hab 

My Cabinet. 
Diam. -7, Length -5 of an inch. 

Remarks. — This species is peculiarly transparent, and very strongly 
resembles the cuticle of a blister or the bladder of a fish. This char- 
acter, and its pale brownish-yellow superior portion, and white inferior 
portion, together with its longitudinal striae, eminently distinguish it. 
The lower part of the reflected lip is so much thickened as almost to 
form a tooth. 



Helix cincta. Plate XIX. fier. 68. 



&■ 



Testd supeme deprcssd, infeme inflatd, longitudinaliter striata, umbilicatd, 
rufo-fuscd, fasciam fuscam aut nigram super medios anfractus habenle ; anfrac- 
tibus qualemis ; spird planulald, aperturd subrotundatd ; labro simplici; colum- 
ella Isevi. 

Shell depressed above, inflated below, longitudinally striate, umbilicated, reddish 
brown, with a dark brown or black band above the middle of the whorls ; whorls four ; 
spire flattened ; aperture nearly round ; outer lip simple ; columella smooth. 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 57 

Hab. Java? 

My Cabinet. 
Diam. -9, Length -6 of an inch. 

Remarks. — The fine reddish-brown ground and intensely dark band 
distinguish this fine Helix. In my specimen, which is the only one I 
have seen, the inferior margin of the band has, adjoining it, an obscure 
band, of a tint somewhat lighter than the ground. It should be ob- 
served, that when other specimens may be examined, the bands may 
not prove so regular as in the present specimen. Around the umbili- 
cus the colour is more pale. 



Helix Woodiana. Plate XIX. fig. 69. 

Testd supra obtuso-conicd, inferne inflatd, longitudinaliter et nitide striata, 
albidd, pellucidd, fascia unicd in medium anfractum, late umbilicatd ; anfractibus 
quaternis; spira obtusd, aperturd rotundatd latdque ; labro reflexo; columelld Isevi. 

Shell obtusely conical above, inflated below, longitudinally and finely striate, pale 
and translucent, with a single band on the centre of the whorl, widely umbilicate; 
whorls four ; spire obtuse ; aperture wide and round ; outer lip reflected ; columella 
smooth. 

Hab. China near Canton. W. W. Wood. 

My Cabinet. 

Cabinet of Mr Hyde. 

Cabinet of P. H. Nicklin. 

Diam. -6, Length «4 of an inch. 

Remarks. — Among a number of fine shells taken by Mr Wood, who 
devoted himself much to natural history during some years' residence 
in China, was this species and the globula herein described, both from 
the neighbourhood of Canton. It may be distinguished by its brown 
band, its round aperture and enlarged umbilicus. 



VOL. V.- 



58 ON THE NAIADES, 



Helix globula. Plate XIX. fig. 70. 

Testa globosd, tenebroso-corned, pellupidd, umbilicatd, longitudinaliter striata; 
anfractibus quints; spird obtuso-elevatd ; aperturd laid et subrotundd ; labro sim- 
plici; columella laevi. 

Shell globose, dark horn colour, translucent, umbilicated, longitudinally striate ; 
whorls five ; spire obtusely elevated ; aperture wide and round ; outer lip simple : 
columella smooth. 

Hab. China, near Canton. W. W. Wood. 

My Cabinet. 

Cabinet of Mr Hyde. 

Diam. '6, Length -5 of an inch. 

Remarks. — I owe to the kindness of Mr Wood the specimen which 
is here figured. It is remarkable for its globular form and its dark 
horn-coloured epidermis. It has somewhat the aspect of a Paludina. 



Paludina bi-monilifera. Plate XIX. fig. 71. 

Testa abbreviato-iurritd, tenebroso-corned, apice obtusd ; anfractibus seriebus 
duabus nodulorum circumdatis ; nodulis seriei inferioris anfractuum superior- 
um suturd celatis ; nodulis seriei superioris majoribus, et super omnes anfrac- 
tus conspicuis ; suturis profundis et irregularibus ; labro sub-biangulato ; basi 
subangulatd. 

Shell obtusely turrited, dark horn colour ; apex obtuse ; whorls furnished with two 
rows of nodules ; the nodules of the lower row of the upper whorls hidden by the su- 
ture, those of the upper row larger, and visible on all the whorls ; sutures deep and 
irregular ; outer lip sub-biangular ; base subangular. 

Hab. Alabama River. Judge Tait. 

My Cabinet. 

Cabinet of Professor Vanuxem. 

Cabinet of the American Philosophical Society. 

Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 59 

Cabinet of P. H. Nicklin. 

Cabinet of Baron Ferussac. 

Diam. 1-1, Length 1-8 inches. 

Remarks This superb Paludina, which far surpasses in point of 

beauty any of our species yet known, I owe to the kindness of Judge 
Tait. Its beautiful double tuberculated cincture at once distinguishes 
it from all described species. Some specimens are furnished with 
dark purple bands which beautifully decorate the interior of the shell, 
and give a dark rich green colour to its fine epidermis. In the others 
these are wanting, and the epidermis then has a clear and more yel- 
low appearance. The sutures being formed immediately over the 
lower row of tubercles, they cause its line to be very irregular ; and 
this row itself is hidden on the upper whorls. 



SUPPLEMENT. 

Read before the American Philosophical Society, March 1 5th, 1833. 

SINCE I had the pleasure to present to this Society, nearly a year 
since, a Memoir on the Naiades and some other families, I have had it 
in my power to procure several interesting species, hitherto unnoticed 
by naturalists. In the large collection of rare shells which I procured 
in Europe while there last year, some of these were discovered ; and 
most of them are, perhaps, the only specimens known, being now first 
described. The observations on, and corrections of, Lamarck's Naiades, 
it is hoped, will prove useful to the American conchologist. 

VOL. V. P 2 



60 ON THE NAIADES. 



Unio parallelopipedon. Plate VIII. fig. 20. 

Testa ob/ongd, subcylindraced, transversa, valde insequilaterali, postice angu- 
lutd, inflcttd, marginibus dorsi et baseos parallelis ; valvulis subcrassis ; natibus 
prominulis, retusis ; epidermide fere nigra; dentibus cardinalibus obliquis, cris- 
tutis ; lateralibiis longis rectisque ; margaritd albd et iridescente. 

Shell oblong, subcylindrical, dorsal and basal margins parallel, transverse, very in- 
equilateral, angular behind, inflated ; valves rather thick ; beaks somewhat elevated, 
rctuse ; epidermis almost black ; cardinal teeth oblique, crested ; lateral teeth long and 
straight ; nacre pearl}' white and iridescent. 

Hab. River Parana, Province of Corrientes. 

My Cabinet. 

Cabinet of Dr Burrough. 

Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Diam. "9. Length 1*2, Breadth 2-7 inches. 

Shell oblong, subcylindrical, dorsal and basal margins parallel, trans- 
verse, very inequilateral, flattish on the sides, angular behind, inflated ; 
substance of the shell rather thick ; beaks rather elevated and placed 
near the anterior margin; ligament long and thin; umbones flattened; 
umbonial slope carinate ; posterior slope elevated into a carina ; epider- 
mis finely wrinkled and almost black ; cardinal teeth oblique and crested, 
larger in the right valve; lateral teeth long and straight; anterior cica- 
trices distinct ; posterior cicatrices confluent ; dorsal cicatrices placed 
in the centre of the cavity of the beaks; cavity of the beaks shallow; 
nacre pearly white and iridescent. 

Remarks. — This species is from the Burrough collection, and is dis- 
tinct from any I have seen. It resembles somewhat, in the outline of 
the margin, the nasutus of Say. The posterior slope does not, how- 
ever, decline so much, the dorsal and basal margins being nearly 
parallel. In being subcylindrical it resembles the cylindricus of Say ; 
it has not, however, either tubercles or arrow-headed markings. The 
very dark colour of its epidermis is peculiar.* 

* Since the above description and the figure were made, I have seen a more perfect 
specimen in the possession of Dr Burrough, which has the beaks but little eroded. In 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 61 



Unio Cooperianus. Plate VIII. fig. 21. 

Testa suborbiculatd, nonnihil obliqud, inequilaterd, dimidio postico tuberculatd ; 
valvulis crassis ; natibus prominentibus ; dentibus cardinalibus subgrandibus ; 
lateralibus subbrevibus, crassis rectisque ; margariid alba et carnis colore tinctd. 

Shell suborbicular, somewhat oblique, inequilateral, tuberculated on posterior half ; 
valves thick; beaks elevated ; cardinal teeth rather large; lateral teeth rather short, 
thick and straight ; nacre flesh coloured and white. 



■&■ 



Hab. River Ohio. T. G. Lea. 

My Cabinet. 

Cabinet of Mr Cooper. 

Diam. 1-9, Length 2-8, Breadth 3-2 inches. 

Shell suborbicular, somewhat oblique, inequilateral, irregularly 
tuberculated on the posterior half; substance of the shell thick ; beaks 
thick and elevated; ligament rather short and thick; epidermis wrin- 
kled, dark rusty brown ; rays scarcely visible ; cardinal tooth rather 
large and widely cleft in the left valve, single and emerging from a 
pit in the right valve ; lateral teeth rather short, thick and straight ; 
anterior and posterior cicatrices both distinct ; dorsal cicatrices situated 
on the under part of the cardinal tooth ; cavity of the beaks deep and 
angulated ; nacre flesh coloured and white, the white usually forming 
a broad border between the palleal cicatrix and the margin. 

Remarks. — This species very closely resembles, in most of its char- 
acters, both the verrucosus (Barnes) and pustulosus (nobis). It diners 
from the first in never being chocolate coloured. It is rarely, I believe, 
entirely white like the latter. The epidermis is dark, and when rays 
can be seen on it, they will be found to be pencilled, and not one broad 

this I found a character not perceptible in the eroded one from which the description was 
made, the beaks being furnished with radiated folds nearly similar to those of the lacteolus 
and Burroughianus described herein. This character seems to prevail very much in the 
South American Uniones. Among the numerous species described from North America, none 
yet have been observed to possess this character. 
VOL. V. Q 



62 ON THE NAIADES, 

interrupted one like the pustulosus. There is a great peculiarity in 
the flesh or pink colour of the nacre, which is disposed to be clouded, 
and to be of a stronger hue about the teeth, while the cavity of the 
beak is nearly white. 

I dedicate this species to my friend, William Cooper, Esq., as a slight 
acknowledgement of the many favours received in the way of commu- 
nications, and the loan of specimens. 



Unio emarginatus. Plate IX. fig. 22. 

Testa sub-ellipticd, ad basim emarginatd et compressd, transversissimd, valde 
insequilaterd, postice sub-triangulatd ; valvulis subcrassis ; natibus prominulis, 
apicibus undulatis ; epidermide viridi-luted ; dentibus cardinalibus parvis, obliquis, 
et in valvula utrdque duplicibus ; lateralibus longis subcurvisque ; margaritd 
albd et iridescente. 

Shell sub-elliptical, emarginate and compressed at base, very transverse, very inequi- 
lateral, sub-biangular behind; valves somewhat thick; beaks rather elevated and undu- 
lated at tip ; epidermis greenish yellow ; cardinal teeth small, oblique and double in 
both valves ; lateral teeth long and slightly curved ; nacre pearly white and iridescent. 

Hab 

My Cabinet. 
Diam. 1, Length 1-3, Breadth 2-8 inches. 

Shell subelliptical, emarginate and compressed at base, very trans- 
verse, very inequilateral, sub-biangular behind, elevated along the urn- 
bonial slope, flattened on the umbones ; substance of the shell somewhat 
thick ; beaks rather elevated, retuse and undulate at the tip ; ligament 
long and thin ; epidermis finely wrinkled, greenish yellow, along the 
posterior slope green ; cardinal teeth small, oblique and double in both 
valves ; lateral teeth long and slightly curved ; anterior cicatrices dis- 
tinct ; posterior cicatrices confluent ; dorsal cicatrices situated on the 
under part of the cardinal tooth ; cavity of the beaks subangular and 
wide ; nacre pearly white and iridescent. 

Remarks. — I procured two opposed valves of different individuals of 
this species, which nearly match, of Mr Stutchbury, a well known and 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 63 

extensive dealer in London. He could not give me the least idea of 
its native country. From its general appearance I should presume it 
to come from a southern latitude, perhaps from New Holland. It is 
rather peculiar in its outline, being more emarginate at base than any 
species with which I am acquainted. The emargination is not, how- 
ever, so great as in the My a margaritifera (Lin.), JLlasmodonta arcuata 
(Barnes). It approaches most closely the Unio subtentus (Say), but 
differs from it in the total absence of folds or " ribs" on the posterior 
slope. In the two valves which I possess there appear to be no rays, 
unless the green of the posterior slope be denominated a single broad 
one. The emargination and compression of the base cause the poste- 
rior part of the cavity of the shell to be effuse. 



Unio Conradicus. Plate IX. fig. 23. 

Testa ellipticd, transversa, insequilaterd, parte posteriori plicatd ; valvulis tenui- 
bus; natibus ad apices nitide undulatis ; dentibus cardinalibus parvis et erectis ; 
lateralibus indistinctis ; margaritd antice albd, postice iridescente et in cavofusco 
purpurea. 

Shell elliptica], transverse, inequilateral, folded on the posterior parts ; valves thin ; 
beaks finely undulated at tip ; cardinal teeth small and erect ; lateral teeth not perfectly- 
defined ; nacre white anteriorly, iridescent posteriorly, and brownish purple in the 
cavity. 

Hab Professor Troost. 

My Cabinet. 

Cabinet of Professor Troost. 

Diam -6, Length -8, Breadth 1-8 inches. 

Shell elliptical, transverse, inequilateral, indistinctly folded on the 
posterior parts ; substance of the shell thin behind, thicker before ; 
beaks slightly elevated and finely undulated at tip ; ligament rather 
long and thin ; epidermis finely wrinkled, yellowish brown, with nu- 
merous indistinct greenish rays, which on the posterior part are dis- 
posed to be clouded ; cardinal teeth small, erect, disposed to be lobed ; 
lateral teeth long, slightly curved, not perfectly defined, having but a 
small cleft in the left valve ; anterior cicatrices distinct ; posterior cica- 



64 ON THE NAIADES, 

trices confluent ; dorsal cicatrices in the centre of the cavity of the 
beaks ; cavity of the beaks shallow and tinged with brownish purple ; 
nacre white anteriorly, thinner and very iridescent posteriorly. 

Remarks. — I owe to the kindness of professor Troost this little 
species, and name it after an indefatigable naturalist, Mr T. A. Con- 
rad. It belongs to that group which is distinguished by an imma- 
ture hinge, and which I have noticed in my remarks on the U. Hil- 
drethius. The U. Conradius certainly resembles that shell closely. It 
is, however, less cylindrical, and has the teeth more perfect. It also 
has rays and undulations which I have not observed on the other. In 
outline it more closely resembles the U. iris (nobis), but differs in the 
teeth and in the rays. Having but two specimens of this species to 
examine, some of the characters may be found to differ in other speci- 
mens. One of these is slightly emarginate at the basal margin. 



Unio divaricatus. Plate IX. fig. 24. 

Testa ellipticd, transversa, subcompressd, valde insequilaterd ; valvulis tenuibus ; 
natibus plicis pulchris divaricatis ; dentibus cardinalibus parvis, compressis ; 
lateralibus longis et subtenuibus ; margaritd albd et iridescente. 

Shell elliptical, transverse, rather compressed, very inequilateral ; valves thin ; beaks 
with beautiful divaricating folds ; cardinal teeth small, compressed ; lateral teeth long 
and rather thin ; nacre white and iridescent. 

Hab. Egypt. Duke de Rivoli. 

My Cabinet. 
Diam. -5, Length -9, Breadth 1*4 inches. 

Shell elliptical, transverse, somewhat compressed, very inequilate- 
ral ; substance of the shell thin ; beaks covered with beautiful folds 
diverging from their apex; ligament rather short and slender; epi- 
dermis greenish, smooth ; cardinal teeth small, compressed, double 
in the right valve, and single in the left; lateral teeth long, rather 
thin and nearly straight ; anterior cicatrices slightly confluent ; pos- 
terior cicatrices confluent ; dorsal cicatrices situated in the centre of 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 65 

the cavity of the beaks ; cavity of the beaks shallow and subangular ; 
nacre white and iridescent. 

Remarks. — This beautiful little species I procured from the cabinet 
of the Duke de Rivoli in Paris. It appears to me to be inedited, and 
may perhaps have been considered a transverse variety of the corru- 
gatus (Lam.). It ought not to be confounded with that species, 
being much more transverse, and the folds of the beaks differing. 
Lamarck, in his description of the corrugatus, says, " rugis angulato- 
flexuosis." The folds of the divaricatus are well marked, without an- 
gles, and diverge from the point of the beaks. 



Unio Corrianus. Plate IX. fig. 25. 

Testa angusto-ellipticd, transversissimd, valde insequilaterd, postice subangu- 
latd; valvulis tenuissimis ; natibus vix prominulis ; dentibus cardinalibus tenuibus 
et laminatis ; lateralibus longis, tenuibus, subrectisque ; margaritd albd et irides- 
cente. 

Shell narrow-elliptical, very transverse, very inequilateral, subangular behind ; valves 
very thin ; beaks scarcely prominent ; cardinal teeth thin and bladed ; lateral teeth long, 
thin and nearly straight ; nacre pearly white and iridescent. 

Hab. India. Mrs Corrie. 

My Cabinet. 
Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 
Diam. *6, Length 1, Breadth 2*1 inches. 

Shell narrow elliptical, very transverse, very inequilateral, subangu- 
lar behind ; dorsal line nearly straight ; substance of the shell very thin ; 
beaks very slightly elevated and minutely waved at the tip; ligament 
long and slender ; epidermis smooth, dark brown ; rays none ; cardinal 
teeth thin, bladed, single in the left valve and double in the right ; 
lateral teeth long, thin, bladed and nearly straight; anterior cicatrices 
distinct ; posterior cicatrices confluent ; dorsal cicatrices situated nearly 
in the centre of the cavity of the beaks ; cavity of the beaks exceed- 
ingly shallow ; nacre pearly white and iridescent. 
vol. v. — R 



66 ON THE NAIADES, 

Remarks. — I am indebted to an amiable and intelligent friend, Mrs 
Corrie of Birmingham, England, for this new species, which comes 
from Calcutta ; and to her I dedicate it, as a mark of sincere friendship. 
It closely resembles the U. marginalis of Lamarck, but diners from 
that species in being more transverse, in the beaks being more retuse, 
in the dorsal line being nearly straight, and in its not being possessed 
of a light border along the margin. The cardinal teeth are remark- 
ably thin, and form nearly a line with the lateral teeth. 



Unio Grayanus. Plate IX. fig. 26. 

Testa lanceolatd, tra?isve?*sissimd, antice rotundata et postice acutissime angu- 
latd, prope nates et partem posticam plicatd ; lateribus planulatis ; clivo umboniali 
subcarinato ; valvulis tenuibus ; natibus prope raarginem anticam locatis, de- 
pressis ; epidermide luteold, obsolete radiatd ; dentibus cardinalibus in valvuld 
utrdque duplicibus et erectis ; lateralibus longissimis, tenuibus, sub-erectisque ; 
margarita pulchrd et iridescente. 

Shell lanceolate, very transverse, rounded before and very acutely angular behind, 
plicate about the beaks and posterior part of the shell, flattened on the sides ; umbonial 
slope ridged ; valves thin ; beaks depressed, placed near the anterior margin ; epidermis 
yellowish with obsolete rays; cardinal teeth double in both valves and erect; lateral 
teeth very long, thin and nearly straight ; nacre beautifully pearly and iridescent. 

Hab. China. 

My Cabinet. 
Cabinet of Mr Hyde. 
Cabinet of Mr Gray, London. 
Diam. *6, Length -8, Breadth 8-3 inches. 

Shell lanceolate, very transverse, very inequilateral, rounded before 
and very acutely angular behind, irregularly folded in the region of 
the beaks, several larger folds on the anterior slope, on the poste- 
rior portion the folds are parallel being nearly perpendicular to the 
basal margin, flattened on the sides; umbonial slope elevated into a 
ridge, green ; substance of the shell thin ; beaks depressed, placed very 
near to the anterior margin ; ligament thin, not very long ; epidermis 
finely wrinkled, yellowish with obsolete rays, disposed to be greenish 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 67 

on the posterior part ; cardinal teeth double in both valves, compressed 
and erect; lateral teeth very long, thin and nearly straight; anterior 
cicatrices distinct ; posterior cicatrices confluent ; dorsal cicatrices situ- 
ated in the cavity of the beaks ; cavity of the beaks very small ; nacre 
beautifully pearly and iridescent. 

Remarks. — This is perhaps the most extraordinary Unio that has 
yet fallen to the lot of a naturalist to describe. When we cast our 
eyes over all the species, and then rest them on this, we shall be ready 
to exclaim, that nothing hereafter belonging to this genus can astonish 
us. Its latitude is so great, that one at first sight can scarcely believe 
it to belong to the family Naiades. Its great transverseness causes the 
lateral teeth to be exceedingly long, and that character, together with 
the acutely angular posterior margin, gives the shell the form of a 
crane's beak. In outline it does not approach any species I know, and 
therefore there can be no comparison made. I procured it of a dealer 
in London, and dedicate it to my friend, John Edward Gray, Esq. of 
the British Museum, one of the most distinguished naturalists in Great 
Britain, and to whose great kindness and attention while in London I 
am much indebted. I know of no zoologist who has, in that country, 
pursued our favourite science with more ardour or more success, and 
it is only due to him, while it gives me great pleasure to render him 
this tribute of respect in placing his name to one of the most inte- 
resting species of the whole family. 



Unio Burroughianus. Plate X. fig. 27. 

Testa subrotunda, insequilaterali, compressd, poslice subangulata j nulibus obli- 
que plicatis , prominulis ; valvulis subcrassis ; epidermide tenebroso-fuscd ; dentibus 
cardinalibus magnis, elevatis et laminatis, lateralibus subrecfis ; margariid alba 
et iridescente. 

Shell subrotund, inequilateral, compressed, subangular behind, with oblique folds on 
the beaks ; valves rather thick ; beaks somewhat elevated and much plicate ; epidermis 
dark brown ; cardinal teeth large, elevated and lamelliform ; lateral teeth nearly straight; 
nacre pearly white and iridescent. 



68 ON THE NAIADES, 

Hab. River Parana, Province of Corrientes. Dr Burrough. 

My Cabinet. 

Cabinet of Dr Burrough. 

Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Diam. -1, Length 1-8, Breadth 2*4 inches. 

Shell subrotund, inequilateral, compressed, subangular behind, with 

large oblique folds on the beaks ; substance of the shell rather thick ; 

beaks somewhat elevated and distinctly plicate as far as the umbones : 

ligament short and thin ; epidermis smooth, dark brown with transverse 

yellow marks of growth ; cardinal teeth large, elevated, lamelliform 

and double in both valves : lateral teeth lamelliform and nearly straight ; 

anterior cicatrices and posterior cicatrices confluent ; dorsal cicatrices 

in the centre of the cavity of the beaks ; cavity of the beaks subangular 

and shallow; nacre pearly white and iridescent. 

Remarks. — This is of the collection of Dr Burrough, sent by him 
to the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. To this gentle- 
man natural science is much indebted for his unwearied industry in 
contributing to the knowledge of the Fauna — of the numerous countries 
through which he has travelled, in Asia, as well as on this continent. 
This species resembles most, perhaps, the ladeolus (nobis), but diners 
from it in being more round in the outline, in having longer and larger 
folds on the beaks, and in being more compressed. In the beaks it 
has some resemblance to the corrugatus (Lam.), as well also as in the 
outline ; but the folds being nearly parallel to each other, it differs from 
the corrugatus in these, which are usually zig zag in the latter shell. 
I owe to the kindness of Dr Burrough the specimen in my cabinet, 
and I have great pleasure in dedicating the species to him. 



Unio Sowerbianus. Plate X. fig. 28. 

Testa sublriangulari, inflatd, parte posticd peculiariter compressd et striatd ; 
valvulis crassissimis ; natibus valde prominentibus, dentibus cardinalibus magnis ; 
laleralibus crassis subrectisque ; margaritd in cavo albido-purpured. 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 69 

Shell subtriangular, inflated, singularly compressed on the posterior part, which is 
striate ; valves remarkably thick ; beaks very prominent ; cardinal teeth large ; late- 
ral teeth thick and nearly straight ; nacre in the cavity very light purple. 

Hab. Tennessee. G. B. Sowerby. 

My Cabinet. 

Cabinet of Mr Sowerby. 

Diam. 1-5, Length 1-7, Breadth 1-8 inches. 

Shell subtriangular, inflated, singularly compressed on the posterior 
part, which is filled with striae passing from the beak to the posterior 
and posterior-basal margins, the anterior part being inflated and smooth ; 
slightly emarginate at posterior basal margin ; substance of the shell 
very remarkably thick, less so on the posterior part ; beaks large and 
very prominent ; ligament short and thick ; epidermis bright brown, 
smooth and shining before, striate behind; cardinal teeth large, sulcate, 
elevated and cleft in the left valve, and emerging from a pit in the 
right valve ; lateral teeth thick, short and nearly straight ; anterior and 
posterior cicatrices both distinct ; dorsal cicatrices situated on the under 
part of the cardinal teeth ; cavity of the beaks shallow and subangular ; 
nacre very light purple in the cavity, and white on the anterior margin. 

Remarks. — To the kindness of G. B. Sowerby, Esq., one of the 
most distinguished writers on conchology in England, I owe the pos- 
session of this truly interesting shell, and to him I with great pleasure 
dedicate it. He received it from the state of Tennessee, but from 
what river I do not know. In general outline it resembles somewhat 
the trigonus (nobis), but differs from it in being more rotund, in hav- 
ing the posterior part compressed and striate, and in being coloured 
inside. It has a stronger resemblance to the Haysianus (nobis) than to 
any other species known to me, but diners from it in being more com- 
pressed behind, in being more striate, in being much larger (to judge 
from the few specimens I have seen of both), and in the difference of 
the colour of the nacre, the Haysianus being dark chocolate, while the 
Sowerbianus is of a very light purple, approaching to flesh colour. 



vol. v. — s 



70 ON THE NAIADES, 



Unio dromas. Plate X. fig. 29. 

Testa subtriangulari, subobliqud, gibbd, irregular iter iransversimque plicatd, 
punctiunculis passim radiata ; valvulis crassissi?nis ; natibus prominentibus ; 
dentibus cardinalibus latis, lateralibus crassis brevibusque ; margaritd alba. 

Shell subtriangular, somewhat oblique, hunch-backed, irregularly and transversely- 
folded, with dotted rays over the whole disk ; valves very thick; beaks elevated ; car- 
dinal teeth wide ; lateral teeth short and thick ; nacre pearly white. 

Hab. Harpeth River, Tennessee. Professor Conrad. 
Hab. Cumberland River, near Nashville. Professor Troost. 

My Cabinet. 
Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 
Cabinet of Professor Troost. 
Cabinet of P. H. Nicklin. 
Diam 1-6, Length 1-8, Breadth 1-9 inches. 

Shell subtriangular, somewhat oblique, hunch-backed, irregularly 
and transversely folded at the separate stages of growth, furnished with 
an oblique furrow before the umbonial slope, substance of the shell 
very thick ; beaks thick and elevated ; ligament short, thick and dark 
coloured; umbones furnished with a hump; epidermis yellow, with 
numerous dark green dotted rays, on the anterior part furnished with 
about six somewhat broad rays; cardinal tooth wide and sulcate; lateral 
tooth short and thick, having a flat plate between it and the cardinal 
tooth ; anterior and posterior cicatrices both distinct ; dorsal cicatrices 
situated on the under side of the cardinal tooth ; cavity of the beaks 
deep and angulated ; nacre pearly white, on the posterior part some- 
times golden. 

Remarks. — I have had for some years in my cabinet two specimens 
of this beautiful and curious species, the first of which, a young one, I 
owe to the kindness of the late professor Conrad. Having recently 
received a complete suite from professor Troost, I have perfectly satis- 
fied myself of (what I before doubted) its being distinct from the 
irroratus (nobis). The manner in which the hump is formed is very 
remarkable. As far as the third or fourth stage of growth the disks 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 71 

are almost flat. The deposit of the nacre after this forms an angle of 
nearly 45° with the surface which it has left, thus forming a hump, or 
obtuse angle point, directly on the umbo. This causes the curious 
result, that when the shell is from one third to three fourths grown, 
it will rest, when so placed, on the portion of surface between the 
point of the beak and the umbo, the basal margin remaining in the air. 
In its general characters it resembles the irroratus, but may at once be 
distinguished by the hump. It is devoid of tubercles, while the irro- 
ratus is sometimes covered with them, particularly on the posterior 
part. It differs somewhat also in the rays, the spots in those of the 
dromas being larger, and generally better defined. The outline differs 
in being less elongated, being disposed to be more oblique or more 
transverse. In regard to the structure of the animal, I am not prepared 
to say that it differs from that of the irroratus.* Not having had an 
opportunity to examine the animal, I can only judge by analogy, which 
would, I think, induce one to conclude that the same curious pendent 
oviducts would be found in both. I hope to be able to procure from 
professor Troost a specimen in that period of gestation. 



Unio Troostensis. Plate X. fig. 30. 

Testa scalend, cuneatd, obliqud, valde insequilaterali ; valvidis antice crassiori- 
bus; natibus subterminalibus ; epidermide luteold, radiis capillaribus multis ; den- 
tibus cardinalibus elevatis, cristatis ; lateralibus subrectis ; margaritd albd et iri- 
descente. 

Shell scaleniform, wedge shaped, oblique, very inequilateral ; valves thicker ante- 
riorly ; beaks nearly terminal ; epidermis yellowish, rilled with numerous capillary 
rays ; cardinal teeth elevated, crested ; lateral teeth nearly straight ; nacre pearly white 
and iridescent. 

Hab. Cumberland River. Professor Troost. 

My Cabinet. 
Cabinet of Professor Troost. 



* See vol. iii. p. 271. 



72 ON THE NAIADES, 

Diam. -8, Length -1, Breadth 1*9 inches. 

Shell scaleniform, cuneated, oblique, very inequilateral, angular be- 
hind ; substance of the shell thick before, thinner behind ; beaks ele- 
vated and rounded ; epidermis very finely wrinkled, shining, yellowish 
brown with numerous green flexuous capillary rays over the whole 
disk ; ligament rather short and thick ; cardinal teeth elevated, crenate, 
deeply cleft in the left valve, and emerging from a pit in the right 
valve ; lateral teeth long and nearly straight ; anterior cicatrices distinct ; 
posterior cicatrices nearly distinct; dersal cicatrices situated in the 
centre of the cavity of the beaks ; cavity of the beaks very shallow ; 
nacre beautifully pearly white and iridescent. 

Remarks. — I owe to the great kindness of professor Troost the ex- 
amination of his select specimens, which he most obligingly sent to 
me for that purpose. Among them were two specimens of this rare 
and beautiful species, unsurpassed by any other in the delicacy and 
exquisite beauty of its rays. In general form it approaches the scale- 
nius (Rafinesque), but differs from it in the form of the rays altogether. 
It differs also in colour and in having the beaks less retuse. In dedi- 
cating this rare and beautiful species to my friend, professor Troost, I 
do him but an act of simple justice. His constant efforts in the pro- 
motion of the physical sciences are known and acknowledged, and his 
investigation in this branch of conchology will do much to illustrate 
its history in his adopted state. 



Unio perdix. Plate XI. fig. 31. 

Testa ellipticd, postice subangulatd, subsequilaterali. inflatd, transversa ; valvu- 
lis subcrassis ; epidermide luteold, radiis irregulariter interruptis ; dentibus car- 
dinalibus elevatis ; lateralibus prope eorum fines majoribus ; margaritd albd et 
iridescente. 

Shell elliptical, subangular behind, nearly equilateral, inflated, transverse ; valves 
rather thick ; epidermis yellowish with irregularly interrupted rays; cardinal teeth 
elevated ; lateral teeth larger near their termination ; nacre pearly white and iri- 
descent. 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 73 

Hab. Harpeth River, Tennessee. Professor Troost. 

My Cabinet. 

Cabinet of Professor Troost, Nashville. 

Diam. 1*4, Length 1-9, Breadth 3-1 inches. 

Shell elliptical, subangular behind, nearly equilateral, inflated, trans- 
verse ; substance of the shell rather thick ; beaks slightly elevated and 
without undulations at tip; ligament short and thick; epidermis yel- 
lowish with irregularly interrupted rays over the whole disk; cardinal 
teeth elevated, double in the left valve and single in the right; lateral 
teeth enlarged and disposed to be bladed at the termination ; anterior 
cicatrices distinct; posterior cicatrices confluent; dorsal cicatrices situ- 
ated along the base of the cardinal tooth and under the plate between 
the cardinal and lateral teeth ; cavity of the beaks wide and obtusely 
angulate; nacre pearly white, extending only far enough to leave a 
broad horn coloured border. 

Remarks. — This species was among the shells sent to me by professor 
Troost. To judge from the few specimens I have seen, I should sup- 
pose it varied much from age as well as locality. One of my speci- 
mens is old and very large, scarcely presenting a ray. In this state it 
closely resembles the U. ohovatus (nobis), but is rather more trans- 
verse. The younger and more perfect specimens approach more 
closely to the U. crassus (Say), but are more inflated, and differ in the 
rays, which are broken into irregular spots, not entirely dissimilar to 
the plumage of the partridge. It has some resemblance to the U. pie- 
ties herein described, but is not compressed like that species, and diners 
in the rays. In some specimens the teeth are disposed to be pinkish. 




Unio Pictus. Plate XI. fig. 32. 

Testa ellipticd, compressd, insequilaterali ; valvulis subtenuibus ; natibus com- 
pressis et ad apices undulatis ; epidermide luted, radiis tenebroso-viridibus inter- 
ruptis ; dentibus cardinalibus parvis ; lateralibus longis et subcurvis ; margaritd 
alba et iridescente. 

VOL.. V. T 



74 ON THE NAIADES, 

Shell elliptical, compressed, inequilateral ; valves rather thin ; beaks compressed and 
undulated at tip ; epidermis yellow with interrupted dark green rays ; cardinal teeth 
small ; lateral teeth long and slightly curved ; nacre pearly white and iridescent. 

Hab. Harpeth River, Tennessee. Professor Troost. 

My Cabinet. 

Cabinet of Professor Troost. 

Diam. *8, Length 1-6, Breadth 2*6 inches. 

Shell elliptical, compressed, inequilateral; substance of the shell 
rather thin, thicker before ; beaks compressed and finely undulated at 
the tip ; ligament short and rather thick ; epidermis fine yellow with 
numerous oblique interrupted rays, which are strongly pencilled at the 
commencement of each stage of growth ; cardinal teeth very small and 
erect; lateral teeth long and slightly curved, in the left valve enlarged 
near the termination ; anterior cicatrices distinct ; posterior cicatrices 
confluent ; dorsal cicatrices in the centre of the cavity of the beaks, and 
deeply impressed ; cavity of the beaks very shallow and rounded ; nacre 
pearly white and iridescent. 

Remarks. — This species, so beautiful and so peculiar in its painted 
exterior, I owe to the kindness of professor Troost. The fine specimen 
figured belongs to the museum of that gentleman in Nashville, and I 
am indebted to him for the loan of it to insert it here. It belongs to 
a group, the peculiar character of which seems to be in the singular 
interruption of the rays, which are obsolete, except at the commence- 
ment of each stage of growth, where they are strongly pencilled with 
green. The U. planulatus (nobis), U. patulus (nobis) and U. perdix 
(herein described) belong to this group. The U. pictus has some re- 
semblance to the U. cariosus (Say), but differs in being more com- 
pressed, and in having rays over the whole disk. It perhaps more 
closely resembles the younger specimens of U. crassus (Say). It dif- 
fers, however, in being thinner, smaller, and in the character of the 
rays. 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 75 



Symphynota discoidea. Plate XI. fig. 33. 

Testa subrhombed, compressd, transversa, insequilaterali, valvulis tenuissimis, 
postice connatis ; natibus paulum undulatis, compressis ; dentibus in valvuld 
utrdque lineam simplicem facientibus ; margaritd alba et iridescente. 

Shell subrhomboidal, compressed, transverse, inequilateral ; valves very thin, con- 
nate behind ; beaks slightly undulated, compressed ; teeth in both valves forming a 
simple line ; nacre white and iridescent. 

Hab. .... * G. B. Sowerby. 

My Cabinet. 

Cabinet of Dr Burrough. 

Cabinet of W. Hyde. 

Diam. 1*2, Length 2-4, Breadth 3-9 inches. 

Shell subrhomboidal, compressed, transverse, inequilateral, finely 

wrinkled ; substance of the shell very thin ; posterior slope elevated 

into a moderately high wing, which is connate ; beaks very slightly 

undulated, compressed ; ligament linear ; epidermis dark brown ; teeth 

in both valves forming a simple, continuous, fine curve line ; anterior 

and posterior cicatrices both distinct; dorsal cicatrices situated in the 

centre of the cavity of the beaks ; cavity of the beaks almost none : 

nacre white and iridescent. 

Remarks. — I owe to the kindness of G. B. Sowerby, Esq. the spe- 
cimen here described. He procured it of " a dealer from Holland," 
and its habitat is unknown. It has the characters of an eastern shell, 
and probably came from Java. In the outline of the margin it resem- 
bles the Symphynota magnified (described in this memoir), but differs 
from it in being compressed and in the possession of teeth. In the 
teeth it has a stronger resemblance to the S. hialata (nobis) than to 
any other species. It is, however, less defined, and the curve is less 
regular, the posterior portion being nearly straight. In the elevation 
of the wing it differs totally. Our present shell forms an interesting 

* Dr Burrough has recently obtained it in the rivers of China, and to him I owe the fine 
specimen figured. 



76 ON THE NAIADES, 

link in the gradual change of the characters of the teeth. It ap- 
proaches that division of the Naiades which do not possess teeth, more 
closely than any species which has come under my notice. 



Anodonta lato-marginata. Plate XII. fig. 34. 

Testa obovatd, transversa, insequilaterali ; intus margine lata et cornea; sinu 
longo et in partem internam disci vergente ; valvulis crassis ; epidermide rubido- 
fuscd ; margarita alba et iridescente. 

Shell obovate, transverse, inequilateral, interior with a broad horn coloured border; 
sinus long, and pointed towards the interior of the disk ; valves thick ; epidermis red- 
dish brown ; nacre pearly white and iridescent. 

Hab. River Parana, South America. Dr Burrough. 

My Cabinet. 

Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Diam. 1-5, Length 2-5, Breadth 3-5 inches. 

Shell obovate, transverse, inequilateral, inflated, interior with a broad 
horn coloured border ; sinus long, and pointed to the interior of the 
disk; substance of the shell thick: beaks somewhat elevated; ligament 
long and thick; epidermis reddish brown, finely wrinkled, and some- 
times obscurely rayed; anterior cicatrices distinct; posterior cicatrices 
confluent ; palleal cicatrices almost imperceptible ; dorsal cicatrices ap- 
parently none; cavity of the beaks shallow and subangular; nacre 
pearly white and iridescent, extending only to the broad horn coloured 
border. 

Remarks. — In the collection of Dr Burrough there are several spe- 
cimens of this species, some of which are young and more rotund than 
that figured here. It presents several characters unusual in the species 
of this genus, so far as our knowledge extends. The horn coloured 
border is even broader than that of the tenebricosa herein described, 
and the apparent absence of the dorsal cicatrices I have never noticed 
before in any species of the family. The sinus of this species is very 
remarkable, as well as that of the tenebricosa. It does not, however, 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 77 

like that species, curve towards the cavity of the beaks ; it stretches in 
a point towards the centre of the cavity of the disk. In general out- 
line it resembles the An. Patagonia (Lam.), but diners in being less 
rotund, less inflated, and in the nacre being white. 



Anodonta Blainvilliana. Plate XII. fig. 35. 

Testa ovatd, inflatd, valde insequilaterali, antice angulatd, postice latissimd, 
ad marginem anteriorem hianti; cicatrice marginali lata et postice valde incurva ; 
valvulis subcrassis ; natibus prominulis ; margine dorsali recta; margaritd sal- 
monis colore tinctd. 

Shell ovate, inflated, very inequilateral, angular before, very wide posteriorly, gaping 
at the anterior and posterior margins; palleal cicatrix broad and much incurved poste- 
riorly; valves rather thick ; beaks somewhat prominent; dorsal line straight; nacre 
salmon and pearly. 

Hab. Chili? 

My Cabinet. 
Diam. 1*3, Length 1-9, Breadth 3 inches. 

Shell ovate, inflated, very inequilateral, angular before, very wide 
posteriorly, the greatest length being perpendicular from the extreme 
posterior end of the ligament to the basal margin, gaping much at the 
anterior margin, and rather less at the posterior margin ; substance of 
the shell somewhat thick ; beaks rather prominent ; dorsal line straight, 
having a slight elevation under the beak like an incipient tooth ; ante- 
rior cicatrices complicated but distinct ; posterior cicatrices wide and 
confluent ; dorsal cicatrices numerous and stretched in a line across the 
cavity of the beaks ; marginal cicatrix wide, deep and much incurved 
near to the posterior cicatrix; nacre salmon, beautifully pearly and iri- 
descent. 

Remarks. — I accidentally met with this interesting shell at a shop 

in Havre last October, a few days previously td my embarkation. The 

two valves belong to different individuals, but they very nearly match. 

They have both been slightly mutilated by an attempt to beautify 

vol. v. — u 



78 ON THE NAIADES. 

them, the epidermis having been almost completely removed. What 
remains indicates it to be greenish, and is sufficient to warrant its being 
represented in the figure with a perfect epidermis — the ligament has 
also been destroyed. I was informed by the dealer that it came from 
Chili; such authority cannot, however, be entirely relied on. The 
cicatrices of this interesting species are very remarkable, particularly 
that of the mantle near the margin ; the palleal impression is wide, 
deeply impressed, and in the posterior part of the shell deflected towards 
the centre of the cavity, somewhat similar to the excavation of the 
palleal cicatrix of the genera Galathea and Mactra. The character of 
this cicatrix is different from that of any species of the family Naiades 
I have seen, and this peculiarity induces me to believe that the animal, 
when found, may prove to be different from that of the Anodonta. 
Should this be the case, it will belong of course to a new genus, for 
which I propose the name of Columba. It somewhat resembles the 
An. exotica (Lam.). It is, however, narrower before and broader be- 
hind than that shell. It gapes anteriorly and posteriorly more than 
any of the Naiades with which I am acquainted. It is perhaps most 
nearly allied to the Anodon crassus (Swainson), but differs in the dor- 
sal line being straight, the nacre being pearly salmon, as well also in 
the peculiar character of the palleal cicatrix. 



Anodonta tenebricosa. Plate XII. fig. 36. 

Testa ellipticd, transversa 1 , insequilaterd, intus margine lata et corned; sinii 
incurvo ; valvulis crassis ; epidermide tenebroso fused ; margaritd alba subcseruled 
purpura nubild, iridescente. 

Shell elliptical, transverse, inequilateral, interior with a broad horn coloured border; 
sinus incurved ; valves thick; epidermis dark brown ; nacre pearly white, clouded with 
bluish purple, iridescent. 

Hab. River Parana, South America. Dr Burrough. 

My Cabinet. 

Cabinet of Dr Burrough. 

Cabinet of the. Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 79 

Diam. 1*5, Length 1-9, Breadth 3-3 inches. 

Shell elliptical, transverse, inequilateral, with a broad horn coloured 
border, emarginate at base ; sinus incurved ; substance of the shell thick ; 
beaks scarcely prominent; ligament long and thick; epidermis dark 
olive brown, wrinkled, obscurely rayed on the posterior slope ; anterior 
cicatrices distinct ; posterior cicatrices confluent ; palleal cicatrix large 
and partially tinted with bluish purple ; dorsal cicatrix situated in the 
centre of the cavity of the beaks ; cavity of the beaks very shallow : 
nacre pearly white clouded with bluish purple, extending only to the 
broad horn coloured border, iridescent. 

Remarks.— This curious species is from the collection sent to the 
Academy of Natural Sciences by Dr Burrough. It diners distinctly 
from any species known to me. The horn coloured broad border, and 
the absence of nacreous matter on this part is very remarkable, as is 
also the close approximation to a perfect ellipsis, the posterior and an- 
terior margins being nearly of the same curve. The clouded bluish 
purple colour I have never seen in the nacre of any other species. The 
sinus is so peculiar in the two specimens examined, that I would 
impress it as important in the character of this species. In the Jin. 
exotica (Lam.), a South American species, the sinus is generally of 
the form of an equilateral triangle, the inferior angle being sharp and 
well defined. In the present species the sinus is still more remark- 
able, curving in towards the cavity of the beak and terminating with 
quite an acute angle. The line of the opening of the two specimens 
is curved and not a plane, as usual with the Naiades ; and the right 
beak and margin anterior to it, overwrap in a small degree the left 
beak and valve. In the old specimen this extension of the margin 
passes the other more than an eighth of an inch — consequently the 
shell might almost be said to be inequivalve. In its general characters 
this species most resembles the sinuosa of Lamarck. 



80 ON THE NAIADES 



Anodonta Mortoniana. Plate XIII. fig. 37. 

Testd subellipticd, postice sub-biangulata, transversa, valde insequilaterali ; val- 
vules crassis ; epidermide perfused ; clivo umboniali sulcato ; margaritd argented 
et iridescenti. 

Shell subelliptical, sub-biangular behind, transverse, very inequilateral ; valves 
thick ; epidermis intensely brown ; umbonial slope furrowed ; nacre silvery and iri- 
descent. 

Hab. River Parana, South America. Dr Burrough. 
Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 
Cabinet of Dr Burrough. 
Diam. 1*2, Length 1-6, Breadth 3 inches. 

Shell subelliptical, sub-biangulate behind ; transverse, very inequi- 
lateral, somewhat inflated, furrowed from the beak to the posterior 
margin along the umbonial slope; substance of the shell thick; beaks 
retuse and scarcely prominent; ligament long and narrow; epidermis 
intensely brown and finely wrinkled; anterior cicatrices distinct; pos- 
terior cicatrices confluent; dorsal cicatrices apparently none; cavity of 
the beaks subangular and shallow; nacre silvery white and iridescent. 

Remarks. — A single specimen of this species, which is distinct from 
any described Anodonta I have seen, was sent to the Academy by Dr 
Burrough. It is remarkably thick, silvery and iridescent, and has an 
exceedingly dark epidermis. It most resembles, perhaps, the elon- 
gatus of Swainson. It is less transverse than that shell, rounded only 
anteriorly; it differs in not having "a strong flesh coloured tinge," and 
is by no means so bright a brown as his beautiful figure. 

Named after S. G. Morton, M.D., corresponding secretary of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 81 



Melania aculeus. Plate XIX. fig. 72. 

Testa aculo-elevatd, Isevissimd, tenebroso-corned ; apice acutissimo ; anfractibus 
circiter duodecim, subconvexis ; labro expasso. 

Shell acutely elevated, very smooth, dark horn colour ; apex very acute ; whorls 
about twelve, somewhat convex ; labrum spread out. 

Hab. Java? 

My Cabinet. 
Diam *6, Length 2 inches. 

Remarks. — I purchased this, with some other of the shells described 
in this memoir, from the collection brought from Java by Mr Shilla- 
ber. It is remarkable for its attenuated form and tapering spire. It 
is more than usually spread out at the base. The substance of the 
shell is thin and bluish white. The last whorl is much enlarged. 
The aperture occupies about one-third of the length of the shell. 



Lymnjea imperialis. Plate XIX. fig. 73. 

Testa ovato-ventricosd, pellucidd, tenidssimd, albido-corned, subcoronatd ; apice 
obtuso ; anfractibus quaternis, inflatis, ultimo maximo ; aperturd magna, ovatd : 
labro valde extenso. 

Shell ovato-ventricose, diaphanous, very thin, light horn colour, subcoronate ; apex 
obtuse ; whorls four, inflated, the last very large ; aperture large, ovate ; outer lip 
much extended. 

Hab. South America? 

My Cabinet. 
Diam. *9, Length 1*4 inches. 

Remarks. — I accidentally met with this rare and interesting shell 

at a dealer's in Paris. I saw no other specimen in any of the great 

collections in Europe. The person from whom I obtained it informed 

me it came from South America. It is more inflated than any spe- 

vol. v. — v 



82 ON THE NAIADES, 

cies with which I am acquainted ; but what eminently distinguishes 
it is the subcoronate apex which, as far as we yet know, is peculiar to 
this species. The body whorl nearly envelopes the superior ones. 
When examined by the microscope, transverse striae are observed to 
cause numerous minute depressions on its surface. 



Melanopsis princeps. Plate XIX. fig. 74. 

Testa acuto-elevatd, Isevi, rufo-fuscd, obsolete multimaculatd ; inferiori anfractu 
carinato, dimidio basali transversim striato ; apice acuto ; anfractibus plus minus 
quatuordecim, plants ; aperturd quintd parte tests. 

Shell acutely elevated, smooth, transversely striate on the lower half of the body 
whorl, which is carinate, reddish brown, with numerous indistinct spots ; apex acute ; 
whorls about fourteen, flat aperture one-fifth the length of the shell. 

Hab. Cape of Good Hope. 

My Cabinet. 
Diam. *6, Length 2-1 inches. 

Remarks. — This is the most remarkable species of the genus which 
I have examined. It diners from any described species in its great 
elevation, in the flatness of its whorls, in its being covered with indis- 
tinct spots, and in the absence of a large callus on the superior part of 
the inner lip, as well also as in the great number of its whorls. The 
spots are peculiar in being chain-like, alternately darker and lighter. 
The operculum is horny, like that of the genus Melania. 



Melanopsis maculata. Plate XIX. fig. 75. 

Testd fusiformi, tenebroso-olivaced, intus fasciatd ; epidermide maculata; an- 
fractibus quaternis ; basi subtruncatd ; columella sine callo superno. 

Shell fusiform, dark olive, banded on the inside, and spotted in the epidermis ; 
whorls four ; base but slightly truncate; columella not thickened above. 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 83 

Hab. Peru. Lieutenant Humphreys. 

My Cabinet. 

Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Diam. -3, Length -5 inches. 

Remarks. — The genus Melanopsis, a few years since, presented, to our 
knowledge, only two species. These were described by Lamarck. The 
rapid advancement of our science has recently brought to light many 
new ones. I have eight species in my own cabinet, and in this memoir 
I add two species to the ten now known. These two are peculiarly 
and beautifully spotted in the epidermis. The two specimens brought 
by lieutenant Humphreys have each four transverse purple bands on 
the inside, and the dark olive epidermis is filled with very distinct in- 
tensely dark brown quadrate spots. This species, and the prineeps 
herein described, form a division in the genus Melanopsis of Lamarck 
which genus should be altered, leaving out the character of the callus 
on the upper part of the columella. Neither of these has that char- 
acter, but, notwithstanding, should not be removed to a new genus, as 
it is, independent of that, a perfectly natural one. 



Auricula fuscagula. Plate XIX. fig. 76. 

Testa fusiformi, albidd, pellucidd ; suturis impressis et albo-lineatis ; labro late 
reflexo ; guld fused et dentibus novenis munitd. 

Shell fusiform-, whitish, diaphanous ; sutures impressed and presenting a white line ; 
outer lip widely reflected ; throat dark brown and furnished with nine teeth. 

Hab. Brazil. 

My Cabinet. 
Cabinet of P. H. Nicklin. 
Diam. -4, Length 1*1 inches. 

Remarks. — This is a very remarkable and interesting species. In 
its general form and aperture it resembles a Clausilia. Like some 
species of that genus its mouth is studded with teeth. Of the nine, 



84 ON THE NAIADES, 

seven are on the outer lip — the last of these and the first on the colum- 
ella are the largest. The deep brown of the throat is visible through 
the shell. In some specimens there is a finely mottled appearance 
over the lower whorls of the shell. The white line along the suture is 
placed on the upper part of the whorl. The outline of the shell is 
remarkably fusiform. 



Cyclostoma striata. Plate XIX. fig. 77. 

Testa depressd, planulatd, multistriatd, alba, pellucidd, latissime umbilicatd ; 
anfractibus quaternis ; apice acuminato, rufo ; labro acuto ; operculo corneo 
tenuique. 

Shell depressed, flattened, much striate, white, translucent, very widely umbilicate ; 
whorls four ; apex red and pointed ; lip sharp ; operculum thin and horny. 

Hab. Peru. Lieutenant Humphreys. 
Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 
Diam. -9, Length *5 of an inch. 

Remarks. — This shell was brought by lieutenant Humphreys from 
South America, and presented, with many other fine specimens, to the 
Academy. It resembles the C. Jamaicensis (Fer.) ; but is much larger, 
and has finer striae. The rotundity of the mouth is slightly modified 
by the junction of the superior part with the columella. 



Achatina Vanuxemensis. Plate XIX. fig. 78. 

Testd fusiformi, tenui, pellucidd, longitudinaliter et transversim striatd, luted, 
in anfractum infernum obsolete albo-maculatd ; suturis granulatis ; canali baseos 
curvo. 

Shell fusiform, thin, pellucid, longitudinally and transversely striate, ochre coloured, 
with indistinct white spots on the body whorl ; sutures granulate ; channel curved at 
the base. 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 85 

Hab. Mexico. Professor Vanuxem. 

My Cabinet. 

Cabinet of Professor Vanuxem. 

Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Cabinet of P. H. Nicklin. 

Diam. 1*2, Length 2-5 inches. 

Remarks. — Among the shells brought from Mexico by professor 
Vanuxem, was this fine Achatina, which belongs to Lamarck's second 
division of this genus. It very closely resembles the Buccinum striatum 
(Chem.), Polyphemus glans* (Say), Glandina (Say). It differs from 
it in having crenulated sutures, and in having fine transverse lines, as 
well as longitudinal striae. The indistinct opake white spots, which 
are more frequent on the front of the body whorl, are, I believe, pecu- 
liar to this species. It is larger by one-third than any individual of 
the striata which I have seen. 



In concluding these descriptions and observations, I will take ad- 
vantage of the opportunity to express my thanks to those gentlemen 
who have kindly assisted me with new shells and rendered other 
friendly offices. Among these I have been particularly obliged by 
Philip H. Nicklin, Esq., William Cooper, Esq. and professor Troost. 
To the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia an acknowledge- 
ment is due, for the liberal and unhesitating vote which it passed, to 
permit me to describe for our Transactions the new species in their 
splendid and highly useful collection. 

I will take this opportunity also to correct the habitat of the Unio 
brevidens (Vol. IV. page 75), which professor Troost thinks has not been 
found in the Ohio, but only in the Cumberland. The specimen which 
Mr Cooper kindly gave to me to be described, came, I believe, originally 
from professor Troost. The specimen figured was not more than half 
grown. The older individuals usually have an arched ridge along the 

* Cochlicopa rosea (Fer.). It should now be called fi.cha.tina striata, unless the generic 
name be changed, the propriety of which I doubt. 
VOL. V. W 



86 ON THE NAIADES, 

umbonial slope near to the margin, the edges of each growth being there 
dentate. In some specimens this is so strongly marked as to resemble 
a thick cord. The Jlrcxformis, professor T. doubts being in Tennessee 
river. He found it only in the Cumberland. He was, I believe, the 
first person who sent this species to New York and this city. Some 
fine old specimens, recently received from that gentleman, exhibit a 
diameter of a most extraordinary nature, as well also an almost perfect 
flatness of the posterior slope. My oldest specimen, when placed on 
a plane, will rest both on the base and on that slope. The specimen 
figured by me, was not more than two-thirds grown, and was then the 
best specimen I had seen, and I supposed it to be an adult. 



OBSERVATIONS ON LAMARCK'S NAIADES. 

Having had the opportunity while in Paris recently, to inspect most 
of the cabinets to which Lamarck refers in his description of the 
Naiades, I seized the opportunity to examine the individual specimens 
from which he made his descriptions ; and having made notes on the 
spot, I feel great confidence as to the facts, and trust that my judgment 
as to the decisions on his species will be found to be correct. 

In pointing out the errors of this great zoologist, we must not be 
astonished at their number, nor should the slightest shadow fall upon 
his merited and exalted reputation. We should rather think of the 
means within his power, the poverty of the materials with which he 
worked, and above all, the unfortunate ophthalmia which afflicted his 
declining years, and which he deplores in the advertisement of the 
sixth volume of his Hist. Nat. des Animaux sans Vertebres. 

TJnio sinuata. This is a true species, but Klein is entitled to the 
name which he gave first to it, viz. crassissima.* It has been consi- 
dered by the conchologists of this country (and I certainly was of the 

* See Transactions of the Linnean Society of Bourdeaux, Vol. II. p. 42. 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 87 

same opinion) to be the Mya margaritifera of Linnaeus. It has all 
the characters of this species, with the exception of the addition of the 
thick lateral tooth, which our author does not describe, hut could 
scarcely have failed to have observed. Being possessed of this tooth, 
it is of course a true Unio. Pfeiffer describes an old margaritifera 
under the name of sinuata. He says " dente cardinali valido, subcon- 
ico, laterali nullo." In the north of Europe, (for the sinuata exists 
only in the south) he had not, perhaps, like ourselves, until recently, an 
opportunity of examining the true sinuata of Lamarck. 

Unio elongata. This is the true Mya margaritifera of Linnaeus 
and other authors. The Masmodonta arcuata of Barnes is its ana- 
logue in this country. It inhabits the north of Europe, lake Ladoga, 
Norway, &c. 

Unio crassidens. The specimen quoted from Lamarck's own col- 
lection, which is now in the possession of the Duke de Rivoli, is the 
cuneatus of Barnes. Var. a is the trapezoides (nobis), a shell very 
different in its general characters, being always folded. Crassidens 
therefore has precedence of cuneatus. 

Unio Peruviana. This is the plicatus of Le Sueur, now so well 
known in all our collections. Valenciennes says, Dombey's shell re- 
mains in the museum, and that Lamarck described a North American 
shell in error. The figure referred to by Lamarck, in the Ency. 
Methodique, is certainly the well known plicatus of our western waters. 

Unio purpurata. Lamarck supposed the specimens he examined 
to have come from Africa. I examined the specimen cited, in the 
Duke de Rivoli's collection, as well, also, one in that of Baron de 
Ferussac. These specimens have been polished, and have, most pro- 
bably, been in the cabinet of Paris for twenty or thirty years ; for, few 
Uniones were admitted into the cabinet, at that time, without the loss 
of their superficial protection. It is the ater (nobis), and, most pro- 
bably, was taken from the neighbourhood of New Orleans, while in 
possession of the French. The specimen described and figured in one 
of my former memoirs, came from Port Gibson, below Natchez ; and I 
subsequently received some from the vicinity of New Orleans and from 
Claiborne, Alabama. I therefore, willingly yield the name to Lamarck.* 

* In the " American Conchology," No. V., Mr Say re-describes and re-figures the Unio 



88 ON THE NAIADES, 

Unio ligdmentina. The specimen in the Garden of Plants is the 
U. crassus of Say. 

Unio obliqua. in the same collection is the U. undatus of Barnes. 

Unio retusa. This is the U. torsus (Rafinesque). The locality given 
is Nova Scotia ; the correctness of which I douht much. It is, as yet, 
known to exist only in our western waters. 

Unio rarisulcata. The specimen in the Garden of Plants is the 
complanalus (Soland.), purpureus of Say. 

Unio coarctata. The specimen in the collection of the Duke de 
Rivoli is the complanatus (Soland. ). The observation of Lamarck, that 
" it is the analogue of our U. margaritifera," (he ought to have said 
elongata, for he does not use the name of margaritifera) must be an 
error. The American shell, described by Barnes as Masmodonta ar- 
cuata, is the unquestionable analogue of the true Mya margaritifera 
(Linn.), and a very different shell, not having a lateral tooth, and 
belonging to Schumacker's genus Margaritana (Say's Alasmodonta). 

Unio purpurascens. This is also a complanatus, in the museum of 
the Garden of Plants. 

Unio radiata. The specimen at the Garden of Plants is the true 
radiatus. The Unio ochraceus (Say), given as a synonym e, is a very 
distinct species. 

Unio brevialis. The specimen at the Garden of Plants resembles so 
closely the U. littoralis, that I am induced to believe it never came 
from the Isle of France, and that it is of European origin. That in 
Baron de Ferussac's cabinet is certainly an old littoralis. The shell 
figured by Crouch, under the name brevialis, is entirely distinct. 

Unio rhombula. The specimen now in the cabinet of the Duke de 
Rivoli* is a young and bad specimen of the complanatus, and certainly 
from the United States, and not Senegal. Var. b, in the cabinet of 
Valenciennes, I did not see. 



ater, under the name of U. lugubris, alleging that the name ater is " preoccupied by Nilsson 
for a very distinct species." Mr S. does not seem to be aware, that Nilsson's ater is only a 
variety of U. Batava, of Maton and Racket ; and, therefore, could not affect my claim. We 
must both yield to the prior claim of Lamarck. 

* I ought to say that the Duke keeps the cabinet of Lamarck intact, as much as possible, and, 
therefore, the shells quoted may be relied on as being the same as described by Lamarck. 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 89 

Unio carinifera is also the complanatus, which inhabits so large a 
space of our country east and west of the Alleghany mountains. 

Unio Georgina is also from the mine complanatus. 

Unio clava. This is the scaknia of Rafinesque : modioliformis of 
Say. 

Unio recta is Barnes's prselongus. Lamarck has precedence. 

Unio naviformis. This is the cylindricus of Say, who has prece- 
dence. 

Unio glabrata. This is the complanatus. The specimen in the 
Duke de Rivoli's cabinet is most likely from our eastern waters. 

Unio nasuta. The specimen from which this description was made, 
is now in the museum of the Garden of Plants. It is a young gibbosus 
of Barnes. It is not the same with Say's nasutus, as Lamarck sus- 
pected it to be. As Lamarck described the shell before Barnes, he 
has a claim for the species ; but having used a name pre-occupied by 
another shell, he loses it. I therefore would continue Mr Barnes's 
name gibbosus. 

Unio ovata is the ovatus of Say. Var. Z>, I was not enabled to see 
— from the description I presume it to be a variety of occidens (nobis). 

Unio rotundata. The specimen shown to me by Baron de Ferussac, 
whose cabinet is cited for one. of the two specimens seen by Lamarck, 
is a small suborbiculata (Lam.), a large specimen of which the baron 
had the goodness to give me, and I have reason to believe it to be the 
individual cited by Lamarck. It is the subglobosus (nobis), and the 
glebulus of Say. 

Unio littoralis. This interesting species inhabits most parts of Eu- 
rope. It has been brought also from the Tigris by some of the French 
scientific expeditions, and I owe to the kindness of the administration 
of the Garden of Plants a fine specimen from Bagdad. The specimens 
from this locality are less transverse, and Lamarck considered the dif- 
ference sufficient to found a species, semirugata, by which name they 
are labelled in that institution. After examining carefully suites from 
Europe and Asia with Baron de Ferussac, he accorded with me in 
opinion, that there was not sufficient difference to warrant their sepa- 
ration. 

vol. v. — x 



90 ON THE NAIADES, 

After examining numerous specimens in Europe of the littoralis, I 
have strong doubts if the shell described by me in a former memoir, 
under the name of incurvus, be not a peculiar variety of it. It cer- 
tainly has a marked similarity to a fine transverse specimen of littoralis. 
The specimen from which my description was made, was sent to me 
as a " non descript from Gibraltar," by Mrs Mawe. I had not at that 
time seen very fine specimens of the littoralis, and it did not strike me 
that there was a similarity to such as I had. While in London, that 
excellent conchologist, Mr G. B. Sowerby, showed me a specimen 
precisely similar to mine, and which I think he informed me was from 
the collection of the veteran Humphreys. In one valve was marked 
in ink "Brazil;" in the other the name of the person who is supposed 
to have brought it from that country. 

Unio semirugata. The specimen which I examined in the Duke 
de Rivoli's cabinet, is the one mentioned as being in Lamarck's own 
cabinet. It is a young littoralis, with rather more undulations than 
usual. 

Unio nana. I saw this species only in the collection of Baron de 
Ferussac. All the specimens were old and depauperated, and their 
similarity to littoralis so great, as to induce me to believe that when 
better individuals are procured, they will easily be referred to that 
species. 

Unio delodonta. The specimen cited, and which I examined in the 
cabinet of the Duke de Rivoli, I suspect to be the lacteolus (nobis). 
It has the beaks eroded, and therefore does not present the peculiar 
character of radiating folds at the point of the beaks, which is conse- 
quently omitted in Lamarck's description. 

Unio sulcidens. In the Duke de Rivoli's collection — it is a com- 
pressed eomplanatus (Soland.), from the Connecticut River, where 
this species is more disposed to assume that character than in any 
river in the United States with which I am acquainted. 

Unio rostrata. This is one of the numerous species made from the 
pictorum of authors. It is merely an elongated variety of that species 
in all the cabinets where I have seen it in Europe, 

Unio Batava. This is a distinct species from pictorum. Baron de 
Ferussac thinks that Maton and Racket are entitled to the species. 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 91 

Lamarck cites Schroeter first. I have not an opportunity to examine 
Schroeter's work. 

Unio nodulosa. This is a young individual of the ovata of Dono- 
van, and no doubt the specimen cited never was out of Europe. The 
ovata is emphatically an European shell, and has served, like the pic- 
torum, to which it has some resemblance, to make numerous species. 
Lamarck's habitat (lake Champlain) is certainly an error. 

Unio varicosa. The specimen described by Lamarck is still in his 
original cabinet. It is a young and bad specimen of the Masmodonta 
marginata (Say). From the description 1 formerly supposed it to be 
Jllas. undulata (Say). 

Unio granosa. The only specimen of this beautiful and distinct 
species I saw in Europe, is in the Garden of Plants. It is unique in 
the possession of disks completely covered with minute granular ele- 
vations. 

Unio depressa. The specimen in the Duke de Rivoli's collection is 
marked "from Peru," and is a very different species from one which 
I procured in Paris, marked by Lesson as depressa from New Holland. 
Lamarck's description is so extremely vague, that it almost equally 
well applies to both. The shell from Peru, of which I have several 
specimens, is more transverse than that from New Holland, which I 
presume should be considered the true depressa. 

Unio Virginiana. This is a bad specimen of radiatus, in the Duke 
de Rivoli's collection. 

Unio luteola. From the description and locality, I formerly sup- 
posed this to be Say's cariosus. On examining the specimen at the 
Garden of Plants, cited by Lamarck, I found it to be a true siliquoi- 
deus of Barnes, which sometimes approaches the cariosus. There 
must be an error in the locality given by Lamarck, as this species does 
not inhabit the waters east of the Alleghany mountains. Lamarck's 
name has precedence to that of Mr Barnes. 

Unio angusta. This is a distinct and interesting species. Its habi- 
tat is unknown, and the only specimen I have seen is in the collection 
at the Garden of Plants. 

Unio mimca. I examined the original specimen in the cabinet of 



92 ON THE NAIADES 



Baron de Ferussac, which Lamarck described, and I convinced the 
Baron that it was only a pictorum. 

Unio cariosa. The two specimens described are both in the cabi- 
net of the Duke de Rivoli. The first is a bad specimen of Say's cario- 
sus. The other (Var. 2) is a bad specimen of the Alasmodonta mar- 
ginata (Say). „ One of the habitats, Lake Erie, is an error ; it is found 
only in our waters east of the Alleghany mountains. 

Unio spuria. This species is mentioned by Lamarck as being in the 
museum of the Garden of Plants. I did not see it there, nor do I 
know it to be in any other collection. 

Unio australis. The same remarks apply to this species. 

Unio anodontina. I examined the individual described under this 
name in the collection of the Duke de Rivoli. It proved to be a spe- 
cimen of U marginalis, which species is yet known to inhabit only the 
fresh waters of India. Lamarck says it comes from Virginia, which is 
certainly an error. 

Unio suborbiculata. This is only a rotundata, as mentioned before 
in my observations on that species. % 

Hyria avicularis. This is the Mya syrmatophora of Gronovius, 
Gmel., Dill., &c. : avicularis should therefore be abandoned. Lamarck 
is not certain of the habitat of his specimen, but believes it to be from 
Brazil. I have seen in Paris a specimen brought by Spix from that 
country.* 

Hyria corrugata is remarkable for the folds on the umbones, and is 
a very distinct species. — They are both in my cabinet. 

Anodonta cygnea. The well known Mytilus cygneus of Linnaeus 
and others. Of the various forms of this there have been created per- 
haps a dozen different species. 

Anodonta anatina resembles very closely the cygnea, but is most 
probably a distinct species. Poiret asserts that this species is ovipa- 

* This traveller brought also the Castalia ambigua, whrch, Lamarck says, seems to be flu- 
viatile, but which he nevertheless separates from the Naiades, to which it naturally belongs, 
and not to the family Trigoniana. Both the shells are figured in Spix's beautiful work, but 
described with too little attention to previous writers. 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 93 

rous, while the cygnea is viviparous. Should this prove true, they 
must of course be considered distinct. 

Jinodonta sulcata. I saw in the Duke de Rivoli's cabinet the spe- 
cimen described by Lamarck. It is a variety of the A. cygnea. and I 
presume is from Europe. The cygnea has no analogue in the United 
States, with which I am acquainted. 

Anodonta fragilis. Baron de Ferussac gave me a specimen of this 
species, brought by Monsieur Lapylaie from Newfoundland. When 
I first saw it in Paris, I recognized it instantly to be similar to speci- 
mens I had found in lake Skaneateles, nearly six years since, but which 
I had not yet published. 

Anodonta rubens. This interesting species is perhaps the most pon- 
derous of tha genus. It inhabits the Nile as well as the Senegal. My 
specimen, from the latter river, is heavier and more inflated than those 
which I have from the Nile. Deshayes places it in the genus Iridina, 
asserting that the animal differs from the Anodonta, and is similar to 
that of the Iridina. 

Jinodonta crispata. This is a distinct and beautiful species, peculiar 
for its transverse furrows. I owe to the kindness of Baron de Ferussac 
the possession of this rare shell, the habitat of which is Cayenne. 
Lamarck says, " dans les rivieres des regions australes ?" 

Jinodonta uniopsis is a distinct species, and probably from New 
Holland. 

Jinodonta Pennsylvania. I examined the specimen described by 
Lamarck. It is in the cabinet of the Duke de Rivoli, and is the same 
with the undulata of Say, rugosus of Swainson. 

Jinodonta intermedia is a variety of anatina. The intermedia of 
Pfeiffer is a variety of cygnea. 

Jinodonta trapezialis. The specimen described by Lamarck is in 
the Garden of Plants. It is the giganteus of Spix, who figures it in 
his beautiful work. Its habitat is Brazil. Lamarck says, " des eaux 
douces etrangeres a celles de l'Europe?" It is less transverse, and has 
more volume than the following, which it closely resembles. 

Jinodonta exotica. I examined specimens of this species in the 
cabinets of the Duke de Rivoli, Baron de Ferussac and the Garden of 
Plants. Lamarck's habitat says, "les rivieres de ITnde?" I believe 

VOL. V. Y 



94 ON THE NAIADES, 

it comes only from the more southern rivers of South America. My 
specimens, and those I saw in Europe, came from the river La Plata. 
It has a peculiar character, which Lamarck does not notice, in the 
deposit of epidermal matter at different stages of growth, with the nacre 
extending in waved lines, generally from one great cicatrix to the other, 
forming curves parallel with the palleal cicatrix. 

Anodonta glauca is a distinct species, inhabiting Mexico, and figured 
in a recent number of Humboldt's great work. 

Anodonta sinuosa. I saw the specimen described, in Baron de 
Ferussac's cabinet. It is very distinct, and very peculiar in the sinuous 
dorsal line. This species is in my cabinet. 

Anodonta Patagonica. This is also a distinct and very rare species. 
The possession of a specimen I owe to the kindness of Mr G. B. 
Sowerby. 

Iridina exotica. To Baron de Ferussac I owe the possession of this 
species. It appears to differ from the Nilotica in being tuherculated 
along the dorsal line, which is one of Lamarck's generic characters. 
The Nilotica, which I received from the African traveller Monsieur 
Cailliaud, has no crenulations along the dorsal line, but I have seen 
specimens on which a few could be observed. The Clappertoni of 
Denman is a young Nilotica. 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 95 



SECOND SUPPLEMENT. 

Read before the American Philosophical Society, February 7th, 1834. 

Unio Shepardianus. Plate XIII. fig. 38. 

Testa sublanceolatd, transversissimd, valde insequilaterali, antice rotundatd, 
postice obtuso-angulatd, inferue emarginatd. ad latera plamdatd ; clivo umboniali 
elevato ; valvulis subcrassis ; natibus parvis, prope marginem anteriorem positis : 
epidermide tenebroso-fuscd, obsolete radiatd; dente cardinali obliquo, in valvuld 
dextrd unico, in sinistra duplici ; dente laterali longissimo rectoque ; margaritd 
purpurea et iridescente. 

Shell sublanceolate, very transverse, very inequilateral, rounded before, obtusely 
angular behind, emarginate at base, flattened on the sides; umbonial slope elevated ; 
valves somewhat thick ; beaks small and placed near the anterior margin ; epidermis 
dark brown with obsolete rays ; cardinal teeth oblique, single in the right and double 
in the left valve ; lateral teeth very long and straight ; nacre purple and iridescent. 

Hab. Hopeton, near Darien, Georgia. Professor Shepard. 

My Cabinet. 

Cabinet of Professor Shepard. 

Diam. 1, Length 1-4, Breadth 5 inches. 

Shell sublanceolate, very transverse, very inequilateral, rounded be- 
fore, obtusely angular behind, emarginate at base, flattened over the 
umbones and sides ; umbonial slope forming an oblique ridge ; substance 
of the shell rather thick ; beaks small and placed near to the anterior 
margin ; ligament thin and long ; epidermis dark brown, almost black, 
with obsolete rays on the more perfect individuals ; cardinal teeth erect, 
single in the right valve and double in the left ; lateral teeth very long 
and straight ; anterior cicatrices distinct ; posterior cicatrices confluent ; 
dorsal cicatrices in the centre of the cavity of the beaks : cavity of the 
beaks very shallow ; cavity of the shell deep under the umbonial slope : 
nacre beautifully purple and iridescent. 



96 ON THE NAIADES, 

Remarks. — This remarkable species, in its great transverseness and 
outline, has some resemblance to U. Gray anus (nobis). It is much 
more transverse than any species heretofore discovered from this coun- 
try. The purple of the interior is like that of the complanatus (Soland.). 
In one specimen there is a muscular impression near the centre of the 
cavity of the shell, similar to that of the U. trapezoides (nobis). In 
another specimen there are obsolete marks of an impression. The third 
has none that can be distinguished. 

I. am indebted to the great kindness of professor Shepard of New 
Haven for this interesting and curious species, and it is with pleasure 
I dedicate it to him. 



Unio fulvus. Plate XIII. fisr. 39. 



O" 



Testa angusto-ellipticd, insequilaterali, transversa, postice subangulatd ; clivo 
umboniali rotundato ; valvulis tenuiculis ; natibus prominulis ; epidermide luted; 
dent e car dinali obliquo, laterali subcurvo ; margaritd salmonis colore tinctd. 

Shell narrow-elliptical, inequilateral, transverse, subangular behind ; umbonial slope 
rounded ; valves rather thin ; beaks slightly elevated ; epidermis yellow : cardinal teeth 
oblique ; lateral teeth somewhat curved ; nacre salmon. 

Hab , South Carolina. Dr Blanding. 

My Cabinet. 

Cabinet of Dr Blanding. 

Diam. *6, Length -9, Breadth 1-6 inches. 

Shell narrow-elliptical, inequilateral, transverse, slightly inflated ; 
umbonial slope rounded; substance of the shell rather thin; beaks 
slightly elevated, placed towards the anterior margin; ligament thin 
and rather short ; epidermis yellow and yellowish brown ; cardinal teeth 
oblique, short, disposed to be lobed, single in the right and double in 
the left valve ; lateral teeth slightly curved, rather long ; anterior cica- 
trices distinct ; posterior cicatrices confluent; dorsal cicatrices placed in 
the centre of the cavity of the beaks ; cavity of the beaks very shallow ; 
cavity of the shell somewhat deep ; nacre salmon. 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 97 

Remarks. — This species has, perhaps, most resemblance in its exte- 
rior to the marginalis (Lamarck), which comes from the great rivers 
of India. In the interior, however, it diners much. Our shell is of a 
very dark salmon colour. It is also a thicker shell, and the teeth are 
much thicker. In the colour of the epidermis it somewhat resembles 
the lanceolatus (nobis). 



Unio modioliformis. Plate XIII. fig. 40. 

Testa ovatd, transversa, insequilaterali, injiatd, antice angustd, postice lata; 
valvulis tenuissimis ; natibus minutis et fere terminalibus ; dentibus cardinalibus 
parvis, compressis, lateralibus longis curvisque; margaritd subpurpured, valde 
iridescenti. 

Shell ovate, transverse, very inequilateral, inflated, narrow before and broad behind ; 
valves very thin ; beaks small, nearly terminal ; cardinal teeth small, compressed ; 
lateral teeth long and curved ; nacre slightly purple, very iridescent. 

Hab. Santee Canal, South Carolina. Professor Ravenel. 

My Cabinet. 

Cabinet of Professor Ravenel. 

Cabinet of P. H. Nicklin. 

Diam. 1*1, Length 1-5, Breadth 2*7 inches. 

Shell reversely ovate, transverse, very inequilateral, inflated, narrow 
before and broad behind, emarginate at basal margin ; substance of the 
shell very thin, diaphanous ; beaks small, nearly terminal, slightly un- 
dulated; ligament rather long and thin ; epidermis brown, shining ; rays 
indistinct ; cardinal teeth small, compressed, disposed to be double in 
the left and single in the right valve ; lateral teeth long, curved and ele- 
vated in their direction ; anterior cicatrices distinct ; posterior cicatrices 
confluent ; dorsal cicatrices small, situated in the cavity of the beaks ; 
cavity of the shell deep ; cavity of the beaks shallow ; nacre slightly 
purple, very iridescent. 

Remarks. — The spreading out of the posterior portion of the shell, 
and the narrowness of the anterior portion, is very striking in this spe- 
VOL. v. — z 



98 ON THE NAIADES, 

cies. 1 know of no other species which has its lateral teeth so much 
elevated, following, as they do, the widened margin of the valve. The 
cardinal teeth are generally double in the left valve, but not always. 
They will always be found to be compressed in both valves, and gene- 
rally more elevated in the right. The nacre is so very thin as to be 
diaphanous, and the play of iridescent colours is very beautiful. As 
the individual advances in age the marks of growth form large wrin- 
kles, and it then becomes more cylindrical. 



Unio Kirtlandianus. Plate XIV. fig. 41. 

Testa subrotundd, compressd ; valvulis crassis ; natibus subprominentibus ; epi- 
dermide circa nates luted, juxta mar ginem fused ; radiis interruptis ; dentibus 
cardinalibus subcrassis, lateralibus subcurvis brevibusque ; margaritd alba et iri- 
descente. 

Shell rather round, compressed ; valves thick ; beaks somewhat elevated ; epidermis 
yellowish about the beaks, brown towards the margin ; rays interrupted ; cardinal teeth 
rather thick ; lateral teeth short and slightly curved ; nacre pearly white and iridescent. 

Hab. Mahoning, Ohio. J. P. Kirtland, M.D. 

My Cabinet. 

Cabinet of P. H. Nicklin. 

Diam. 1, Length 2, Breadth 2*3 inches. 

Shell rather round, compressed ; substance of the shell thick, some- 
what thinner behind ; beaks rather elevated ; ligament rather short and 
thick; epidermis wrinkled, dark brown, smooth and yellowish in the 
region of the beaks ; interrupted rays pass from the beaks and are very 
visible over the umbones, but are lost in the wrinkles before they reach 
the margin ; cardinal teeth rather thick ; lateral teeth short, thick and 
slightly curved ; posterior and anterior cicatrices both distinct ; dorsal 
cicatrices situated on the under side of the cardinal teeth ; cavity of 
the shell flat and shallow ; cavity of the beaks rather deep and angu- 
lated ; nacre pearly white and iridescent. 

Remarks. — I owe this new species to the kindness of Dr Kirtland of 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 99 

Poland, Ohio. It is very nearly allied to the subrotundus (nobis), and 
when I first received a few specimens, I doubted if it was more than 
a variety of that species. Subsequently receiving from the same natu- 
ralist more and better specimens, I was satisfied that it was specifically 
different. Specimens of the true subrotundus having accompanied 
these, it could not be, of course, a variety occasioned, as is sometimes 
the case, by mere locality. It differs from the subrotundus in being 
much flatter, in having smaller beaks, and in being of a darker brown — 
the beaks are less yellow — the rays, interrupted like that shell, tend 
generally nearer to the margin. In older specimens than the one 
figured, the posterior part becomes protruded, which gives an oblique- 
ness to the shell. 



Unio Paranensis. Plate XIV. fig. 42. 

Testa subrotundatd, insequilaterali, compressd ; valvulis subcrassis ; natibus 
plicatis retusis ; dentibus cardinalibus recurvis, in valvuld utrdque diiplicibus ; 
lateralibus sublongis curvisque ; margaritd albd et iridescente. 

Shell subrotund, inequilateral, compressed; valves somewhat thick; beaks folded, 
retuse ; cardinal teeth recurved, double in both valves ; lateral teeth rather long and 
curved ; nacre pearly white and iridescent. 

Hab. River Parana. Dr Burrongh. 

Cabinet of Dr Burrough. 
Diam. 1*3, Length 3, Breadth 3-5 inches. 

Shell subrotund, disposed to be pentagonal, inequilateral, compressed 
towards the margin, emarginate on the posterior dorsal margin ; urn- 
bonial slope flattened ; substance of the shell somewhat thick ; beaks 
rather elevated, longitudinally folded, retuse ; ligament rather long and 
thin ; epidermis wrinkled, shining, greenish on the beaks and brown 
towards the margin, furnished with very obscure curved rays, which 
sweep from the beak towards the anterior part ; cardinal teeth recurved, 
compressed, double in both valves ; lateral teeth lamellar, rather long 
and curved ; anterior cicatrices confluent ; posterior cicatrices confluent ; 



100 ON THE NAIADES, 

dorsal cicatrices in the centre of the cavity of the beaks; palleal im- 
pression small and distant from the margin ; cavity of the shell very 
shallow ; cavity of the beaks small, subangular ; nacre pearly white and 
iridescent. 

Remarks. — I am indebted to the kindness of Dr Burrough. for the 
advantage of examining and describing this interesting species. It was 
procured by him, during his late voyage round the world, at Buenos 
Ayres, having been brought from the river Parana. It is remarkable 
for its outline, its expanded basal margin and folded beaks. 



Unio Nashvillianus. Plate XIV. fig. 43. 

Testd ellipticd, transversa, insequilaterali ; valvulis subcrassis ; natibus promi- 
nulis et minute undulatis ; dentibus cardinalibus laminatis et in valvuld utraque 
duplicibus, lateralibus subrectis ; margaritd alba. 

Shell elliptical, transverse, inequilateral ; valves somewhat thick ; beaks slightly ele- 
vated and minutely undulated ; cardinal teeth lamelliform and double in both valves ; 
lateral teeth nearly straight ; nacre pearly white. 

Hab. Cumberland River. Professor Troost. 
Ohio, at Louisville. Dr Fitch. 
My Cabinet. 
Cabinet of Professor Troost. 
Diam. -9, Length 1-4, Breadth 2-5 inches. 

Shell elliptical, sometimes truncate behind, transverse, inequilateral; 
substance of the shell somewhat thick; beaks slightly elevated and 
minutely undulated at the tip ; ligament rather short and straight ; 
epidermis dark brown, obscurely rayed ; cardinal teeth lamelliform, 
disposed to be crenulate, double in both valves ; lateral teeth nearly 
straight, the inferior section in the left valve being enlarged towards the 
posterior end ; anterior cicatrices distinct ; posterior cicatrices confluent ; 
dorsal cicatrices in the centre of the cavity of the beaks ; cavity of the 
beaks angular, rather shallow ; nacre beautifully pearly white, disposed 
in many individuals to be pinkish on the posterior part of the shell. 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 101 

Remarks. — This species has most resemblance in its general charac- 
ters to the parvus (Barnes). It is, however, a larger shell, and in the 
undulations of the beaks it is very different. Like the parvus, the sili- 
quoideus, the cariosus and crassus, it is sometimes very much truncated 
behind. In this state it might be mistaken for a different species, did 
not, as in the abovementioned species, the other characters strictly iden- 
tify it. 



Unio Blandingianus. Plate XV. fig. 44. 

Testa subtrapezoided, transversa, inxquilaterali, subinflatd; valvulis tenuibus ; 
natibus prominulis ; dentibus cardinalibus compressis ; lateralibus longis cur- 
visque; margaritd purpurea. 

Shell subtrapezoidal, transverse, inequilateral, somewhat inflated ; valves thin ; beaks 
somewhat prominent ; cardinal teeth compressed ; lateral teeth long and curved ; nacre 
purple. 

Hab. St John's river, ? Florida. Dr Blanding. 

My Cabinet. 

Cabinet of Dr Blanding. 

Diam. -9, Length 1-5, Breadth 2-3 inches. 

Shell subtrapezoidal, transverse, very inequilateral, somewhat in- 
flated; substance of the shell thin; beaks somewhat prominent, 
placed near to the anterior margin ; ligament rather long and narrow ; 
epidermis fuscous, wrinkled ; cardinal teeth compressed, double in the 
left valve and single in the right; lateral teeth long, curved and some- 
what lamellar; anterior cicatrices distinct; posterior cicatrices conflu- 
ent; dorsal cicatrices placed in the centre of the cavity of the beaks; 
cavity of the shell rather deep; cavity of the beaks wide and shallow; 
nacre dull purple. 

Remarks. — I owe to the kindness of Dr Blanding the specimens of 
this species which are in my cabinet. They were procured by this 
naturalist while in St Augustine, from an Indian whom he had directed 
to collect for him, and it is presumed they came from St John's river 

VOL. V. 2 A 



102 ON THE NAIADES, 

or some of its tributaries. This species has somewhat the characters 
of the obesus (nobis), and the complanatus (Solander). It is not so 
much inflated as the former, and is more so than the latter. My oldest 
specimen is subemarginate on the basal margin. In all those procured 
by Dr Blanding, the beaks were much eroded. 



Unio camelus. Plate XV. fig. 45. 

Testa subtriangulari, insequilaterali, complanatd per umbones a natibus usque 
ad marginem inferior 'em ; valvulis crassis ; radiis sparsis capillaribusque ; dente 
cardinali parvo, laterali magno, crasso, curvato ; margarita albd. 

Shell subtriangular, inequilateral, flattened over the umbones from the beaks to the 
basal margin; valves thick; rays scattered and capillary; cardinal teeth small; lateral 
teeth large, thick and curved ; nacre white. 

Hab. Ohio river. T. G. Lea. 

My Cabinet. 
Diam. 1-4, Length 2-3, Breadth 3-4 inches. 

Shell subtriangular, inequilateral, angular behind, flattened over the 
umbones from the beaks to the basal margin ; substance of the shell 
thick : ligament thick ; epidermis yellow brown, with capillary rays ; 
cardinal teeth small ; lateral teeth very large, thick and curved ; ante- 
rior and posterior cicatrices both distinct ; dorsal- cicatrices situated on 
the inferior part of the cardinal teeth; cavity of the shell shallow, 
welted ; cavity of the beaks very shallow. 

Remarks. — This species seems to possess partly the characters of 
the gibbosus (Barnes), and partly those of the planulatus (nobis). It 
may be distinguished from them by its high dorsal margin, its very 
remarkably thick lateral tooth and its capillary rays. 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 103 



Unio Griffithianus. Plate XV. fig. 46. 

Testa elliptica, expansd, transversa, inxquilaterali, lateribus subplamdatis ; 
clivo umboniali rotundato ; valvulis subcrassis ; natibus parvis ; epidermide luteold 
viridi-radiata ; dente cardinali parvo et lobis instructo ; later -all longo,curvo et ad 
terminum posteriorem aacto; margaritd purpurea, alba, vel salmonis colore tincta. 

Shell elliptical, spread out, transverse, inequilateral, somewhat flattened on the sides ; 
umbonial slope rounded ; valves somewhat thick ; beaks small ; epidermis yellowish, 
with green rays ; cardinal teeth small, lobed ; lateral teeth long, curved and enlarged at 
posterior end ; nacre purple, salmon or white. 

Hab. South Carolina. Professor Ravenel. 

My Cabinet. 

Cabinet of Professor Ravenel, Charleston, South Carolina. 

Diam. -6, Length 1-2, Breadth 2*2 inches. 

Shell elliptical, spread out, transverse, inequilateral ; somewhat flat- 
tened on the sides, rounded on the umbonial slope ; substance of the 
shell somewhat thick ; beaks small, scarcely elevated ; ligament some- 
what long and narrow ; epidermis yellowish, with green diverging rays ; 
cardinal teeth small, lobed, disposed to be double in both valves ; lateral 
teeth long, curved and enlarged at the posterior end ; anterior cicatrices 
distinct; posterior cicatrices confluent; dorsal cicatrices situated across 
the cavity of the beaks ; cavity of the beaks rather shallow ; cavity of 
the shell shallow ; nacre purple, salmon or white. 

Remarks. — Although this shell is very like the complanatas (Soland.), 
I have thought it sufficiently distinct to separate it. It is more rounded 
before, and more spread out, forming a more perfect ellipsis. In the 
nacre it is very much the same. I name it after my friend R. E. 
Griffith, M.D. 



Unio confertus. Plate XVI. fig. 47. 

Testa trapezoided, transversd, insequilaterali, in flat a; valvulis subcrassis; nati- 
bus prominulis et transversim rugatis ; dentibus cardinalibus compressis, et in 



104 ON THE NAIADES, 

valvuld utrdque duplicibus ; lateralibus longis curvisque ; margaritd purpurea, 
aut salmonis colore tinctd. 

Shell trapezoidal, transverse, inequilateral, inflated ; valves rather thick ; beaks 
slightly elevated and transversely wrinkled ; cardinal teeth compressed and double in 
both valves ; lateral teeth long and curved ; nsere purple or salmon. 

Hab. Santee Canal, South Carolina. Professor Ravenel. 

My Cabinet. 

Cabinet of Professor Ravenel. 

Diaui. 1*1, Length 1-3, Breadth 2-4 inches. 

Shell trapezoidal, transverse, inequilateral, inflated ; substance of the 
shell rather thick ; beaks slightly elevated, incurved, transversely wrin- 
kled ; umbones very much swollen ; ligament rather short and thin ; 
epidermis dark brown, shining; cardinal teeth very much compressed; 
lateral teeth long and slightly curved ; anterior cicatrices distinct ; pos- 
terior cicatrices confluent ; dorsal cicatrices on the superior part of the 
cavity of the beaks ; cavity of the shell very deep ; cavity of the beaks 
full and rounded ; nacre purple or salmon. 

Remarks. — The confertus, in its general characters, resembles the 
complanatus (Solander). It is, however, much more inflated, and dif- 
fers in having teeth more compressed. The specimens in my cabinet 
I owe to the kindness of professor Ravenel. These are all without 
rays. In young specimens they may exist. 



Symphynota Benedictensis. Plate XVI. fig. 48. 

Testa trapezio simili, inxquilaterd, transversa, subcompressd, margine dorsali 
subrecld ; valvulis pertenuibus ; natibus subprominentibus, apicibus granulatis ; 
cicatricibus vix cernendis ; margaritd cozruleo-albd et iridescente. 

Shell trapezoidal, inequilateral, transverse, rather compressed, nearly straight on the 
dorsal margin; valves very thin ; beaks somewhat prominent, and granulate at tip ; 
cicatrices scarcely perceptible ; nacre bluish white and iridescent. 

Hab. Lake Champlain. 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 105 

My Cabinet. 
Cabinet of Professor Benedict, Burlington, Vermont. 
Diam. 1-4, Length 2-2, Breadth 3-6 inches. 

Shell trapezoidal, inequilateral, transverse, rather compressed, nearly 
straight on the dorsal margin ; substance of the shell very thin ; epi- 
dermis shining, yellowish olive, with rather strong lines of growth ; 
beaks somewhat prominent and granulate at tip ; cicatrices scarcely 
perceptible ; cavity of the beaks shallow ; cavity of the disk rather shal- 
low ; nacre bluish white and iridescent. 

Remarks. — On my way to Quebec, in the summer of 1829, 1 spent 
a few minutes on the shore of lake Champlain, nearly opposite to fort 
Ticonderoga, waiting for the steamboat. These minutes were im- 
proved in the search of the shells near the edge of the water. Among 
others hastily seized, was a single individual of the present species, 
which, though an alive specimen, was much decorticated. Unwilling 
to describe it as a new species, without better individuals for examina- 
tion, I have endeavoured in vain to procure them until the present 
time. I owe to the kindness of professor Benedict a suite of different 
ages which verify my previous impression, and to him I dedicate the 
species. In outline (except the wings) it resembles the Symphynota 
bi-alata (nobis). It is not, however, so large or so thick a shell, and 
has neither tooth nor undulations. 



Anodonta Burroughiana. Plate XVI. fig. 49. 

Testa ovatd, valde inaequilaterali, subinflatd ; valvulis tenuibus ; naiibus pro- 
minulis ; lined dorsali curvd; margaritd purpurea. 

Shell ovale, very inequilateral, slightly inflated ; valves thin ; beaks slightly elevated; 
dorsal line curved ; nacre purple. 

Hab. Island of Luconia, near Manilla. Dr Burrough. 

My Cabinet. 
Cabinet of Dr Burrough. 
vol. v. — 2 B 



106 ON THE NAIADES, 

Diam. '8, Length 1-3, Breadth 2-1 inches. 

Shell reversely ovate, very inequilateral, slightly inflated, rather 
straight on the basal margin and elevated on the posterior dorsal mar- 
gin ; substance of the shell thin ; beaks slightly elevated ; ligament long 
and narrow ; epidermis dark brown and rather smooth ; anterior and 
posterior cicatrices confluent; dorsal cicatrices situated in the cavity of 
the beaks ; cavity of the shell wide and rather deep ; cavity of the 
beaks very shallow ; nacre purple. 

Remarks. — To the kindness of Dr Burrough I am indebted for the 
privilege of describing this species. It is with pleasure I take the op- 
portunity of placing his name upon it. It was procured by him near 
the city of Manilla. It resembles, in outline and colour, the Unio 
cuprinus (nobis), but has no trace of teeth. It is most remarkable 
perhaps for its deep colour. 



Margaritana* Raveneliana. Plate XVII. fig. 50. 

Testa subcylindracea, valde transversa et inseqiiilaterali,injlata ; valvulis tenui- 
bus; natibus exiguis ; dentibus cardinalibus parvis. subcompressis ; margaritd 
coeruleo-albd. 

Shell subcylindrical, very transverse, inequilateral, inflated ; valves thin ; beaks 
small ; cardinal teeth small, rather compressed ; nacre bluish white. 

Hab. French Broad and Swananoe rivers, North Carolina. 

My Cabinet. 
Cabinet of Dr Ravenel. 
Diam. '9, Length 1-1, Breadth 2-2 inches. 

Shell subcylindrical, very transverse, inequilateral, inflated, disposed 
to be compressed near the basal margin, where it is often emarginate ; 
substance of the shell thin; beaks small; ligament rather short; epi- 
dermis brown, with rays on the posterior part; umbonial slope large, 
rounded ; cardinal teeth consisting in each valve of a small compressed 

* See note at page 429, Vol. III. 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 107 

lobe ; anterior cicatrices confluent ; posterior cicatrices confluent ; dorsal 
cicatrices placed under the cardinal teeth ; cavity of the shell deep : 
cavity of the beaks shallow ; nacre bluish white. 

Remarks. — This species most resembles the JHasmodonta marginata 
(Say), but may be distinguished by its more cylindrical form, and its 
want of undulations on the posterior slope. It differs also in the round- 
ness of the umbonial slope, and in the rays. In the marginata the 
rays are more interrupted and scattered, being sometimes quite spotted. 



Cyrena rotundata. Plate XVII. fig. 51. 

Testa rotundatd, sublenticulari, subsequilaterali, transversim rugatd ; clivo pos- 
teriori rugoso ; valvulis crassis ; natibus parvis, acutis, contiguis ; dentibus car- 
dinalibus subbifidis, lateralibus longis, minute serratis, rectisque; margaritd alba 
et purpurea. 

Shell round, sublenticular, nearly equilateral, transversely wrinkled, rugose on the 
posterior slope ; valves thick; beaks small, pointed, touching ; cardinal teeth disposed 
to be bifid ; lateral teeth long, straight and minutely serrulate ; nacre white and pinkish. 

Hab 

My Cabinet. 
Diam. 1-5, Length 2-9, Breadth 3-3 inches. 

Shell round, sublenticular, nearly equilateral, transversely and rather 
minutely wrinkled, rugose on the posterior slope ; substance of the 
shell thick ; beaks small, pointed, touching ; ligament very short and 
thick ; epidermis yellowish brown before and dark brown behind ; 
anterior slope furnished with a lanceolate mark formed by two curved 
yellow lines, which pass from the beaks to the anterior margin ; pos- 
terior slope rugose, furnished with obsolete oblique folds ; cardinal teeth 
disposed to be bifid; lateral teeth long, straight and very minutely ser- 
rulate ; cicatrices scarcely perceptible ; cavity of the shell rather shallow ; 
cavity of the beaks subangular ; nacre white and pinkish. 

Remarks. — This beautiful and fine large species was sent to me 



108 ON THE NAIADES, 

some years since by a dealer in Paris. It perhaps most resembles the 
Zeylanica (Lamarck). It differs, however, in being more compressed, 
more rotund, in having longer lateral teeth, and in these being serru- 
late. The nacre is rather thinner, and is coloured. On comparison 
it will be observed that the anterior tooth of the Zeylanica is merely 
a tubercle, while that of rotundata is long and lamellar. The nacre 
is disposed to be pinkish on the posterior part. 



Cyrena Jayensis. Plate XVII. fig. 52. 

Testa subrotundd, subsequilaterali, antice rugosd; valvulis crassis ; natibus par- 
vis, elevatis ; dentibus cardinalibus bijidis, lateralibus longis, minute serratis, 
rectisque; margaritd purpurea. 

Shell subrotund, nearly equilateral, transversely wrinkled on the anterior part ; 
valves rather thick ; beaks small, elevated ; cardinal teeth bifid ; lateral teeth long, 
nearly straight, and minutely serrulate ; nacre purple. 

Hab. Batavia? J. C. Jay, M.D. 

My Cabinet. 
Cabinet of Dr Jay. 
Diam. 1-1, Length 2-2, Breadth 2-3 inches. 

Shell subrotund, nearly equilateral, furnished with transverse rather 
large wrinkles on the anterior part ; substance of the shell rather thick ; 
beaks small, elevated, retuse ; ligament very short and thick : epidermis 
dark brown, shining; cardinal teeth bifid, long, nearly straight and 
minutely serrulate ; cicatrices scarcely perceptible ; cavity of the shell 
shallow ; cavity of the beaks subangular ; nacre dark purple, sometimes 
whitish. 

Remarks. — It is to the kindness of Dr Jay I am indebted for the 
specimen figured. That of his cabinet is rather more oblique than 
this. The Jayensis has some resemblance to the rotundata, described 
herein, but differs in having rather large wrinkles on the anterior part, 
in having more elevated beaks, and in the dark purple colour of the 
nacre. 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 109 



Cyrena turgida. Plate XVIII. fig. 53. 

Testa trigond, inflatd, parte antica turgida, rugosd, insequilaterd, transversim 
rugatd ; valvulis crassis ; natibus elevatis, recurvis ; dentibus cardinalibus sub-bi- 
fidis, dente anteriore laterali brevi et elevato, posterior e longo et laminato ; rnar- 
garitd alba. 

Shell triangular, inflated, swollen on the anterior part, rugose, inequilateral, trans- 
versely wrinkled ; valves thick ; beaks elevated, recurved ; cardinal teeth disposed to 
be bifid ; anterior lateral tooth short and elevated ; posterior lateral tooth long and lam- 
ellar ; nacre white. 

Hab , India. Rev. William Carey. 

My Cabinet. 
Diam. 1-2, Length 1-7, Breadth 2-1 inches. 

Shell triangular, inflated, swollen on the anterior part, rugose, in- 
equilateral, transversely wrinkled ; substance of the shell thick ; beaks 
elevated, recurved ; ligament rather long and narrow; epidermis yel- 
lowish brown, darker towards the margin ; cardinal teeth disposed to 
be bifid ; anterior lateral tooth short and elevated, somewhat conical ; 
posterior lateral tooth long and lamellar ; cicatrices scarcely perceptible ; 
cavity of the shell deep and rounded ; cavity of the beaks angular ; 
nacre w 7 hite. 

Remarks. — To the kindness of Dr Carey of Calcutta 1 owe several 
specimens of this species. In the teeth it resembles the C. Zeylanica 
(Lamarck), and the C. papua (Lesson). It differs from both in being 
more triangular, more inflated, as well as in being a smaller species. 
In the enlargement of the anterior part, which seems to be turgid or 
swollen, it diners from any Cyrena w r ith which I am acquainted. 
Being without serrulate teeth, it belongs to Lamarck's second divi- 
sion — " dents laterales entieres. 



VOL. V. — 2 c 



110 ON THE NAIADES, 



Cyrena Woodiana. Plate XVIII. fig. 55. 

Testa subtrigond, subinflatd, micante, subsequilaterali, transversim rugatd ; val- 
vulis crassis ; natibus magnis et rotundatis ; dentibus cardinalibus sub-bifidis, 
lateralibus longis, serratis, rectisque; margaritd alba. 

Shell subtriangular, somewhat inflated, shining, nearly equilateral, transversely wrin- 
kled ; valves thick ; beaks large and rounded ; cardinal teeth disposed to be bifid ; late- 
ral teeth long, straight, serrulate ; nacre white. 

Hab. Canton. W. W. Wood. 

My Cabinet. 
Diam. 1-4, Length 2-4, Breadth 2-9 inches. 

Shell subtriangular, obtusely angular behind, somewhat inflated, 
shining, nearly equilateral, transversely and rather largely wrinkled ; 
substance of the shell thick ; beaks large, rounded, not very approxi- 
mate ; ligament rather short and thick ; epidermis blackish brown, 
polished, except on posterior slope; wrinkles larger near to the margin ; 
cardinal teeth disposed to be bifid ; lateral teeth long, straight, serrulate ; 
cicatrices scarcely perceptible; cavity of the shell deep; cavity of the 
beaks angular; nacre white. 

Remarks. — In the intenseness of colour of the epidermis, and its high 
polish, this species differs from any I am acquainted with. It is more 
inflated and less rotund than the rotundata herein described. Its 
lateral teeth are longer and not so minutely serrulate. In its triangular 
form it resembles the C. papua (Lesson). The nacre has not the 
clear white usual in this genus. In this specimen, below the palleal 
impression, it is yellowish white. 

Mr Wood, to whose great kindness I owe this fine and interesting 
species, informed me he procured it from a boat on the river below 
Canton, it having been fished up by accident, when the fishermen 
were engaged in catching other shell fish. Owing the possession of it 
to him, I with great pleasure dedicate it to him. 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. Ill 



GENUS APHRODITE (nobis). 

Testa sequioalvi, subtrigond, insequilaterali ; dente cardinali subnullo ; dentibus 
later alibus binis, sublongis ; ligamento externo. 

Shell equivalve, subtriangular, inequilateral ; hinge with a very imperfect or no car- 
dinal tooth ; lateral teeth two, rather long ; ligament external. 

Remarks. — The genus Aphrodite is proposed for a single species 
which I am unable to place with any established genus. I suspect it 
to be an estuary shell, and should it prove so, its proper place will be 
after the genus Cyrena. The lateral teeth are placed somewhat like 
those in that genus, but the epidermis and substance of the shell differ 
entirely, being more like the genus Mactra. 



A. columba. Plate XVIII. fig. 54. 

Testa subcompressd, longitudinaliter et obsolete striata, transversim et minute 
rugatd, colore columbse iirtctd, super umbones subriifis maculis ungulaiis munita ; 
valvulis tenuibus ; natibus elevatis, acutis ; dentibus cardinalibus obsoletis, laterali- 
bus binis ; margaritd luteo-albd. 

Shell rather compressed, longitudinally and obsoletely striate, transversely and mi- 
nutely wrinkled, dove coloured, on the umbones furnished with reddish angular marks ; 
valves thin ; beaks elevated, pointed ; cardinal teeth obsolete ; lateral teeth two ; nacre 
yellowish white. 

Hab. .... 

My Cabinet. 
Diam. 1-4, Length 2-9, Breadth 3-4 inches. 

Shell subtriangular, nearly equilateral, rather compressed, longi- 
tudinally and obsoletely striate, transversely and minutely wrinkled, 
dove coloured, furnished on the umbones with reddish angular marks ; 
substance of the shell thin and fragile ; beaks elevated, pointed, touch- 
ing ; ligament short and thick ; epidermis thin ; cardinal teeth obsolete 
or wanting ; lateral teeth two, rather long, straight, and disposed to be 



112 ON THE NAIADES, 

lamellar; cicatrices smooth, impressed, showing the mark of their ad- 
vancement; palleal impression indistinct, broad; cavity of the shell 
rather shallow ; cavity of the beaks angular ; nacre yellowish white and 
shining. 

Remarks. — This is certainly a very interesting shell. It is difficult 
to find any one to compare it with. On the inside of the anterior 
margin there appears to be a disposition to crenulation, caused by the 
longitudinal striae. Its habitat I am not acquainted with, having pur- 
chased my specimens at a dealer's in Europe, who could not inform 
me from what country they came. 



Io spinosa. Plate XIX. fig. 79. 

Testa obtuse turritd, latd, corned, sub epidermide fasciatd, spinis magnis ; cm- 
fractibus septenis ; aperturd elo?igald, dimidium longitudinis testa; hubente. 

Shell obtusely turrited, wide, horn colour, under the epidermis banded, furnished 
with large spines ; whorls seven ; mouth elongate, one half the length of the shell. 

Hab. Holston River, Washington County, Virginia. Professor 
Troost. 

My Cabinet. 

Cabinet of Professor Troost. 

Diam. 1-2, Length 2-2 inches. 

Remarks. — This species resembles very much the Io fusiformis 
(nobis), Fusus jluviatilis (Say), but may be distinguished by its large 
transversely compressed spines, the fusiformis having somewhat longi- 
tudinal tubercles. I am not acquainted with any fluviatile shell which 
has such large spines (there being about seven on each whorl), nor any 
which has such a general resemblance to a marine shell. Professor 
Troost informs me they are rare in the river, that they had been 
observed in the graves of the aborigines ; and as it was generally be- 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 113 

lieved that these were " conch shells," consequently coming from the 
sea, it was urged that the inhabitants who possessed them must have 
come over the sea. It does not appear that they had been observed 
iii their native element, though living at the very doors of the persons 
who had remarked them in the tumuli. 



Paludina Burroughiana. Plate XIX. fig. 80. 

Testa turritd, tenebroso-corned, transversim striata, striis majoribus duabas 
vel tribus circiter medium anfr actum ; suturis profundis ; anfractibus senis, valde 
convexis ; apertura rotundatd, albd. 

Shell turrited, dark horn colour, transversely striated, having two or three large 
strias about the middle of the whorl; sutures very deep; whorls six, very convex; 
mouth round, white. 

Hab. Island of Luconia. Dr Burrough. 

My Cabinet. 

Cabinet of Dr Burrough. 

Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Diam. 1*2, Length 1-8 inches. 

Operculum thin, light brown. 

Remarks. — This is perhaps the largest species of Paludina which 
has yet been observed. It is remarkable for the numerous fine trans- 
verse striae which are subgranose or undulated, and which cover, in some 
specimens, the whole of the whorls. About the middle of the whorls 
there are several larger striae, the largest being always, in the specimens 
examined by me. immediately above the suture. I owe to Dr Bur- 
rough's great kindness the opportunity of describing this species. 
During his late voyage he procured it, with many other fine shells, 
from the vicinity of Manilla, in the island of Luconia. 



vol. v. — 2 D 



114 ON THE NAIADES, _ 



Read before the American Philosophical Society, April ISth, 1834. 



Lymitca acuta. Plate XIX. fig. 81. 

Testa elongato-turritd, tenui, Isevi, fusco-nigricante ; spird attenuata; anfrac- 
tibus senis ; aperturd subovatd. 

Shell elevated, turrited, thin, smooth, dark brown ; spire attenuate ; whorls six ; 
aperture subovate. 

Hab. pond four miles north of Philadelphia. 
Diam. -3, Length *7 of an inch, 

Remarks. — This delicate species, although attenuate, is not so much 
so as the exilis herein described. Its whorls are more convex and the 
body whorl larger, the aperture being about one half the length of the 
shell. Several specimens were found by me some years since, in a 
very small pond near to the Falls of Schuylkill. Since then this pond 
has occasionally dried up, and I have not been able to find others. 
Although there are other ponds near to this, which other species in- 
habit, I have never been able to discover the acuta in any other spot. 



Lymnjea exilis. Plate XIX. fig. 82. 

Testa attenuata, tenuissimd, longitudinaliter striata; anfractibus septenis, 
plano-convexis ; columella reflexd; aperturd ovato-oblongd. 

Shell attenuated, very thin, longitudinally striate ; whorls seven, plano-convex ; 
columella reflected ; aperture ovato-oblong. 

Hab. Ohio, T. G. Lea. 

My Cabinet. 
Diam. «4, Length 1*5 inches. 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 115 

Remarks. — This is perhaps the most attenuated Lymnaea yet ob- 
served in this country. It approaches most to the reflexus (Say), but 
is more elongate than that species. The most remarkable character of 
the exilis is, perhaps, the reflection of its labium, which is not laid on 
the body of the whorl. Where it joins above with the labrum, the 
angle is quite acute, and is separated from the body whorl. The spe- 
cimen figured was not taken alive, and the epidermis being destroyed, 
the description and representation are partially defective. The aper- 
ture is about two-fifths the length of the shell. 



Physa elliptic a. Plate XIX. fig. 83. 

Testa sinistrosd, ellipticd, tenuissimd, pellucidd, castaned, nitidd; spird brevius- 
culd; anfractibus quaternis; labro marginato ; aperturd angustatd. 

Shell sinister, elliptical, very thin, pellucid, chesnut coloured, shining; spire rather 
short; whorls four; outer lip margined; aperture narrow. 

Hab T. G. Lea. 

My Cabinet. 
Diam. -2, Length *5 of an inch 

Remarks. — This species is less inflated and more of a chestnut colour 
than any I am acquainted with. Its colour is almost reddish, and the 
light coloured margin of the outer lip is remarkable. The aperture 
is rather contracted, and the whole shell somewhat elongate. 



Ampullaria Hopetonensis. Plate XIX. fig. 84. 

Testa subventricosd, Isevi, superne subplanulatd, perforata, luteo-fuscescente, 
fasciata ; suturis impress is ; anfractibus quinis ; aperturd subovatd, alba. 

Shell subventricose, smooth, flattened above, umbilicate, yellowish-brown, banded ; 
sutures impressed ; whorls five ; aperture subovate, white. 

# 



116 ON THE NAIADES, 

Hab. Hopeton, near Darien, Georgia. Professor Shepard. 

My Cabinet. 

Cabinet of Professor Shepard. 

Diam. 1*4, Length 1-7 inches. 

Remarks. — I owe to the kindness of professor Shepard of New 
Haven this interesting shell. It was procured by him during his late 
geological investigations in our southern states, with other shells, de- 
scriptions of which will be found in these memoirs. It resembles the 
Ji.fasciata (Lam.), but is less globose, the whorls of our species being 
somewhat flattened on the side and top. It differs from the A. depressa 
(Say), described in major Long's expedition to St Peter's river (subse- 
quently changed to A. paludosa in the Disseminator), in being less 
globose, and in being flatter on the side and superior part of the whorls. 



Paludina Georgiana. Plate XIX. fig. 85. 

Testa ventricoso-conoided, tenui, tenebroso-cornea, Isevi ; suturis valde i?npressis .- 
anfractibus instar qicinis, convexis ; aperturd subrolundatd, alba. 

Shell venlricoso-conical, thin, dark horn coloured, smooth ; sutures very much im- 
pressed ; whorls about five, convex ; aperture nearly round, white. 

Hab. Hopeton, near Darien, Georgia. Professor Shepard. 

My Cabinet. 

Cabinet of Professor Shepard. 

Diam. -7, Length 1-1 inches. 

Remarks. — This species, in form, resembles most, perhaps, the P. 
vivipara. It is not quite so large, nor has it bands. It is rather more 
elevated, and the body whorl is smaller and rounder than the P. decisa 
(Say). The aperture at the base recedes more than is usual with this 
genus. 



■ 



AND OTHER FAMILIES. 117 



Sue cine a retusa. Plate XIX. fig. 86. 

Testa ovato-oblongd, tenuissima, pelhicidd, flavidula ; spira brevi ; anfractibus 
ternis ; aperturd inferne dilataid et retractd. 

Shell ovately oblong, very thin, pellucid, yellowish ; spire short ; whorls three ; 
aperture below dilate and drawn back. 

Hab. Ohio, near Cincinnati. T. G. Lea. 
Diam. -3, Length -7 of an inch. 

Remarks. — A single specimen only of this species has come into my 
possession. It diners so much from any of the described species, in 
the dilatation and retraction of the inferior part of the aperture, that I 
have not hesitated to consider it new. 



VOL. V. 2 E 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX 



THE SHELLS DESCRIBED IN MR LEA'S MEMOIRS 



VOLUMES III., IV. AND V. 



Unio acutissimus - 
anodontoides 
angustatus 
arcseformis 
asper 

asperrimus 
ater 

Blandingianus 
brevidens 
Burroughianus 
calceolus 
camelus 
capillaris 
capsscformis 
castaneus 
circulus 
coeruleus 
Congarseus 
confertus 
Conradicus - 
Cooperianus 
Corrianus 
cuprinus 
decisus 
divaricatus 
donaciformis 
dromas 
ebenus 
elegans 
ellipsis 
emarginatus 
tabalis 



Vol. IV. 


89 


Unio formosus 


IV. 


81 


fulvus 


IV. 


114 


geometricus - 


IV. 


116 


glans 


IV. 


85 


Grayanus 


IV. 


71 


Griffithianus 


III. 


426 


Haysianus 


V. 


101 


heterodon 


IV. 


75 


Hildrethianus 


V. 


67 


incurvus 


III. 


265 


iris 


V. 


102 


irroratus 


V. 


29 


Kirtlandianus 


V. 


31 


lacteolus 


IV. 


91 


lacrymosus 


III. 


433 


lanceolatus 


IV. 


95 


lens 


-' IV. 


72 


modioliformis 


V. 


103 


multiplicatus 


V. 


63 


multiradiatus 


V. 


61 


multistriatus 


V. 


65 


Murchisonianus 


IV. 


94 


Nashvillianus 


IV. 


92 


Nicklinianus 


V. 


64 


obesus 


III. 


267 


occidens 


V. 


70 


olivarius 


IV. 


84 


oriens 


IV. 


83 


Paranensis - 


III. 


268 


parallelopipedon 


V. 


62 


patulus 


IV. 


86 


perdix 



Vol. IV. Ill 



V. 
V. 
IV. 
V. 
V. 
V. 



96 
38 
82 
66 
103 
35 



III. 428 
V. 36 

IV. 97 
III. 439 
III. 269 

V. 98 

V. 40 

III. 272 

III. 266 

IV. 80 
V. 97 

IV. 70 
III. 434 



IV. 

V. 

V. 

V. 
IV. 



91 

33 

100 

28 

96 



III. 435 

IV. 108 
IV. 73 

V. 99 

V. 60 

III. 441 

V. 72 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX OF MR LEA S MEMOIRS. 



119 



Unio perplexus 


Vol. IV. 112 


Symphynota ochracea 


Vol. III. 455 


pileus 


IV. 119 


tenuissima 


III. 453 


pictus 


V. 73 


Woodiana 


V. 42 


planulatus - 


III. 431 


Cyrena Jayensis - 


V. 108 


pustulatus 


IV. 79 


rotundata 


V. 107 


pustulosus - 


IV. 76 


turgida 


V. 109 


pyramidatus 


IV. 109 


Woodiana 


V. 110 


Ravenelianus 


V. 32 


Aphrodite columba 


V. Ill 


rubiginosus 


III. 427 


Helix Caroliniensis 


IV. 102 


Schoolcraftensis 


V. 37 


cincta - - 


V. 56 


securis 


III. 437 


cyclostomopsis - 


V. 53 


Shepardianus 


V. 95 


diaphana 


V. 54 


soleniformis 


IV. 87 


globula 


V. 58 


Sowerbianus 


V. 68 


Himalana - 


V. 55 


sulcatus 


III. 430 


mamilla 


V. 54 


stapes 


IV. 77 


monodonta 


V. 53 


subovatus 


IV. 118 


muscarum 


V. 51 


subglobosus 


V. 30 


ovum-reguli 


V. 52 


subrotundus 


IV. 117 


purpuragula 


V. 51 


Taitianus 


V. 39 


vesica 


V. 56 


trapezoides 


IV. 69 


Woodiana 


V. 57 


trigonus 


IV. 110 


Carocolla Helicoides 


IV. 103 


Troostensis 


V. 71 


spinosa 


IV. 104 


varicosus 


IV. 90 


Helicina lens 


V. 49 


zig-zag 


III. 440 


pulcherrima 


V. 49 


Anodonta Blainvilliana 


V. 77 


virginea 


V. 50 


Burroughiana 


V. 105 


Achatina Vanuxemensis 


V. 84 


Ferussaciana 


V. 45 


Succinea retusa 


V. 117 


incerta 


V. 46 


Auricula fuscagula 


V. 83 


lato-marginata 


V. 76 


Cyclostoma striata 


V. 84 


Mortoniana - 


V. 80 


Physa elliptica 


V. 115 


plana 


V. 48 


Lymnaea acuta 


V. 114 


Stewartiana - 


V. 47 


exilis 


V. 114 


tenebricosa 


V. 78 


imperialis 


V. 81 


Margaritana Raveneliana 


V. 106 


Melania aculeus 


V. 81 


Symphynota alata 


III. 448 


acuta 


IV. 101 


Benedictensis 


V. 104 


elongata 


IV. 120 


bi-alata 


III. 445 


subularis 


IV. 100 


bi-lineata - 


IV. 98 


tuberculata 


IV. 101 


compressa 


III. 450 


Io fusiformis 


IV. 122 


cygnea 


III. 456 


spinosa 


V. 112 


complanata 


III. 448 


Melanopsis maculata 


V. 82 


discoidea - 


V. 75 


princeps 


V. 82 


globosa 


V. 41 


Paludina bi-monilifera - 


V. 58 


gracilis 


III. 452 


Burroughiana 


V. 113 


inflata 


IV. 99 


Georgiana 


V. 116 


laevissima 


in. 444 


Ampullaria Hopetonensis 


V. 115 


magnifica 


V. 43 







ARTICLE III 



On the Visceral Anatomy of the Python (Cuvier), described by Dau&in 
as the Boa Reticulata. By J. P. Hopkinson, M.D. and J. Pan- 
coast, M.D. Read before the American Philosophical Society 
November 2, 1832. 

The head having been previously removed, and with it, the com- 
mencement of the cesophagus, the account of that part of the animal 
will necessarily be wanting. 

The whole alimentary canal admits of two divisions. The first, 
comprising the oesophagus and the stomach, extends as low down as the 
right capsula renalis, and is above five feet in length. The second 
division is two feet long, may be considered to represent the small and 
large intestines, and ends at the anus. These two divisions are con- 
nected by a smaller transverse canal, which is the pylorus. The oeso- 
phagus, at its commencement, is sufficiently capacious to admit both 
hands expanded. In structure, it is very thin, dilatable, semi-trans- 
parent, and, when left undistended, collapses by its elasticity. It passes 
down, at first on the middle line of the body, having the trachea closely 
attached to it in front : before reaching the heart it begins to incline 
to the left, and is then placed between the left lung and the parietes 
of the body. The structure gradually becomes more dense by the 
addition of delicate muscular fibres. A contraction is found just above 
the upper end of the liver, where it is embraced, in the flexuous course 
vol. v. — 2 F 



122 ON THE VISCERAL. ANATOMY 

of the left aorta, which seems to be the cardiac orifice, for below this 
point commence the gastric glands or follicles, some of which are of 
considerable size. The muscular fibres continue to increase in num- 
ber, until a strong muscular coat is formed, consisting of fasciculi, 
which are circular within and longitudinal externally. The lower 
ten inches of the stomach are destitute of the large glands above alluded 
to. The mucous coat, at this part, is thrown into long rugae, and the 
structure itself is very thick and cuts like cartilage. The stomach 
ends in a cul de sac, diminishing much in size as it terminates. At 
about half an inch distant from this termination, and passing off at a 
right angle, is the pyloric portion of the stomach, somewhat resembling 
that of the viper, as described by Sir E. Home. It is two inches in 
length, half an inch in diameter, and somewhat curved: the mucous 
coat of this part is thrown into longitudinal rugae, and protected exter- 
nally by strong muscular fibres, but the actual passage is very small. 
This pyloric portion terminates by joining the second division of the 
alimentary canal about, half an inch below its commencement, project- 
ing into it, to form a circular elevated margin ; it is therefore placed 
transversely across the body, and forms a somewhat indirect commu- 
nication between the two great divisions of the alimentary canal. In 
some of this class, a well marked pyloric valve is formed, constituted 
of an elevated fold of the mucous membrane. The second division, 
comprising both small and large intestines, is perfectly straight, and 
begins by a pointed cul de sac, similar to that which formed the ter- 
mination of the stomach. From its commencement, the mucous coat 
is completely studded with villi, which are prominent and about a line 
in length. This intestine enlarges as it descends, and is embraced be- 
tween the two reflexions of peritoneum, which attach the oviducts. 
Its greatest diameter is observed about ten inches above the anus, from 
which point it gradually diminishes as it descends, to accommodate 
itself to the smaller size of the body. The parietes are thick and 
firm, although not so much so as those of the stomach. Externally it 
is marked by several contractions extending the whole length, which 
produce deep transverse depressions without, and corresponding circu- 
lar septa within; these septa, or valves as they may be termed, are 
very numerous, and extend generally around one half of the internal 



OF THE PYTHON. 123 

circumference, resembling those in the colon of man. In three or 
four places, distinct and removed from each other, some remarkable 
and sudden diminutions exist in the calibre, scarcely large enough to 
admit the little finger, but which were not accompanied by any cor- 
responding appearance externally. The channel here is oblique, as 
regards the course of the intestine, and extends for the space of half an 
inch, so that it is discovered with some difficulty. Such a conforma- 
tion must very much retard the passage of the food, and in fact abso- 
lutely arrest it until perfectly digested ; it also may afford the lacteals, 
by the consequent delay, full time to take up the chyle. In this way 
nature compensates for the want of a more extensive canal, the pro- 
traction of digestion supplying the defect arising from the limited sur- 
face of the canal. The lower fifth of this intestine is smooth and 
nearly destitute of villi, thus presenting the characters of the rectum. 
At the termination of the rectum, a sudden contraction is made to 
form the anus, a circular opening, which is placed immediately above 
the vaginal pouch, being nearer the ventral surface, and further re- 
moved from the caudal extremity. The anus is surrounded by some 
circular fibres, causing the mucous coat here to be puckered into small 
folds. 

BILIARY ORGANS. 

The liver is placed on the right side of the spine, and commences 
at the distance of about two feet and a half from the head; it is 
fifteen inches in length, oblong and somewhat flattened in shape, of 
a dark brown colour, and tapers to a point at either end. The 
peritoneum, which covers it and forms its external coat, attaches it 
along the back. The vena cava meets it below, and runs in a fossa 
along the whole length, and in the middle of its anterior or ventral 
face, leaving it at the top, to go to the right auricle of the heart ; it lies 
beneath the peritoneum, which thus covers the anterior face of it. A 
multitude of branches is received by this vein from the liver through- 
out the whole of its course, causing it to augment in size. On the 
dorsal face of the liver, the vena portae, coming from the stomach and 
intestines, is accommodated in a similar manner; but this vessel, in 
consequence of its distributing branches continually to the gland, 



124 ON THE VISCERAL ANATOMY 

diminishes as it proceeds upwards, until finally it is completely disposed 
of, and terminates as it reaches the top of the liver. The structure of 
the organ in this instance was soft and rather of a pulpy consistence, 
perhaps the result of incipient putrefaction. From the lower end, 
passes off the hepatic duct, almost as large as a crow's quill, but be- 
coming smaller as it descends ; this diminution is owing to its giving 
off many smaller branches in its course, which leave it at acute angles, 
and then run for some distance parallel with the main duct. Some of 
them seem to disappear on the parietes of the vena cava; but from 
their minuteness, although a quicksilver injection was resorted to, their 
termination was not satisfactorily made out. The principal duct is 
about twelve inches in length. When it reaches the top of the gall 
bladder, it divides into several branches, which are spread over its outer 
surface ; some of them open into the cavity of the gall bladder by small 
orifices, scarcely large enough to receive a fine bristle : four only of 
these openings were discovered, but probably others existed. The 
remaining branches, without communicating with the great receptacle 
of the bile, are collected into a fasciculus, and seem to terminate in a 
small depression or pit, found at the top of the intestine. The gall 
bladder is rather more than two inches long, and an inch and a half 
broad ; it is of an egg-like form, having the larger end above, and a 
small, somewhat conical extremity directed towards the intestine, — it 
might contain about two ounces. The quantity of bile found did not 
exceed six drachms ; it was of a dark colour, becoming orange when 
diluted, and slightly bitter to the taste. The apex of the gall bladder 
was connected to the top of the intestine by a ligamentous chord ; but 
no communication was found to exist between them, and consequently 
no direct means ascertained by which the bile could escape from the 
gall bladder when once deposited there — in other words, for the cystic 
bile to get into the intestinal canal. This was ascertained by allowing 
the quicksilver to flow from the biliary tubes into the gall bladder, 
where it accumulated to distention, but found no exit. 

PANCREAS. 

This gland is small, and is attached to the pyloric portion near 
its termination, and to the upper end of the intestine at the cul de 



OF THE PYTHON. 125 

sac. It is bent upon itself, forming a curve which embraces the 
cluster of biliary tubes, as they are about entering the intestine. 
The upper portion is enlarged into a head. The whole gland, when 
removed and stretched out, measured only two inches. The structure 
of the pancreas is lobular : the lobes vary in size from one line to three, 
are of a brownish colour and very numerous; they are connected 
merely by loose cellular membrane. The excretory tubes proceed 
from the lobules, run in company with the biliary ducts, and terminate 
at the same point in the intestine, already described. 

SPLEENS. 

In this animal there are two spleens, both of which are firmly 
attached to the parietes of the stomach: the larger, which is also 
lower down in its position, is three inches long, and an inch and a 
half broad; the smaller is two inches long and one broad; they are 
quite distinct, and about an inch apart. A cavity exists in each spleen, 
which, in the larger, might contain about half a drachm, from which 
numerous canals pass off in different directions towards the circum- 
ference. This cavity communicates with the stomach by a smooth 
orifice or channel, of the diameter of a crow's quill ; a mass of hair, 
rolled into a ball, occupied the main cavity. The arteries of the 
spleens come from the gastric, while the veins open into the vena portae. 

URINARY ORGANS. 

The kidneys are placed in the fossae on the side of the spine, reposing 
upon the ribs. The right kidney is larger, and also placed higher up 
than the other; the upper end being about one foot nine inches below 
the liver, while the left is five inches lower. There are about two 
inches difference in their lengths, and nearly half an inch in their 
diameters, but in other respects they are precisely alike. The kidney 
is attached to the parietes by being embraced between the same two 
laminae of peritoneum that pass off to surround the oviduct. It is of 
a dark brown colour, and consists of flattened oblong lobes, about thirty 
in number — some crescentic, others twisted like the letter S, and con- 
nected together by each lobe overlapping its successor. This arrange- 
ment commences at each end, and proceeds towards the centre, where 

VOL. V. 2 G 



126 ON THE VISCERAL ANATOMY 

the two layers meet. About an inch distant from either extremity, it 
begins to taper off, and is then suddenly brought to a point. The 
ureter is placed on the external surface of the kidney ; small, at its com- 
mencement, it descends along the middle line, increasing continually 
in its course, and when it leaves the gland has attained the size of a 
goose quill ; from this point to its termination, it is rather more than 
fifteen inches in length. It opens into the vaginal pouch, by an ob- 
lique orifice, situated half an inch lower down than the opening of the 
oviduct. In immediate connection with the ureter are two veins, like 
it passing superficially along the whole length of the kidney. One of 
these, which lies in contact with the lower margin of the ureter, com- 
mences below, and increasing as it proceeds, from the continual access- 
ion of branches from the gland, passes off from the upper end, and soon 
after unites with the corresponding vein of the other side, to form the 
vena cava. The trunk, which lies above the ureter, is reversed in its 
course, commencing in the ovaria above the kidney, and increasing in 
size as it descends; it passes along the upper margin of the ureter, and 
continues to accompany it after it leaves the lower extremity of the 
kidney. This vein and the ureter pass down together, being connected 
by the same broad reflection of peritoneum that attaches the oviduct. 
The two descending veins of the kidneys, like those which ascended 
to form the vena cava, also unite; this junction, which takes place just 
below the orifice of the vagina, forms a single vein, that passes down 
to the caudal extremity. Both before and after the coalition of these 
two vessels, constant communications, by means of large trunks, are 
formed between them and the venous circulation on the side of the 
spine, in which manner it finally terminates. This vein, then, appears 
to be an insulated vessel ; for it originates in small ramifications, in the 
ovaria, and lobes of the kidney, and seems to have no other destination 
than to join the great circulation of the spine. This peculiarity sug- 
gests the idea, that it is intended to obviate the injurious effects of an 
impeded circulation when the stomach is distended with food ; a dis- 
tention, from the habits of the animal, likely to be great and of long 
duration. Under such circumstances, these vessels may, by a circuitous 
route, carry a large proportion of blood to the heart, which the vena 
cava alone would be unable to accomplish in a state of partial com- 



OF THE PYTHON. 127 

pression. The emulgent artery is connected with the kidney in the 
same manner, as were the veins and ureter; it is seen passing from the 
upper, to terminate at the lower extremity of the gland, being in con- 
tact with that vein which forms the origin of the vena cava. It is about 
a line in its greatest diameter, where it touches the top of the kidney. 
The capsular renales are two long narrow bodies, of a light yellow 
colour and speckled appearance, being situated above and near the kid- 
neys, but not in contact with them. That on the right side is six 
inches long, and from one to two lines broad ; it comes to a point at each 
end, and is about three-fourths of an inch distant from the kidney, to 
which it is connected by the peritoneum. The left capsule is one inch 
shorter than the other, and is situated lower in the body, but in other 
respects they resemble each other in all particulars. The capsules and 
the ovaria lie almost in contact, and are included in the same process 
of peritoneum. 

ORGANS OF GENERATION. 

The ovaria are rounded and somewhat flattened bodies of a yellow- 
ish colour, and filled with a muddy coloured albumen. They are 
numerous, and vary from one to six lines in diameter; they are all 
connected together and arranged in a row, which, on the right, is ten 
inches long, and on the left eight — the whole forming a curve, the 
convexity of which is outward on either side. The upper end of the 
row commences near the fimbriated extremity of the oviduct, which is 
here drawn in towards their commencement. The oviducts are two 
in number, and are arranged as follows : that on the right side is three 
feet three inches in length, the other eight inches shorter, but with 
this exception they are precisely alike. The oviduct, as it is found in 
an unimpregnated state, is flaccid and collapsed, being marked by 
minute transverse folds or wrinkles, which disappear upon distention. 
Inflation causes this tube to swell out, displaying a most beautiful 
transparent membrane of wonderful delicacy of structure; it then 
presents successive enlargements or ampullae, two or three inches in 
extent, and contractions, extending an inch or more, interposed be- 
tween them. The peritoneal attachment is at least four inches in 
breadth, and is so loose as to allow the oviduct to be spread out from 



128 ON THE VISCERAL ANATOMY 

the body on each side ; when thus stretched it forms a curve, the 
broadest part of which is about the middle. The lower portions of 
the two oviducts rapidly approach each other towards the caudal ex- 
tremity, and passing on the ventral face of the rectum, proceed on 
each side of the anus to open by an oval orifice within the upper mar- 
gin of the vaginal pouch. The upper portions of the oviducts form a 
curve, whose concavity looks towards the spine, and approach the up- 
per end of the row of ovaria, without, however, touching them. Each 
upper orifice, or fimbriated extremity as it must be termed, is a free, 
very distensible opening, one inch in length, forming a sulcus inwards, 
which terminates in a point ; from this point proceeds a well defined 
edge, two inches long when put on the stretch, formed of peritoneum, 
and acting as a ligament of attachment. The orifice of the oviduct, 
therefore, is removed considerably from the ovaria ; with this arrange- 
ment it is not easy to explain, either, how the semen masculinum ar- 
rives at the ovaria, or how the products of impregnation can get into 
the oviduct. The vagina, common to the ureters and oviduct, is a 
pouch of a conoidal shape, three inches deep, and an inch and a half 
in diameter at the external opening, which is also larger and more ex- 
posed than the anus. It is placed between the termination of the 
rectum and the spine, filling up all the space between the ribs at 
this part. The orifices of the oviducts are oblique, a quarter of an 
inch in their long diameter, and are placed about an inch apart, within 
the upper edge of the vagina. 

RESPIRATORY ORGANS. 

The larynx consists of a single cartilage, having a narrow oblique 
slit in it, about six lines in length, for the transmission of air ; the 
trachea is one foot eight inches in length, and three-eighths of an inch 
in diameter, and, as before remarked, passes down attached to the 
ventral face of the oesophagus. It consists of a great number of imper- 
fect cartilaginous rings, interrupted posteriorly, but joined by an elastic 
substance which keeps their extremities in contact. Each ring is con- 
nected to the adjoining one by a membrane also elastic, so that when 
the trachea is stretched lengthwise, it will easily regain its former 
condition. It passes behind the heart, and while there concealed, 



OF THE PYTHON. 129 

divides into two bronchiae, appropriated to the two lungs. The lungs, 
in a collapsed state, lie much concealed, being covered in part by the 
liver ; but, when inflated, are brought into view, and cause the liver to be 
raised up. These organs consist in two distinct vesicles or bags, united 
above along their middle, but terminating below, each in a separate cul 
de sac. They differ materially in size, but vary less in this respect than 
those of snakes in general. The right lung is two feet ten inches long, 
and about four inches broad, and extends down as far as the gall blad- 
der; opposite the spleens, which are on its left, it has a considerable 
contraction of its diameter. The smaller vesicle lies on the left side, 
and is loose at its lower end ; it is only one foot nine inches long, and 
three inches broad ; it terminates near the lower extremity of the liver. 
The lower four-fifths of each lung are thin, semi-transparent, and sup- 
plied with fewer blood vessels than the upper portion. The parietes 
are marked by circular lines or striae, along which are strung small 
white bodies, apparently vesicular, from half a line to two lines distant 
from each other; they are much more numerous above, and appear to 
be merely attached to the inner surface. The upper portion of each 
lung is composed of a more spongy structure ; the parietes are much 
thicker, and present on their inner surface a loose reticulated texture, 
somewhat resembling a section of the corpus cavernosum penis, the 
cells, however, being much larger. A free passage is left through the 
centre, so that the air, in inspiration, is not obliged necessarily to pass 
through the cells, which seem to present merely a more extensive sur- 
face for the purposes of respiration. Both lungs contained many 
worms, found most abundant above among the cells, and even in the 
trachea; they were of various dimensions, being from one to three 
inches in length, whitish, cylindrical, tapering, and surrounded their 
whole length by elevated rings or cords. 

CIRCULATION. 

The heart is situated about two feet from the head, on the middle 
line of the body ; it was flaccid, and contained some firm coagula ; it 
was of an oblong form, and about four inches in length. The two 
auricles constitute the upper half, and are distinct, having their apices 
entirely separated above. The right auricle, which is rather smooth 
vol. v. — 2 H 



130 ON THE VISCERAL ANATOMY 

internally, receives the blood from the two venae cavae. These great 
veins unite to form a sinus exterior to the auricle, and communicate 
with it by means of a single narrow opening or slit : this opening is 
both guarded and formed by two membranous valves, which, in a 
flaccid condition of the auricle, are loose and movable, but, when the 
auricle is dilated or stretched, are drawn together like the eyelids, and 
meeting in a straight line, thus interrupt the communication between 
the auricle and the sinus. From the right auricle the blood passes 
into the right ventricle, by an orifice which is small, and situated at 
the posterior part near the septum of the heart. Within the ventricle, 
and attached around that portion of the semi-circumference of this 
opening which is next the septum, a large and loose valve is observed, 
having in the centre of its floating edge a hard body like the corpus- 
culum Arantii of the human aorta. This valve is placed obliquely as 
regards the ventricle, is very strong, and when pushed upwards to- 
wards the auricle, is found to close the communication with that cavity 
completely. In this condition of the valve, however, we see exposed 
on its lower side another orifice, which is that of a free but somewhat 
oblique passage, going through the septum and opening into the left 
ventricle. It follows, from the attachment of this valve immediately 
between these two openings, that in closing the one it exposes the 
other : that is to say, when it is thrown down so as to allow the blood 
to descend from the right auricle into the right ventricle, it is placed 
against the passage leading into the left ventricle, in such a manner as 
to prevent its entrance into that cavity; on the other hand, when it is 
elevated, and placed against the opening leading into the right auricle, 
it leaves free and exposed that which communicates with the left ven- 
tricle. The cavity of the right ventricle is marked by some pits or 
depressions, which are more abundant near the apex, and make its in- 
ternal surface very irregular. Upon the posterior inferior face of this 
ventricle, commencing near the apex, and going up to terminate at the 
roots of the great vessels arising from this cavity, is a fleshy column, 
attached along one edge to the ventricle, while the other is free ; it 
increases in breadth as it ascends, and forms a partial septum, dividing 
as it were the ventricle into two cavities. At the point of termination 
of this column arise three great arteries ; two aortae for the general 



OF THE PYTHON. 131 

circulation, and one pulmonary artery which divides to supply the two 
lungs ; they are so placed at their roots, as to form an arch by their 
lateral connection, and their relative situation is as follows. The left 
aorta, the smallest of these trunks, is placed in the middle between the 
other two, and is also the most anterior ; it communicates with the 
ventricle, immediately beneath the fleshy column just described. The 
pulmonary artery is situated on the left of this vessel, and is much 
larger than either of the others; it opens into the ventricle, immediately 
in front of the fleshy column, which therefore intervenes between the 
orifices of these two vessels, causing the pulmonary artery to hold com- 
munication with the anterior cavity of the ventricle, as formed by the 
column, and the left aorta with the posterior. Immediately behind 
the root of the left aorta, and much concealed by it, is the orifice of 
the right aorta,* which is therefore also beneath the column, and con- 
nected with the same division of this ventricle ; it is intermediate in 
size to the other two. From this arrangement it follows, that the 
blood which is thrown out from the right ventricle is divided into two 
columns, one passing out by the pulmonary artery in front of the fleshy 
column, and the other by the two aortse. below it. Each of these great 
vessels is furnished at its root with two semilunar valves, which are 
calculated to close the orifice of communication with the ventricle, 
having also two sinuses of Valsalva (as we must term them) to be filled 
with blood, in a retrograde movement of that fluid. The mechanism, 
in fact, excepting only in the number of the valves, is like that of the 
great arteries of the human heart. 

The coronary arteries, two in number, arise from the left aorta, and 
are distributed upon the substance of the heart; the coronary vein, 
which returns the blood from these arteries, opens into the right auri- 
cle. The passage before alluded to, connecting the two ventricles, 
opens below the fleshy column, near the two aortae, and, consequently, 
in direct communication with those vessels. Now, as the blood that 
is thrown out from the left ventricle, passes directly by that passage 
into the upper corner of the right ventricle, it is brought at once to 



* The terms right and left, as applied to the aortse, are meant to indicate the side of the 
spine along which the artery passes in its descent to the point of junction. 



132 ON THE VISCERAL. ANATOMY 

the mouths of the left and right aortae, "which therefore convey pure 
blood that has passed through the pulmonary circulation. But the 
pulmonary artery, which is shut out from any communication with 
the left ventricle by its origin in front of the column, conveys only 
that blood which was in the anterior portion of the right ventricle? 
and derived from the right auricle. The left auricle is about one half 
the size of the right ; the septum between the two auricles is mem- 
branous and perfect, so that no communication exists between them. 
One large pulmonary vein opens into this auricle, conveying the blood 
from both lungs. Below is the opening that leads into the left ven- 
tricle ; this ventricle is many times thicker than the right, and appears 
to have less than a third the capacity. At the upper, posterior cor- 
ner, and in the septum ventriculorum, is the orifice of that passage 
already described, as establishing a communication betw r een the two 
ventricles. Between this orifice and that of the left auricle is a large 
and loose valve, so attached as to close them alternately, as it may be 
elevated or depressed precisely upon the same principle as explained 
in reference to the valve of the right ventricle. When this valve is 
elevated, therefore, it exposes the only outlet belonging to the left ven- 
tricle, namely, that passage through the septum which conveys the 
blood into the right ventricle at the roots of the two aortae. The 
right and left aortae unite at an acute angle behind the lungs, and on 
a level with the top of the liver, the left having first passed around the 
oesophagus. The artery that supplies the neck and head is a branch 
of the right aorta, and comes off from it about two inches from the 
heart. 

VEINS. 

The venous circulation is complicated, and consists of four divisions. 

1. The vena cava inferior is constituted of branches coming from the 
kidneys, ovaria, oviducts and liver, being connected with the latter 
organ, as it passes up to the heart, where it unites with the cava su- 
perior, bringing the blood from the head and upper parts of the body. 

2. The vena portae commences in the intestine, spleens and stomach, 
by branches which, uniting, form a trunk that passes to the liver, and 
is distributed throughout its structure. 3. Another distinct trunk is 



OF THE PYTHON. 133 

formed of branches also commencing in the kidneys, which descends, 
and, as already explained, terminates in the spinal circulation. 4. On 
each side of the spine, between the anterior faces of the transverse 
processes and the sides of the bodies of the vertebrae, passes the ver- 
tebral vein already alluded to, which receives the intercostals in its 
course, and also communicates with the interior circulation of the 
spinal canal. The ultimate termination and particular forms of these 
vertebra] veins or sinuses, were not satisfactorily made out; it was merely 
ascertained by a mercurial injection that they ran the whole length of 
the spine, and formed frequent communications with the vena cava as 
well as with other veins. A pipe having been fixed in one of the veins 
of the inferior portion of the body, the quicksilver run out freely from 
the spinal canal at the cut extremity of the neck, from which the head 
had been removed; thus, to avoid any particular local congestion, it 
would seem probable that, through the medium of the double circula- 
tion of the kidney, aided by the vertebral veins, the several divisions 
of the venous system are made to hold free communication. 

With much regret was it that we found ourselves obliged to sus- 
pend the investigation here. We hope, however, to be enabled at 
some future time to resume the study of the structure of so interesting 
an animal, under more favourable auspices, and to do it more justice. 



vol. v. — 2 I 



134 



ON THE VISCERAIi ANATOMY OF THE PYTHON. 



Explanation of the Plate. 



A. 


The (Esophagus. 


1. Hepatic Duct. 


B. 


The Stomach. 


2. Gall Bladder. 


C. 


The Pylorus. 


3. Renal Capsules. 


D. 


The Intestinal Canal. 


4. Ureters. 


E. 


The Anus. 


5. Orifices of Ureters. 


F. 


The Vaginal Pouch. 


6. Orifices of Oviducts. 


G. 


The Liver. 


7. 7. Vena Cava. 


H. 


H. The Oviducts. 


8. 8. Vena Porta?. 


I. 


The Spleens. 


9. 9. Veins descending from Kidneys to 


K. 


The Pancreas. 


Caudal Extremity. 


L. 


L. The Ovaria. 


10. Pulmonary Vein. 


M. 


M. The Kidneys. 




N. 


N. The Lungs. 




0. 


The Trachea. 




P. 


The Pulmonary Artery. 




Q. 


The Left Aorta. 




R. 


The Right Aorta. 




S. 


The Common Trunk formed by junc- 
tion of two Aortae. 





Fig. 2 is merely a duplicate of the caudal extremity, or lower portion of Fig. 1 ; and will be 
understood by a reference to the same letters in the explanation. 



ARTICLE IV 



On the Longitude of the Hall of the American Philosophical Society, 
deduced from an Occultation of Aldebaran observed by S. C. 
Walker January 5th 1830. Read before the American Philoso- 
phical Society October 18th 1833. 

On the evening of January 5th 1830, 1 observed the occultation of 
Aldebaran at the place mentioned in the Memoir on the Solar Eclipse 
of February 12th 1831, in the fourth volume of the Transactions of 
the American Philosophical Society. The local time was estimated 
from observations of the sun on the meridian, by Joseph Roberts, Jun. 
at the Friends' Observatory. The telescope used was by Dollond, 
three and a half feet achromatic. The immersion and emersion were 
both visible. The same phenomena were observed by Mr Maclear at 
Biggleswade, England ; by Mr Paine at Boston ; and Mr Bond at Dor- 
chester, Massachusetts. The immersion was observed at Cambridge, 
England, by Professor Airy ; and at Bedford, England, by Captain 
Smyth. The observations were as follows : 

Occultation of a Tauri, January 5th P.M. 1830. 



Immersion. 


Emersion. 


Observer. 


Place of Observation. 


Latitude 
North. 


Longitude from 
Greenwich. 


H. 51. S. 


H. M. s. 






O ' // 


H. M. s. 


9 56 15.00 m.* 


11 44 30.00 m. 


Walker. 


Philadelphia. 


39 57 01.0 


5 00 43.4 west. 


10 14 50.50 m. 


11 12 19.00 m. 


Paine. 


Boston. 


42 20 38.0 


4 44 15.2 west. 


10 14 51.00 m. 


11 12 50.00 m. 


Bond. 


Dorchester. 


42 19 20.0 


4 44 17.0 west. 


10 41 53.18 s.t 




Smyth. 


Bedford, Eng. 


52 08 27.6 


1 51.97 west. 


10 42 44.70 s. 


11 33 19.60 s. 


Maclear. 


Biggleswade, Eng. 


52 5 25.0 


1 3.50 west. 


10 44 07.44 s. 


*■ 


Airy. 


Cambridge, Eng. 


52 12 10.0 


23 54.00 east. 



* The letter m denotes mean solar time. 



t The letter s denotes sidereal time. 



136 



ON THE LONGITUDE OF THE HALL OF THE SOCIETY. 



This occultation is valuable for the purpose of determining the lon- 
gitude of Philadelphia, Boston, and Dorchester, from the circumstances 
of its having been very carefully observed at several established obser- 
vatories in England. It was selected by Mr Henderson for determin- 
ing the longitude of Biggleswade and Bedford, and gave the following 
results. 





By aTauri, Jan. 5 1830. 


By all the Observations to 1832. 


Biggleswade, west of Greenwich. 
Bedford, west of Greenwich. 
Bedford, west of Biggleswade. 


M. S. 

1 02.70 

1 50.60 

47.30 


M. s. 

1 03.50 
1 51.97 

48.47 



The near agreement of the longitudes deduced from this occultation 
with the mean of many others, induced me to calculate the longitude 
of the Hall of the American Philosophical Society from my observa- 
tions, allowance being made for the place where the observations for 
local time were made, and for the place where the occultation was 
observed. The longitude of this Hall, thus deduced, is west from 
Greenwich, 5 h. m. 46.09 sec. 

This longitude exceeds by a few seconds that determined byRitten- 
house from the transit of Venus. It agrees more nearly with the esti- 
mates of De Ferrer and Bowditch, and with the recent determination 
of R. T. Paine from Joseph Roberts' and my observations of the solar 
eclipse of 1831. 

The parallaxes in declination and right ascension were calculated by 
the method of Maclear, Mem. Ast. Soc. London, Vol. IV., No. XXIX. 
By this method the errors of the tables of the moon's right ascension 
are deduced from the star's right ascension, and the moon's tabular 
declination, independently of the tabular right ascension of the moon. 

The longitudes deduced from this occultation by Maclear's method, 
confirm the remark of Captain Smyth, Ast. Soc. Mem., Vol. IV. p. 567 ; 
the west longitude deduced from the immersion being too great, and 
that from the emersion too small. The mean of the results is however 
generally accurate. 



ARTICLE V. 



On the Crystals developed in Vermiculite by Heat. By Andres Del Rio, 
Professor of Mineralogy in the Mexican School of Mines. Read 
before the American Philosophical Society November 1st, 1833. 

A pupil of the celebrated Werner, I have always been more of a Nep- 
tunian than a Plutonist, notwithstanding the many crystallizations 
produced in the dry way. A new instance which has come under my 
observation in the crystals of vermiculite, has contributed materially to 
change my opinions. 

Dr Meigs first showed me the numerous worm-like filaments which 
shoot out from this mineral when held in the flame of a candle : it is 
this property which gives to the mineral its name of vermiculite. 
Under the blow-pipe, and when exposed on a small capsule to the heat 
of a fire, the whole mass started up into numerous oblique rhombic 
prisms, nearly an inch long and more than a line in thickness, crooked 
and wormlike, like the filaments just referred to. These prisms are 
composed of very thin plates of the colour and lustre of silver, placed 
parallel to each other, and oblique to the axes of the prisms. I also 
observed some twin crystals among these groups. 

These crystals were digested in sulphuric acid, which separated the 

plates from each other, probably by dissolving out portions of the 

mineral which were between the plates; these latter remained unat- 

tacked by the acid. A partial examination of the solution, made at 

vol. v. — 2 K 



138 ON THE CRYSTALS DEVELOPED IN VERMICULITE BY HEAT. 

my request by professor Bache, yielded much alumina, some lime, 
lithia and oxide of iron, but neither magnesia nor potash. It is possible 
that the vermiculite, which bears the appearance of a decomposed 
mineral, has lost part of its potash and silex, like the porcelain earth ; 
and that the remaining part combines under the influence of heat in 
proper proportion to form the plates, while a portion containing no 
potash remains interposed between them. 

These crystals then are probably a potash and lithia mica, of which 
the crystalline form indicates two axes of refraction, and the constitu- 
ents of which, being contained in the vermiculite, are combined and 
crystallize suddenly by the action of heat ; the reverse operation of 
crystallizing by cooling. 

The formation of mica in the minerals of Mount Vesuvius may be 
explained on similar principles, though in that case we have a mag- 
nesian mica, with a single axis of refraction. 



ARTICLE VI 



Collections towards a Flora of the Territory of Arkansas. By Thomas 
Nuttall. Read before the American Philosophical Society April 4, 
1834. 



CRYPTOGAMIA. 

Or Sporadia. Gemmule and perfect plant eonsimilar ; sexual organs 
and flowers heteromorphous and inconspicuous ; cotyledons none. 

FUNGI. 

1. Fuligo flava. 2. F. cinnabarina. 3. F. *coccinea. — Hab. 
The trunks of Cupressus disticha. 

1. Trichia botrytis. 2. T. vulgaris. 3. T. reticulata. 

F1LICES. 

Ophioglossum vulgatum. — Hab. Near the town of Arkansas. 

1. Botrychium fumarioides. 2. B. obliquum. — Hab. Of frequent 
occurrence in shady woods. 

1. Osmunda spectabilis. 2. O. cinnamomea. — Hab. Near springs 
on the banks of Arkansas and Red rivers, but not common. 

1. Polypodium vulgare. 2. P. incanum. — Common. 



140 COLLECTIONS TOWARDS 

1. Astidivm acrostichoides. 2. A.marginak. 3. A. Filix femina. 

1. Asplenium rhizophyllum. 2. A. angustifolium. 3. A. ebe- 
neum. 4. A. melanocaulon. 5. A. Ruta muraria. 

Pteris aquilina. 

Wood ward ia virginica. 

Adiantum pedatum. — Hab. Near the Petit Gulf on the banks of 
the Mississippi. 

Cheilanthes vestita. — Common. 

PlLULARIA. 

Marsilea * Remotely allied to the Ferns. Natural affinity un- 
known. 

Azolla Americana. 

Equiset cm hyemale. — Hab. Forming extensive and exclusive fields 
on the banks of the Ohio, Missouri, Mississippi and Arkansas rivers. 

Chara vulgaris. 



PH^NOGAMIA. 

Or Seminifera. Germinal rudiments and succeeding vegetation 
dissimilar; sexual organs and flowers conspicuous. 

ACOTYLEDONES. 

NAIADES. 

1 . Lemna minor. 2, L. polyrhiza. 

1. Caleitriche verna. 

2. C. *pedunculosa, foliis omnibus ellipticis, enerviis ; fructibus 
pedunculatis, declinatis. — Hab. (In depressed situations, and on the 
margin of ponds, attached to the ground) from Arkansas to the Pottoe, 
&c — Obs. Leaves cuneate-elliptic, thickish and covered with impressed 
punctures ; flowers axillary and opposite, monoicous, one of them 
staminiferous ; calix and corolla none ? (at least I could not discover 
any) ; stamens not exserted ; styles two, for a while persistent on the 
summit of the pedunculated fruit; seeds four, compressed; time of 
flowering, February. 



A FLORA OF ARKANSAS TERRITORY. 141 

3. C. *peploides, subcarspitosa; foliis omnibus ellipticis; fructibus 
sessilibus. — Hab. On the banks of the Mississippi, and on the margins 
of ponds. This species differs from the preceding by the greater 
minuteness and sessile posture of the fruit; the stems are also perfectly 
erect. It cannot well be confounded with the heterophyllous and 
floating species, as it shows no tendency to either one or the other. 
The great extent of its geographical distribution, every where along 
the banks of the Mississippi and the neighbouring ponds, proves it to 
be no transient or local variety, influenced by peculiar circumstances. 

Ceratophyllum submersum? 

1. Myriophyllum spzm/wm. 2. M. heterophyllum. 3. M. scabra- 
tum. — Obs. Fruit with eight furrows, and the ridges muricate. 

Proserpinaca palustris. The quadration of the parts of fructifi- 
cation which frequently happens in this genus, besides the great simi- 
larity of habit, renders it inseparable in order from Myriophyllum. 

1. Potamogeton natans. 2. P '. heterophyllum. 

Obs. The genera Myriophyllum, Ptilophyllum and Proserpinaca 
(probably terminating with two cotyledons) would, perhaps, have been 
more properly arranged with the first section of the Onagrae of Jussieu. 
Proserpinaca has been heretofore associated with the Hydrocharideae. 

AROIDEAE. 

Saururus cernuus. — Obs. Stamens on the lower, and as far as above 
the middle of the spike, eight, seven and six, uppermost flowers often 
producing only four. This genus is collated with the Peperomia of 
Ruiz and Pavon, and we cannot perceive any sufficient reason for ex- 
cluding the genus Piper from this natural association. The only 
obstacle appears to be the quadrature of the germs in Saururus, which, 
however, precisely agrees with the increased number of stamens, eight 
in place of two, and so four fruit in place of one. The sensible taste 
and aroma of Saururus is similar to that of Acorus calamus. 

1. Arum: triphy Hum. 2. A. draconlium. — Hab. Near the Gadron 
settlement. 

Neither Symplocarpus nor Orontium appears to the west of the 
Alleghany mountains. 

VOL. V. 2 L 



142 COLLECTIONS TOWARDS 

Acorus calamus. — Hab. From the town of Arkansas to the Pecan- 
nerie settlement. 



Typha latifolia. 



CYPEROIDEAE. 



1. Carex rosea. 2. C. tentaculata. 3. C. lupulina. 4. C, Jiava. 
5. C. folliculata. 6. C. plantaginia. 7. C. anceps, &c. 

Scleria reticularis. 

Fuirena squarrosa. — Obs. The root in winter becomes bulbous. 

Scirpus trichodes. 2. S. palustris. 3. S. lacustris. 4. S. quad- 
rangulatus. — Rare. 5. S. autumnalis. 

1. Rhynchospora alba. 2. R. longirostris. 

1. Schoenus setaceus. 2. S. effusus. 

1. Mariscus retrofractus. 2. M. echinatus. 

I. Cypertts poaeformis. 2. C. pygmaeus, Cavan. ic 6, p. 65, t. 568, 
f. 2 ; C. uncinatus Ph. — Scarcely distinct from C. squarrosus of India. 
3. C. brizaeus. 4. C. Jlavescens. 5. C. hydra. 6. C. flavicomus. 
— Obs. The roots of several of these species become fragrant when 
dried. 

Kyllingia pumila. — Hab. Banks of the Mississippi. 

GRAMINEAE. 

Limnetis cynosuroides. 

Greenia.* Calix coriaceus, oblongus, bivalvis, uniflorus; corolla 
inclusa, bivalvis ; valva exteriore sub apice integra aristata ; perisporium 
bipartitum. Panicula multiflora, subracemosa ; stipulis membranaceis. 

G. JLrkansana. Root fibrous, annual ? Culm about twelve to eigh- 
teen inches high ; leaves short and narrow', often pubescent ; stipules 
membranaceous; panicle slender, partly racemose. Calix indurated; 
valves oblong, scabrous, semiterete and acute, awnless, including the 
corolla ; valves of the corolla linear-oblong, acute, naked at the base : the 
exterior awned below the summit, which is entire ; awn at first straight, 
about twice the length of the corolla, spirally twisted by desiccatioD. 
persistent. 

* In honour of B. D. Greene, Esq. well known as an assiduous botanist. 



A FLORA OF ARKANSAS TERRITORY. 143 

Allied to Oryzopsis. — Hab. On the calcareous hills in the grassy 
plains of Red river. Flowering in May. 

1. Muhlenbergia diffusa.— Called nimble-will, and considered as 
an important pasture-grass in Kentucky and Tennessee. 2. M. erecta. 

1. Agrostis tenuijlora. 2. A. strieta. 

3. A. arachnoides, Elliott. Panicula patente, capillari; floribus 
binatis, glabris; corolla, arista dorsali tenuissime capillacea longissima; 
foliis brevibus planis. — Hab. In the open and elevated prairies of the 
Arkansas. Flowering in April and May. — Obs. Culm about a span 
in height ; branchlets of the panicle few-flowered, capillary and flex- 
uous ; flowers aggregated towards the summits of the branchlets, com- 
monly purple and somewhat shining; calix lanceolate, the carina 
scabrous ; corolla 2-valved, a little shorter than the calix ; awn of the 
dorsal valve about four times its length, appearing like a flaccid silken 
hair; anthers three. This very curious grass, which occurs sometimes 
according to Mr Elliott with a single stamen, appears to be somewhat 
allied to the genus Jarava. 

4. A. decumbens. 5. A. vulgaris. 6. A. clandestina. — Obs. This 
appears to be the Panicum clandestinum of Persoon. 7. A. Indica. 
— Hab. Banks of the Mississippi, as far as New Orleans. 

1. Trichodium laxiflorum. 2. T. decumbens. 
Cinna arundinacea. 

1. Cae am agrostis Canadensis. 

2. C. *gigantea. Panicula pyramidata, ramis multifloris ; calicibus 
lanceolatis membranaceis corolla mutica breviori, valvulis inaequalibus. 
— Hab. On the sandy banks of Great Salt river of the Arkansas. — 
Obs. The great magnitude and general aspect of this species might 
justly entitle it to the common appellation of a reed, notwithstanding 
the calix containing only a single flower. They grow also in consi- 
derable quantities together. The culm, of a proportionate thickness, 
often attains the height of six feet. The leaves, which are smooth, 
are considerably attenuated towards the point; the stipules are a mere 
margin of dense hairs. The panicle is sometimes nearly as much as 
a man can fathom, consisting of many effuse branches, forming a py- 
ramidal panicle. The flowers are somewhat racemosely aggregated by 
pairs ; the valves of the membranaceous calix are lanceolate, unequal 



144 COLLECTIONS TOWARDS 

in length, perfectly smooth, and each furnished with a single nerve 
terminating somewhat acutely ; the corolla is altogether similar, except 
that the valves are somewhat pubescent on the back, and the base fur- 
nished with the conspicuous wool of Arundo. 

Polypogon racemosum. 

Alopecurus geniculatus. 

Phalaris * Occident cdis. Panicula spiciformi, ovata; glumis cari- 
natis lanceolatis integris glabris ; corolla 4-valvi ; valvulis exterioribus 
subulatis, interioribus villosis. — Hub. In partially inundated prairies, 
from fort Smith on the Arkansas to Red river. Flowering in May. — 
Obs. Annual. Culms fasciculated, about twelve inches high; root 
fibrous; leaves four or five, broad lanceolate, acute, pale green and 
smooth, but scabrous along the margin ; stipules membranaceous, lace- 
rate ; spike solitary, terminal, at first included in a ventricose sheath, 
cylindric and smooth ; glumes of the calyx exceeding the corolla in 
length, navicularly compressed and pungently acute, of a texture partly 
hyaline, with green veins, the keel a little hispid; corolla ovate, acute, 
pubescent, 4-valved, the exterior valves minute and subulate. Nearly 
allied to P. canadensis, of which it possesses the entire aspect, but the 
flowers and seeds are very much smaller, and indeed altogether dis- 
tinct. Doctor B. D. Greene found this species in Cuba, and Doctor 
Little discovered it in the vicinity of New Orleans. 

1. Panicum crus-galli. 2. P. gibbum, Elliott. 3. P. genicu- 
latum. 4. P. anceps. 5. P. hians. 6. P. virgatum. 7. P. latifo- 
lium. 8. P. pauciflorum. 9. P. multi florum . 10. P. pubescens. 
11. P. ciliatum. 12. P. microcarpon. 13. P. angustifolium. 14. 
P. capillar e. 15. P. agrostoides. 

Obs. The Panicum milium and P. Italicum deserve to be cultivated 
in the warmer states and territories of the union, particularly where 
wheat is found not to succeed, as is the case in the Arkansas territory, 
and as I have understood also in the warmer parts of Tennessee or 
Kentucky. In Africa and tropical America the Panicum jumentorum, 
called Guinea grass, is also an object of cultivation. 

Pennisetum glaucum. 

Orthopogon parvifolium. Vide Appendix to Nuttall's Genera of 
American Plants. 



A FLORA OF ARKANSAS TERRITORY. 145 

1. Digit aria sanguinalis. 2. D. filiformis. 
Cynodon dadylon. — Hab. Banks of the Mississippi, near Fort 
Adams and Natchez. 

1. Paspalum setaceum. 2. V.laeve. 3, P. purpurascens, Elliott. 

4. P. *racemosum, villosum ; spicis alternis, brevibus, culmo appressis ; 
rachi pilosa immarginata; floribus bi-seriatis. — Hab. The grassy plains 
of Red river. Flowering in June. — Obs. Perennial; leaves short, 
narrow and softly pubescent ; culm somewhat naked, eighteen inches 
to two feet high; spikes about five, disposed in a simple raceme; 
rachis without margin ; clavellate receptacle of the flowers pilose ; calix 
villous, outer valve 5-nerved. 

5. P. stoloniferum. — Hab. Inundated banks of the Arkansas and 
Mississippi. 

Cenchrus tribuloides. 

Tripsacum daelyloides. A common grass throughout the plains of 
the Arkansas territory, and an important nutriment to cattle. This 
species is not apparently distinct from the monostachyon, as there are 
all gradations, from one to several spikes. 

1. Stipa avenacea. 2. S. parviflora. 3. S. sericea. 

1. Aristida stricta. 2. A. oligantha. 3. A. dichotoma. 4. A. 
pattens. 

5. A. ^purpurea. Panicula erectiuscula gracili ; cal. valvulis remotis 
aristulatis apice bifidis ; aristis capillaribus longissimis ; foliis brevibus 
scabris. — Hab. On the grassy plains of Red river, in arid situations. 
Flowering in May. — Obs. Perennial; leaves narrow, short and scabrous ; 
ligula pilose ; culm about one foot high ; panicle many flowered, a little 
spreading, branches capillary ; flowers commonly in pairs (after the 
manner of the genus), bluish purple ; one valve of the calyx nearly 
double the length of the other, both bifid at the summit and shortly 
awned, the longer valve exceeding the corolla ; awns equal, capillary, 
nearly three times the length of the corolla and scabrous; corolla 
minutely stipitate. 

Aira obtusata, Mich. (A. mollis, Muhlenberg). 

URALErsis aristulata. — On all the sand-bars of the Arkansas; 
common. 

1. Voxpratensis. 2. P. annua. 3. P. viridis. 4. P. nemoralis, 
vol. v. — 2 M 



146 COLLECTIONS TOWARDS 

(3 debilis. 5. P. jiuitans. 6. P. capillaris. — Obs. The whole plant 
asperate; lower spikelets 3 to 6-flowered, upper ones bearing from 
10 to 12; the base of the branchlets tumid and pilose; leaves much 
shorter than the culm ; spikelets purple. Is the P. hirsuta of Michaux 
essentially distinct from this species ? 

7. P. *trichodes. Glabra; panicula maxima elongata, capillari; spi- 
culis laxis lanceolatis planis 3 — 8-floris acutis ; foliis longissimis. Per- 
haps P. tenuis of Elliott Hab. In bushy prairies and open alluvial 

lands. — Obs. Perennial; three to four feet high; leaves very long and 
rather broad, smooth, occasionally pilose at the orifice of the sheath ; 
stipules none ; panicle one to two feet long, innumerably branched, 
capillary, divided ; spikelets smooth, upon long pedicells ; the lower 
ones 3 or 4-flowered, the upper with 8; calix and corolla carinate, very 
acute and smooth, almost membranaceous ; florets not crowded nor 
tomentose at the base; dorsal valve 3-nerved; stamens three, pale 
coloured. 

8. P. conferta (P. glomerata, Walter, not of Linnaeus). — On the 
inundated banks of the larger rivers. 9. P. parvijlora. 10. P. era- 
grostis. 

11. P. *interrupta. Panicula laxa, interrupta ; spiculis glomeratis, 
subsessilibus, oblongo-lanceolatis, compressis, multifloris (8 — 16), val- 
vulis acutissimis; foliis angustatis. — Hab. In bushy prairies, near the 
sandy banks of the Arkansas; common. — Obs. Perennial; plant 
glaucous ; leaves narrow ; ligula pilose, obsolete ; culm twelve to eigh- 
teen inches ; branches of the panicle somewhat remote and divided, 
partly erect ; spikelets conglomerated, carinately compressed, appearing 
serrated ; valves ovate, acute, 3-nerved (after the manner of this section 
of the genus, which I have elsewhere termed Brizoma). A very 
elegant and well characterized species. Flowering in June. 

12. P. pilosa (P. tenella, Elliott and Nuttall ; P. pectinacea? 
Michaux). 13. P. hypnoides. — Abundant and common along the in- 
undated banks of the Mississippi. 1 4. P. reptans. 

15. P. *capitata. Dioica, viscido-pubens ; culmo reptante; pani- 
cula foeminea subrotunda lobata obtusa, mascula conferta; spiculis 
subduodecemfloris, lanceolatis ; foliis distichis brevibus. — Hab. On the 
sand-beaches of the Arkansas. Flowering in July. — Obs. Allied to 



A FLORA OF ARKANSAS TERRITORY. 147 

P. reptans, but remarkably distinguished by its conglomerated and 
almost capitate panicles, which give it almost the appearance of Crypsis 
aculeata. Annual and pilose ; culm prostrate, diffusely branched, striking 
root at the nodes ; leaves lanceolate and very acute, distichal, about two 
inches long; sheaths very short; stipules obsolete, pilose; female 
flowers spiked, the spikes subcapitate and lobed ; male panicle acute, 
the spikelets less crowded, compressed, larger than those which are 
styliferous, and all 3-nerved after the manner of this section, with 
which it arranges. 

1. Windsoria poaeformis (Poa sesleroides, Michaux). 

2. W. *stricta. Panicula subspicata, stricta, multiflora ; calicibus 
acuminatis, spiculis subquinquefloris paulo brevioribus. — Hab. In 
prairies, near the town of Arkansas. — Obs. Perennial ; leaves long and 
smooth ; stipules pilose ; culm about two feet high, rigid, 1 or 2-jointed ; 
panicle six to eight inches long, crowded with numerous and short 
branchlets, appressed to the culm so as almost to resemble a spike. 
Calix acuminate, nearly the length of the spikelet ; each valve with 
a single nerve or vein ; dorsal valve of the corolla (as usual) densely 
villous along the lower margins and back, subtricuspidate, the central 
cusp alone conspicuous. 

Danthonia spicata. 

1. Festuca tenella, (3 *glauca, culmis numerosis foliosis. — Hab. 
Fort Smith. Z.F.elatior. 3. F.polystachia. 4. F.diandra. 5. F. 
jiuitans. 

6. F. *schtrea. Panicula spicata elongata ; calicibus subaequalibus 
5 — 7-floris ; floribus pubescentibus longissime aristatis ; foliis setaceis 
brevissimis. — Arkansas. 

1. *Diachroa. Corolla carinata, substipitata, membranacea; val- 
vula exteriori sub apice aristata, dorso margineque utrinque barbata. 

2. D. procumbens (Festuca procumbens, Muhlenberg). — Obs. An- 
nual. Culm prostrate, compressed, smooth, the panicle ascending: 
leaves scabrous, long and attenuated ; stipules membranaceous, lacer- 
ated_; panicle partly included in the leaf-sheath, the rachis scabrous and 
angular, branches undivided and rigid, also angular ; spikelets alternate, 
subsessile, crowded; calix 2-valved, 8 to 9-flowered, valves Unequal, 
acute, 1-nerved; corolla 2-valved, aeruginous-purple ; dorsal valve cari- 



148 COLLECTIONS TOWARDS 

nated, 3-nerved, shortly awned, sericeously ciliated towards the base ; 
florets stipitate, the stipe sericeous ; stamina three ; anthers small, pale 
yellow ; stigmas white, filiform and simply plumose. — Hab. On the 
sands of the ocean, along the sea coast of New Jersey, &c, and on the 
sand-bars of the Arkansas for more than a thousand miles. The whole 
aspect of this plant is at variance with Festuca, and it ought, apparently, 
to constitute a distinct genus. 

1. Koeleria tuberosa? Persoon (Aira cristata, Smith). — Obs. Root 
perennial, fibrous ; leaves smooth or pubescent ; stipules membranaceous ; 
panicle in the form of a spike, from four to six inches in length ; rachis 
pubescent; flowers crowded; calix oblong, 2 to 3-flowered, greenish 
and shining.- — Hab. On the plains of Arkansas and Red rivers. — Com- 
mon. K. nitida, Nuttall's Genera Am. vol. 1, p. 74. 

2. K. paniculata, Nuttall's Gen. Am. Appendix. (Aira truncata. 
Muhlenberg ; Aira obtusata, Elliott, not of Michaux?) 

Bromus purgans (B. ciliatus, Lin.). — Obs. Leaves partly distichal. 
1 . Uniola latifolia. 2. U. gracilis. 

3. U. *multi 'flora. Panicula subspicata rigida ; spiculis longissimis 
lanceolato-linearibus numerosissime floris; culmo brevi, a basi ramosa; 
foliis subdistichis subulatis brevibus. — Hab. On the sand beaches of 
the Arkansas, above the garrison — Obs. Perennial ; culm terete, radi- 
cant and divided towards the base ; leaves alternate, distichally spread- 
ing, rather short and subulate, pale green ; sheaths short, commonly 
pilose at the orifice ; stipules obsolete ; panicle spiked, branchlets short 
andappressed ; calix 2-valved ; spikelets often an inch long, and scarcely 
more than a line and a half wide, containing from sixteen to twenty- 
four florets; external corolla, valves ovate-acute, concave, opaque and 
smooth, numerously striate and scariose along the margin ; anthers 
three, yellow; many of the glumes abortive of seed. This species 
possesses all the habit of U. spicata, but differs essentially by the 
magnitude and paucity of the spikelets. I have a specimen which I 
collected on the plains of the Missouri, apparently referable to this 
species, but the spikelets are ovate, and not more than about 1 2-flowered. 

1. Melica glabra, Mich. (M. racemosa, Muhl. Gram. Descript. 
p. 88). 

2. M. *scabra. Foliis latis subpubescentibus asperis; panicula 



A FLORA OP ARKANSAS TERRITORY. 149 

ramosa, multiflora, ramis subsimplicibus ; floribus secundis nutantibus ; 
calicibus trifloris ; floribus glabriusculis exsertis.— -i/aft. In the humid 
shady woods of Cedar prairie, ten miles from Fort Smith. Flowering in 
Ma.y.—Obs. Perennial. Culm two to three feet high ; stipules lacerate ; 
panicle many flowered, secund, partly branched to the summit; calix 
mostly 3-flowered, besides the neutral rudiment, which is pedicellate ; 
valves ovate, obtuse and coloured, with the margin scariose ; spikelets 
sublanceolate, the flowers being exserted beyond the calix ; flower glumes 
striated, merely smooth to the naked eye ; inner valve (seen through a 
common lens) pubescent along the margin, as in M. glabra, to which 
this species is proximately related ; stamens three ; styles two, pubes- 
cent. This species appears to be somewhat related to M. aspera of 
Barbary. 

1. Miegia gigantea (M. macrosperma, Pursh). — Ramis floriferis, 
spiculis paucifloris (8 — 10), purpureis, glabris, acuminatis; caule fruti- 
coso altissimo. — Hab. From Great Sandy river on the northern confines 
of Kentucky, along the alluvial borders of the Ohio to its confluence ; on 
the banks of the Mississippi, from Kaskaskia to the Gulf of Mexico ; on 
the borders of the Arkansas, a few miles above the Verdigris ; on Red 
river to the L'eau Bleu ; in the Atlantic states to the confines of Vir- 
ginia. When, after a lapse of years, arrived at the period of flowering, 
it often sends up in a period of two months a stem of thirty-five or 
forty feet in height, which in the following year flowers and dies. 
This species rarely survives after being cut down, while the smaller or 
dwarf cane springs up again from the remaining root. 

2. M. *pumila. Panicula radicali ; spiculis pubescentibus, multi- 
floris (12 — 20), valvulis longe acuminatis. — Hab. At the confluence 
of Kiamesha and Red rivers, in alluvial lands.— Obs. Culm three or 
four feet high, shrubby and slender; leaves as in the preceding, but 
somewhat broader ; flowering panicles radical, two to three feet high, 
slender, and often refracted towards the summit ; spikelets slenderly 
pedunculate, and attenuated at the base, two to three inches long and 
pubescent, containing from ten to twenty conspicuously acuminated or 
cuspidate flowers ; calix small, with very unequal valves ; stamina three; 
stigmas three ; sheaths of the leaves pubescent along the margin ; the 
orifice surrounded by setose tufts. I am not certain that this plant is 

VOL. V. 2 N 



150 COLLECTIONS TOWARDS 

the dwarf cane commonly noticed by the colonists, which indeed 
appears to be nothing more than a variety of the M. gigantea. 

Chloris *verticillata. Spicis plurimis verticillatis, radiatis, filiformi- 
bus; calicibus acuminatis bifloris; flosculis longe aristatis; gluma exte- 
riore subbarbata; caule compresso. — Hob. On the sandy banks of the 
Arkansas, near Fort Smith ; rare. Flowering in June. — Obs. Peren- 
nial. Culm compressed, branched from the base, about twelve inches 
high ; leaves pale green, narrowish and flat; sheaths carinately compressed ; 
stipules obsolete, hairy; spikes mostly verticillated in two series, the first 
aggregation consisting of from seven to nine spikes ; spikes filiform and 
stellately spreading, pilose at the base, about six inches long ; flowers 
unilateral, alternating in. two rows; calix acuminate, 2-flowered, one of 
the flowers perfect, the other neuter, the dorsal valves of both gibbous, 
obtuse and awned, the awn more than twice the length of the flower, 
that of the hermaphrodite bearded ; seed triangular, smooth and even ; 
anthers three ; stigmas two, brown. There are few grasses in America 
more curious and elegant. Its aspect is that of the tropical species. 

Oxydenia attenuata (Eleusine sparsa, Muhl. Gram. Descript. p. 
135). The Chloris mucronata of Michaux appears to belong to this 
genus, and is evidently distinct from the plant of Pursh and Muhlen- 
berg, which has digitate spikes, is more nearly related to Chloris, and 
forms the genus Dactyloctenium of Wildenow and Sprengel. 

Eleusine Indica. — Hab. The banks of the western rivers in the 
United States appear to be the only genuine locality of this intrusive 
grass, which, from the coast of the Atlantic to the garrison of the 
Arkansas, uniformly infests gardens, court yards, and in the towns 
even the pavements of the streets. Bearing to be trampled upon without 
injury, it thus occupies places where scarcely any other vegetable can 
subsist. As it is equally common to India, the West India islands and 
North America, it probably extends through both hemispheres. ' 

1. Atheropogon apludoides (Chloris curtipendula, Michaux). — 
Throughout the western country in elevated prairies. 

2. A. olygostachyum, Nuttall's Gen. Am. vol. l,p. 78. — Obs. The 
spikes ill these more perfect specimens than those which I collected in 
the Missouri territory, are commonly three in number, and, after the 
manner of the genus, alternately disposed along the rachis for a distance 
of about three inches, including the terminating one. This species 



A FLORA OF ARKANSAS TERRITORY. 151 

possesses very much the appearance of the Monocera of Elliott (Chloris 
monostachya, Mich.). 

HoRDEUM^wsz7/wm, Nuttall's Gen. Am. vol. 1, p. 87. The speci- 
mens which I collected in Cedar prairie, a few miles from Fort Smith, 
are scarcely less than twelve inches high, while those of the arid plains 
of the Missouri were not more than five or six. 

1. Eeymus Canadensis. 2. E. virginicus. 

1. Asprella * Americana. Spica erecta, spiculis patentibus, supe- 
rioribus subunisetis. — Obs. In the American plant the upper spikelets 
are subtended by one or two longish setaceous portions of an involu- 
crum, entirely wanting in the European species. 

2. A. *~angustifolia. Spiculis pubescentibus, involucrum nullum. 

Spartina polystachya (Limnetis polystachya, Persoon, and appa- 
rently L. cynosuroides of the same). This grass, though common on 
the sea coast, exists in wet prairies throughout the Missouri and Arkan- 
sas territories to their utmost limits. 

Rottboellia *campestris. Spica solitaria subcylindrica glabra; 
floribus subsecundis geminis sterilibus pedicellatis ; valvula calycina 
ovata, punctata ; corolla trivalvi. — Hah. In open grassy prairies, abun- 
dant. Flowering in June. — Obs. Perennial. Culm two to three feet 
high, smooth and erect, rarely terminating in more than a single spike ; 
leaves narrow and rather short, commonly smooth to the naked eye ; 
ligules minute and membranaceous ; spike pedunculate, about six inches 
long, nearly cylindric ; rachis flexuose and scrobiculate ; calix of the 
perfect flower consisting of one external and one internal valve ; Corolla 
of three membranaceous valves. The rudimental flower minute and 
neutral, its pedicell appressed to the scrobiculum of the rachis ; an- 
thers three ; styles two, brown and plumose. This species appears to 
be allied to R. coalorachis of the isle of Tanna, according to the 
description of Forster, which is not sufficiently complete to admit of 
decision. It appertains to the section which, in my account of the 
North American genera, is termed Apogon, from their affinity to An- 
dropogon. As in. R. rugosa there described, the corolla consists of 
three valves.* 

* By an oversight in the printing of the above mentioned book, in the fourth line of the 
specific description, page 84, the word " corolla," which ought to precede " 3-valved," has 



152 COLLECTIONS TOWARDS 

Lepturus paniculatus, Nuttall's Gen. Am. vol. l,p. 81. — In denu- 
dated places in the open prairies ; common, and rather larger than the 
Missouri plant. 

1. Anthopogon lepturoides (Andropogon ambiguum, Michaux). 
Racemis e basi floriferis ; calicibus subbifloris ; floribus nudis longe aris- 
tatis; foliis ovato-lanceolatis. — Hab. Near the Cadron, in open woods. — 
Obs. In the most perfect natural specimens the calix contains two 
flowers besides the rudiment. 

2. A. *Jiliforme, racemis gracillimis superne floriferis; calicibus 
unifloris; valvula exteriore ad marginem barbata, arista brevissima; 
foliis sublanceolatis brevibus. — Hab. In shrubby prairies near the banks 
of the Arkansas. 1 first detected this very distinct species on the 
bushy margins of swamps in Sussex county, Delaware, a few miles 
from Lewistown, in September 1818. — Obs. Perennial; culm slender, 
below the panicle, as in the other species, rather crowded with some- 
what distichally disposed leaves, which are, however, much shorter and 
narrower ; panicle virgate, and the branchlets very slenderly filiform 
(about fifteen to twenty, in the preceding species often thirty), pro- 
ducing flowers only towards the summit ; flowers minutely pedicellate, 
appressed to the rachis; calix acuminate, scabrous, 1 -flowered; corolla 
glume lanceolate, the margin of the outer glume bearded ; the awn 
scarcely half the length of the valve ; neutral rudiment setiform and 
included. 

1. Erianthus alopecuroides. 2. E. contortus, Baldwyn in Elliott's 
Sketches Bot. Carol, p. 40. — Hab. On shelving rocks along the banks 
of the Arkansas. 

1. Andropogon virginicum. 2. A. macrourum. 

3. A. avenaceum. — This species is very generally considered the 

been omitted ; for which casualty I conceive myself by no means deserving of the injurious 
sarcasms which it has occasioned. In the detailed description of the same plant I had also 
ventured to consider the third valve of the corolla as a neutral rudiment of a second flower, an 
inference which numerous analogies in the vegetable kingdom, and particularly in the Grami- 
neae, sufficiently warrant as just and accurate. In the genus Panicum this abortion of the 
sexual organs is even the essential character of the genus. But to answer every ill-natured cavil 
which might be brought against the descriptions of natural objects, or to expect an uniformity 
of conception, any more than in the characters of the objects themselves, would be attempting 
something more than human and only adding folly to weakness. 



A FLORA OF ARKANSAS TERRITORY. 153 

same as the A. nutans $ it appears, however, to be sufficiently distinct, 
and occupies a more northern range. The panicle of the A. avenaceum 
of Michaux is erect and fewer flowered, the flowers are larger and the 
awn about naif the length of that of A. nutans, the rufescent colour 
also described by Michaux is very constant and belongs to the pubes- 
cence, which in the other species is yellowish. A. avenaceum is the 
A. ciliatus of Mr Elliott. Although these two species differ in habit, 
yet they agree in structure precisely with the genus Andropogon. I 
can perceive no possible reason to refer A. nutans to the genus An- 
thisteria, as has been done by Persoon. 

1. Leersia virginica. 2. L. oryzoides. 

1. Zizania aquatica. 2. Z. miiiacea. This species is to me very 
rare. I first recognized it near to the Great Salt river of the Arkansas. 
Although there is an admixture of fertile and infertile flowers, yet the 
former, as in the common species, pretty generally occupy the summit 
of the panicle. 

JUNCEAE. 

1. Juncus effusus. 2. J. bicornis. 

3. J. *heteranthos. (Culmis Miosis); foliis planis glabris, corymbo 
terminali prolifero, capitulis subtrifloris; foliolis calicinis exterioribus 
brevioribus acutis, interioribus obtusis, capsulam obtusam aequantibus ; 
stamina tria. — Hab. In the woods of the Arkansas. — Obs. Culm slen- 
der and compressed, about three feet high ; leaves very smooth, flat, 
longitudinally nerved and acute, scattered to the summit of the culm ; 
panicle small, consisting of several corymbose and proliferous branch- 
lets; flowers mostly by threes and triandrous; stamina coming out 
from the base of the three shorter and acute segments of the calix ; 
seeds numerous and minute. Closely allied to J. marginatus. 

4. J. polycephalus. 5. J. acuminatus. 6. J. tenuis. 7. J. biifo- 
nis. 8. J. repens. 

Luzula campestris. — Hab. Near the town of Arkansas. 

Tofieldia glabra, Nuttall's Gen. Am. vol. 1, p. 235 (T. glaber- 
rima? Elliott, Flor. Carol, p. 424). — Hab. In the prairies near Arkan- 
sas. I am by no means certain whether the plant discovered by the 
vol. v. — 2 o 



154 COLLECTIONS TOWARDS 

late Mr M'Bride, and described by Mr Elliott, be the same with that 
which I found in the vicinity of Wilmington, North Carolina. The 
T. glaberrima attains the height of two or three feet, and bears a spike 
five or six inches in length ; the petals are also oblong instead of ovate, 
and the styles distinct. As far as 1 yet know, they appear to be dis- 
tinct species. 

1. Helonias erythrosperma. — Hab. Near Arkansas, in prairies. 
2. H. angustifolia. — Root bulbous, leaves not remarkably long ; sta- 
mens exserted ; anthers yellow ; seeds angular, subovate. — Hab. Near 
Fort Smith. 

Melanthium virginicum. 

1 . Veratrum luteum ? 2. V. angustifolium. — Hab. In the woods 
of Arkansas and Red rivers. 

PALMAE. 

Sabae Mansoni (Rhapis acaulis, Willd. vol. 4, p. 1093). This 
palm first makes its appearance a few miles below the southern boun- 
dary of the Arkansas territory, along the banks of the Mississippi. 
There is a variety of it which forms a caudex twelve or eighteen inches 
above ground, bearing leaves of nearly double the usual dimensions, 
and a proportionably tall spadix. 

SMILACEAE. 

1. Smilax rotundifolia. 2. S. sarsaparilla. 3. S. tamnoides. 4. 
S. lanceolata. 5. S. herbacea. 
Did score a quaternata. 
Gyromia virginica (Medeola virginica, Linn.). 

1. Trilltum sessile. — Obs. Of this species there are a northern and 
southern variety, which vary in their time of flowering and magni- 
tude. (3 praecox, petals cuneate-ovate, about the length of the calix. 
— Hab. From Louisiana to North Carolina, y boreale, petals lance- 
olate, longer than the calix, flowers later. T. sessile, Pursh, 1, p. 244. 
— Hab. In Pennsylvania. 

2. T. *unguiculatum. Flore sessili, erecto ; petalis ovatis, ungui- 
culatis ; calicibus reflexis ; foliis petiolatis, lato-ovatis, acutis. — Hab. 



A FLORA OF ARKANSAS TERRITORY. 155 

In the shady woods on the banks of the Arkansas. — Obs. Leaves 
blotched, flowers brown, and the whole aspect, specific character ex- 
cepted, that of T. sessile. 

3. T. *viridescens. Flore sessili, erecto ; petalis lineari-lanceolatis 
longissimis, calicibus patentibus ; foliis sessilibus lato-ovalibus, subtus 
ad basin puberulis — Hah. In shady woods at the Dardanelle settle- 
ment. Flowering in April. — Obs. Stem purple, pubescent near the 
juncture with the leaves ; leaves large, broad-oval and acute, mostly 
blotched, closely sessile, beneath towards the base of the nerves pubes- 
cent ; calix spreading, not reflected as in the preceding, segments 
ovate-lanceolate, greenish, the lower part inclining to brown, one and 
a half to one and three-fourths inches in length ; petals lanceolate- 
linear, purplish-green, the claws brown, two to three inches in length ; 
anthers linear, adnate to the filaments, which are short ; germ lanceo- 
late-ovate, the angles (after the manner of T. sessile and the preced- 
ing) grooved ; styles three. This is, hitherto, the largest species of 
the genus. 

Uvularia sessiliflora. — Hah. Near Little Rock. 

1. Smilacina stellata. 2. S. racemosa. 

1. Polygonatum multiflorum. 2. P. pubescens. 

L1LIACEAE. 

1. Lilium superbum. 2. L. Philaclelphicum. 

1. Erythronium JLmericanum. 2. E. albidum, Nuttall's Gen. Am. 
vol. 1, p. 223. — Obs. Leaves maculate; petals white, with a yellow 
spot at the base, externally bluish ; stigma trifid, pubescent, reflected. 

Scilla esculenta (Phalangium esculentum, Nuttall's Gen. Am. 
vol. 1, p. 219). — Hab. Common throughout the prairies of Arkansas 
and Red river. 

1. Aletris farinosa. 2. A. aurea. 



Agave virgintca. 



SPATHACEAE. 



1. Allium Canadense. 2. A. anguhsum, (3 *leucorhizum. Scapo 
nudo teretiusculo ; foliis linearibus, subtus convexis ; umbella fastigiata ; 



156 COLLECTIONS TOWARDS 

filamentis subulatis. — Hab. On the margins of brooks, in the prairies 
of Red river. — Obs. The plant commonly twice the ordinary size of 
A. angulosum ; the flowers also white, as well as the root, which in 
the other is covered with dark coloured reticulated sphacelous coatings ; 
spatha in both 3-valved, and the cells of the capsule 1 -seeded. 

3. A. *ochroleucum. Scapo nudo subtereti ; foliis linearibus angus- 
tis rectis, subtus subconvexis ; umbella pauciflora ; corolla subcampanu- 
lata ; filamentis subulatis. — Hab. In elevated prairies throughout the 
Arkansas territory. — Obs. Nearly allied to A. fragrans,the flowers also 
equally odorous, and the whole plant destitute of the characteristic 
alliaceous scent and taste; bulb covered with brown unreticulated 
sphacelous coatings, similar to that of a Scilla; scape four or five inches 
high; spathe 2-valved, obtuse; flowers from six to nine in the umbell, 
turbinate-campanulate, greenish white, and of a delicate fragrance ; the 
filaments subulate and simple, not flat and linear as in A. fragrans ; 
the leaves not half the breadth which they attain in that species, shorter 
than the scape, and a little convex beneath. 

Yucca recurvifolia? — On the hills a few miles from Fort Smith.* 

Pancratium maritimum. — Near Arkansas. 

Crinum Mmericanum. — Throughout the Arkansas territory, in ri- 
ver marshes and wet prairies, often in great abundance, particularly 
near Red river. 

Hypoxis erecta. — Near the Cadron settlement. 

IRIDEAE. 



Sisyrinchium anceps. — In the prairies this plant often occurs in 
tensive masses with the flowers of unusual magnitude. 
1. Iris versicolor. 2. I. htxagona. 3. I. cuprea? 



* In the Royal Botanic Garden at Paris, there was in 1814 a species of Yucca cultivated, 
called Y. Boscii, discovered by M. Bosc in Upper Carolina, and very nearly allied to Y. 
angustifolia of the Missouri, but distinguished by its subcarinately convex leaves, which were 
green and not glaucous, but they were equally narrow and filamentiferous. 



A FLORA OF ARKANSAS TERRITORY. 157 

*Nemastylis.* Corolla hexapetala patens, tubo nullo; laciniis 
subaequalibus; stamina libera; stigmata sex, filiformia ; capsula oblouga, 
truncata. — Radix bulbosa ; folia ensiformia plicata ; caulis uni aut pau- 
ciflorus; flores geminati ; spatha bivalvis. 

1. N. coelestina (Ixia coelestina, Bartram, it. 152, t. 3; Willd. Sp. 
pi. 1, p. 200). Caule unifloro, stigmatibus brevibus, seminibus an- 
gulatis. 

Descript. Root a small and roundish tunicated bulb, covered with 
numerous dark brown sphacelous coats ; radical leaves few, very long, 
eusiform and plaited, sheathing at the base ; stem eighteen inches to 
two feet, partly terete, commonly producing a single leaf below the 
middle, and three or four other ones diminished to the size of sheath- 
ing bracts; the flowers (as far as I have seen) of a pale blue,f terminal 
and solitary ; corolla superior, partly spreading, without tube ; petaloid 
divisions oblong-obovate, nearly equal in size ; stamina three ; anthers 
linear; style one, short; stigmas three, filiform, bifid, white; capsule 
subclavate, oblong, obtusely 3-cornered, 3-celled, partitions medial; 
seeds numerous, angular and brown, a little smaller than those of the 
common onion. Flowering time from May to the close of June. — 
Hah. In the hilly prairies of the Arkansas territory, betwixt the sources 
of the Pottoe of Arkansas and the Kiamesha of Red river. First, found 
in South Carolina by W. Bartram, whose figure appears to be very 
accurate. 

2. N. * geminiflora. Caule ramoso, ramis subtrifloris ; stigmatibus 
longissimis; semina subrotunda. 

Descript. Root a blackish tunicated bulb, covered with a great num- 
ber of sphacelous coatings; scape about twelve inches high, nearly 
terete, 2-leaved, with one of them longer than the scape; radical leaves 
mostly three, equitant, ensiform and plaited, as in Tigridia, the central 
one double the length of the others (twelve to fourteen inches), the 
point attenuated, the colour light green, and with both surfaces nearly 
similar ; branches of the scape mostly three, rarely two or four, subtri- 

* From v»fAH a thread, and a-rvxos a column (or the style as employed in botany). This 
name is chosen by way of distinction from the structure of the same organ in Moraea. 

t Those seen by my aged friend, William Bartram, in South Carolina, were of a bright 
azure blue, and of greater magnitude. 
VOL. V. 2 P 



158 COLLECTIONS TOWARDS 

quetrous, 2-flowered ; spathe 2-valved, 2-flowered, one of the peduncles 
and spathes above the other (within the conspicuous ovate spathes are 
one or two other filmy sheaths) ; corolla superior, partly pelviform, 
of six petals, and without a tube (about the size of a quarter dollar), 
of a bright azure blue, and white at the base, the divisions oblong- 
obovate, the three interior somewhat smaller; stamina three: anthers 
linear, yellow, rolling inwards after the opening of the flower, separate 
at the base, arising from the claws of the three larger divisions ; stigmas 
six, filiform, alternating by pairs with the stamina, of a deep blue colour, 
and pubescent at the summits ; capsule inferior, oblong, obtusely tri- 
quetrous, attenuated at the base, 3-celled, many-seeded ; seeds subcy- 
lindric-obovate, obsoletely triquetrous, and attached horizontally in 
several rows.— Hab. The prairies, from near Fort Smith on the Ar- 
kansas to the banks of Red river; abundant. Flowering in May and 
June. 

This genus, notwithstanding the artificial character, is more nearly 
related to Ixia than Moraea ; it possesses nothing of that affinity to Iris, 
either in the inequality of the divisions of the corolla, or the petaloid 
nature of the stigma, with which the stamina also alternate. In natu- 
ral aspect, the latter species of this genus approaches to Tigridia, but 
differs essentially in the uncombined stamens, and the approaching 
equality and conformity of the petaloid segments. The bulbs, the 
leaves, the stem, the general form of the flower, and that of the capsule, 
are nearly the same. The nearest affinity of this genus appears to be 
to Marica paludosa, from which it differs in the stigma and relative 
magnitude of the segments of the corolla. 

COMMELINEAE. 

1. Commelina communis. 2. C. erecta. 3. C. angustifolia. 
1. Trade scantia virginica, and (3 glabra. Calicibus glabris, glau- 
cescentibus. 2. T. rosea. 

BROMELIAE. 

Tillandsia usneoides. The first appearance of this plant, com- 
monly called long-moss, along the banks of the Mississippi, is in the 
Cypress-bend, near the southern confines of the territory of Arkansas. 



A FLORA OF ARKANSAS TERRITORY. 159 



HYDROCHARIDEAE. 

Vallisneria spiralis (V. Americana, Willd.). 
Udora Canadensis. 

*PONTEDEREAE. 

Schollera graminifolia. In ponds near the banks of the Arkan- 
sas ; rare. 

Heteranthera limosa. 

Pontederia cordata. — Rare. 

Obs. These three genera, inseparable in natural affinity, appear to 
form a distinct section, better referable to this order than any other 
with which I am acquainted. 

*ALISMOIDEAE. 

1. Alisma plantago. 

2. A. *roslrata. Foliis cordatis obtusis ; scapo subsimplici, pauci- 
floro ; capsulis ovatis, rostratis. — Hab. In the ponds of the Verdigris 
river of Arkansas. Flowering in June and July. — Obs. The plant 
much smaller than A. plantago, twelve to sixteen inches high; the 
scape triquetrous, frequently simple, or with at most two or three 
branches at the base, as in the inflorescence of Sagittaria ; the leaves 
5 to 7-nerved; peduncles three together, more than an inch in 
length; bracts linear; stamina about nine; rostrum of the fruit almost 
its length. Nearly allied, apparently, to A. cordifolia of South Ame- 
rica. 

1. Sagittaria sagittifolia. 2. S. graminea. — Obs. The leaves, as 
in most aquatics, variable in form and magnitude, in place of linear 
and gramineous often long and lanceolate, with as many as five nerves ; 
The peduncles of the scape are all remarkably long and slender, and 
the capitulum of fruit smaller than usual. 

3. S. *radicans. Foliis cordato-ovatis, undulatis, obtusis ; scapo an- 
gulato, prostrato, longissimo; floribus subverticillatis, verticillis radi- 
cantibus. — Hab. In ponds near Fort Smith. Flowering in June and 
July. — Obs. The plant rather large, with the petioles, scape and calix 



160 COLLECTIONS TOWARDS 

slightly scabrous ; leaves somewhat rigid, 7-nerved, four or five inches 
long and three or four wide : scape triangular, often growing out to 
the length of two or three feet, inclining downwards and sending out 
radicles and leaves at the verticills ; verticills 6 to 9-flowered ; bracts 
lanceolate-acuminate; calix striated, a little scabrous; peduncles rather 
long; flowers hermaphrodite; stamina about twenty; fruit subfalcate. 
This curious plant appears to be considerably allied to Alisma repens, 
of the south of Europe. 

NYMPHAEACEAE. 

Nymphaea ailorata. 

Nuphar advena. 

Brasenia peltata. 

All of these plants, so common within the limits of the tide water, 
are in this inland territory extremely rare. 

Cyamus luteus (Nelumbium luteum, Willd.). — The Osages and 
other western natives employ the roots of this plant, which is of com- 
mon occurrence, for food, preparing them by boiling. In form, the 
tubers resemble those of the Batata (or sweet potato), and are traversed 
internally by from five to eight longitudinal cavities. They are found 
at the depth of twelve to eighteen inches beneath the surface of the 
earth, and are connected by means of running roots. The tubers 
arrive at maturity about the time thaf the seeds begin to ripen; before 
that period they abound with a milky juice, in common with the whole 
plant, and indeed with several other genera of aquatics, as Alisma and 
Sagittaria, allied to the Nymphaeaceae. When fully ripe, after a consi- 
derable boiliug, they become as farinaceous, agreeable and wholesome 
a diet as the potato. This same species, which, according to the rela- 
tion of Pallas, appears also to be indigenous to Persia, is every where 
made use of by the natives, who collect both the nuts and roots, as was 
practised with the xva^iog of Theophrastus* by the Hindoos and Chinese 
from the remotest antiquity. 

* Cyamus Indicus. 



A FLORA OF ARKANSAS TERRITORY. 161 



SCITAMINEAE. 

Canna Jlaccida. — On the banks of the Mississippi, a few miles 
below New Orleans. 

Thalia dealbata. — In the ponds of the Pottoe river, and the Lesser 
North Branch of the Canadian ; Arkansas ; but not common. 

ORCHIDEAE. 

1. Orchis psyeodes. 2. O. spectabilis. With the flowers mostly 
white, instead of particoloured. 

3. O. *leucophoea. Labello tripartito, laciniato, maximo; laciniis 
lateralibus internis obovatis crenulatis ; cornu filiformi clavato, germine 
longiore. — Hab. In moist prairies near Kiamesha, Red river. Flow- 
ering in June. — Obs. Probably the largest species in the United States ; 
the stem being from eighteen inches to two and a half feet high; 
leaves oblong-lanceolate, diminishing into narrow lanceolate bracts, 
about the length of the germ ; flowers white, a little tinged with green ; 
the lateral segments of the petaloid calix ovate, and less than half the 
length of the lip, which is divided into three dilated segments, divided 
nearly to the base into many capillary portions. It is more nearly 
allied to O. incisa than psyeodes, but differs from the former in the 
laciniated lip, and from the latter by the multiplicity of its segments, 
and the obovate, instead of linear form of the two internal petaloid 
divisions. 

4. O. *scutellata. Labello subovali-oblongo, emarginato, basi utrinque 
ad medium dentato, cornu filiformi vix longitudine germinis ; floribus 
sparsis; caule bifolio, foliis distantibus. 

Descript. Root ; stem angular, about a foot high, bearing two 

distant, unequal, lanceolate, acute leaves, and two or three bracts below 
the commencement of the spike ; floral bracts acute and sheathing, 
each about the length of the germ ; flowers somewhat remote, forming 
a scattered spike three or four inches long ; the three exterior or cali- 
cine segments obtuse and oblong, the two lateral, as usual, reflected ; 
the two interior petaloid segments broader, more obtuse and connivent, 
vol. v. — 2 Q 



162 COLLECTIONS TOWARDS 

a little crenulated along the margin in common with the lip, and both 
of a yellowish green colour; spur curving upwards, a little thicker 
towards the base, and scarcely the length of the germ ; the lip some- 
what longer than the lateral segments, partly oblong-oval, emarginate 
at the extremity, and at its commencement producing a denture on 
either side, and one protuberant or central elevation. — Obs. In this 
species the lip is much the broadest portion of the corolla, and the 
widest at its base, from which, as well as the two leaves upon the stem, 
and its uneven margin, it is readily distinguishable from O. tridentata, 
but approaches O. fuscescens, and cannot be O. clavellata of Michaux, 
which in several characters agrees nearly with O. tridentata. The 
name I have employed, is in reference to the form of the lip, which is 
very much like that of an armorial shield. — Hab. In grassy swamps, 
in the prairies near Fort Smith, and also throughout Pennsylvania and 
New Jersey, not uncommon. 

Triphora pendula, Gen. Am. vol. 2, p. 192 (Arethusa pendula, 
Willd. 4, p. 82). 

Calopogon pulchellum (Cymbidium pulchellum, Willd.). 

Tipularia discolor, Gen. Am. vol. 2, p. 195 (Orchis discolor, Ph. 
2, p. 586). 

Malaxis (Microstylis) ophioglossoides, Gen. Am. vol. 2, p. 196. 

Corallorhiza (Aplectrum) hiemalis (Cymbidium hiemale, Willd.). 

Cypripedium pubescens, Willd. Sp. vol. 4, p. 143. 

ARISTOLOCHIAE. 

1. Aristo lochia tomentosa. 2. A. hasiata, Gen. Am. vol. 2, p. 
200. 

3. A. ^reticulata. Hirsuta; caule pumilo erecto; foliis subsessili- 
bus, cordato-ovatis, obtusis, coriaceis, reticulatis ; pedunculis radicalibus, 
racemosis, foliolosis ; corolla labio retuso. — Hab. In woods, and on the 
shelvings of rocks on the banks of Arkansas and Red rivers ; common. 
Flowering in June. — Obs. Root fibrous and aromatic, and entirely 
similar, in sensible qualities, to that of A. serpentaria. Stem scarcely 
a foot high, divided from the base, the upper part hirsutely pilose ; 
leaves nearly sessile, roundish cordate or cordate-ovate, coriaceous and 



A FLORA OF ARKANSAS TERRITORY. 1 63 

partly sempervirent, the under surface conspicuously reticulated; 
peduncles radical, sometimes only 1-flowered, but more commonly 
several disposed in a leafy raceme; bracts oval; corolla pubescent, 
retorted, of a dark brown colour ; the border trifid, the segments broad 
and retuse. 

As arum Canadense. 



COTYLEDONES. 

Cotyledons or germinal leaves generally two, dissimilar to the 
perfect foliage ; in Pinus and Abies three to twelve.* 

CONIFERAE. 

1. Pinus inops. 2. P. variabilis. 3. P. rigida. 

Juniperus Virginiana. 

Cupressus disticha, (3 imhricaria. — Obs. Floriferous branchlets 
covered with imbricated scales; staminiferous flowers collected into 
turbinated aments; the scales numerous, dilated and adnate at the 
base ; staminiferous column filiform ; anthers ten to fifteen, excentri- 
cally peltate ; fructiferous aments two or three together at the base of 
the branches, roundish, the scales also adnate at the base, with one or 
two germs under each, marked with a concave point. 

POLYGONEAE. 

1. Polygonum aviculare. 2. P. erectum, Lin.; Persoon, vol. 1, 
p. 439 (P. aviculare, (3 latifolium, Mich. Flor. Amer. vol. 1, p. 237 ; 
Nuttall's Gen. Am. vol. 1, p. 254). P. floribus pentandris trigynis 
axillaribus, foliis ovalibus obtusis, caule suberecto herbaceo. — Obs. A 



* In Pinus there exist three stages of foliation ; as first, the cotyledons, which are followed 
during the year of germination by single naked leaves, and afterwards by the adult leaves, 
collected from two to five together in common sheaths. The reverse of this takes place in 
most of the Acacias of New Holland, whose adult leaves are simple and imperfect, while the 
incipient foliage, or that which immediately succeeds the cotyledons, is compound, as in 
most other species of the genus. 



164 COLLECTIONS TOWARDS 

very distinct species from P. aviculare, and a much larger plant. — 
Common to many parts of the United States in similar situations. 

3. P. tenue, Mich. Flor. Am. vol. 1, p. 238; Ph. vol. 1, p. 270. 
4. P. hydropiperoides. 5. P. hirsutum. 6. P. Virginianum. 7 P. 
articulatum. 8. P '. parvifolium (P. polygamum, Vent.). — On the sand 
hills of Red river. 9. P. convolvulus. 

1. Erio Gomjm *longifolium. Caulescens; foliis oblongo-lanceolatis 
striatis suhtus tomentosis, caiilinis solitariis alternis; ramis floriferis 
fastigiatis corymbosis. — Hah. On the ledges of the Cadron rocks, and 
in denudated prairies from Arkansas to Red river. — Obs. Root partly 
fusiform, brownish red, astringent and bitter to the taste, in some 
measure resembling rhubarb ; leaves cespitose, a span long, often slightly 
and superficially plaited, above villous and green, beneath white and 
tomentose; stem simple, bearing alternate and remote leaves, which 
diminish to a very small size towards the summit of the stem ; flower- 
ing branches forming a compound corymb. Involucrum cyathiform, 
many-flowered ; pedicells pilose ; flowers whitish, externally tomentose 
and shining ; stamens nine ; styles three ; germ lanuginous. A very 
distinct species, allied to E. tomentosum of Michaux. 

2. E. *annuum. Caulescens ; foliis alternis oblongo-lanceolatis sub- 
tus tomentosis ; ramis floriferis nudis cymosis ; floribus glabris dioicis. 
— Hab. On the banks of the Great Salt river of Arkansas, and near 
the confluence of the Kiamesha and Red rivers. 

Descript. Root brownish, perpendicular, sending out few fibres, and 
of annual duration (all the other species of the genus hitherto dis- 
covered are perennial) ; radical leaves crowded, distantly and irregu- 
larly crenulate, oblong lanceolate and acute, upper surface lanuginous, 
the under white and tomentose (after the manner of the genus); veins 
transverse and branching (in the preceding species longitudinal and 
parallel); stem terete and tomentose, often simple, sometimes consider- 
ably branched, the upper part naked, the lower often thickly set with 
leaves, destitute of nodes or swellings, as well as the preceding, the 
stature varying from one to three feet; cyme compound; involucres 
and flowers cyathiform ; flowers of the clusters numerous, whitish, and, 
as in no other species, smooth and dioicous, extremely deciduous ; seg- 
ments of the petaloid calix unequal, the three larger in the styliferous 



A FLORA OF ARKANSAS TERRITORY. 165 

flower obovate and emarginate, in the staminiferous oval and dilated, 
internally towards the base lanuginous ; stamens nine ; styles three ; 
germ and seed smooth ; radicle of the embryo incurved ; this is by far 
the most extraordinary species of the genus, and in the flowers some- 
what allied to E. parviflorum. 

1. Rumex verticillatus. 2. R. persicarioides. 3. R. acetosella. — 
Hab. On the hills of Masard prairie, six miles from Fort Smith, in- 
dubitably native. 

Brunnichia cirrhosa.—On the overflowed banks of the Arkansas ; 
common. 

CHENOPODEAE. 

1. Chenopodium hybridum. — At the confluence of Verdigris and 
Arkansas rivers. 2. C. ambrosioides. 

Atriplex hortensis.- — Introduced. 

Kochia dentata. — Common on all the sand beaches of the Arkansas, 
and remarkable by its almost innumerable branches. 

Corispernum *Jlmericanum (C. hyssopifolium, Ph. Nutt. Gen. 
Am.). — In similar situations with Kochia; common.f 

AMARANTHEAE. 

1. Amaranthus albus. 2. A. hybridus. 

3. A. *tamariscinus. Racemis supradecompositis nudis erectis 
glabris, foliis lanceolatis. — Hab. On the sand beaches of the Arkansas 
and Grand rivers; abundant; possessing, in some respect, the aspect of 
A. albus.- — Obs. Stem three or four feet high and much branched, and 
as well as every other part of the plant perfectly smooth ; flowering 
branches very compound and destitute of leaves, so as almost to re- 
semble branches of Tamarix gallicus, the bracts being green, minute, 
imbricated and spinulose. 

Alternanthera repens, Elliott. — On the banks of the Mississippi, 
and in the streets of New Orleans. — Obs. Heads of flowers roundish- 
ovate, sessile ; bracts three ; calix rigid, 5-parted, two or three of the 

t Camphorosma ought to be excluded from the American Flora, having been inserted 
without sufficient authority. 

VOL. V. 2 R 



166 COLLECTIONS TOWARDS 

segments smaller, externally pubescent towards the base, the pubescence 
consisting of barbed and numerously articulated hairs ; stamina united 
into a small cup at the base, the filaments ten, of which five are with- 
out anthers; anthers 1 -celled; stigma very short, partly capitate and 
undivided; utriculus, 1-seeded. 

Achyranthes ^lanuginosa. Caulibus prostratis diffusis, floribus 
sparsis cum foliolis congestis lanuginosis obvallatis, foliis subrotundo- 
ovatis. — Hab. On the sand-beaches of Great Salt river, Arkansas. 
Flowering in September. — Obs. Annual and every where densely 
lanuginous, the pubescence consisting of verticillately ramified hairs ; 
leaves alternate, petiolate, roundish-ovate, obtuse and attenuated at the 
base ; those of the branchlets crowded and sessile, amidst which are 
situated the scattered flowers, each mostly subtended by three small 
bracts; calix rigid, 5-parted,the segments somewhat linear and unequal, 
pubescent at the summits; stamina five, united into a small cup at the 
base; intercalary filaments none; anthers 1-celled; stigma capitate, 
undivided; utriculus 1-seeded, not valvular. A much larger species 
than the preceding, often spreading over a circumference of five or six 
feet. Possessing a good deal the habit of Illecebrum frutescens. 

Ire sine celosioides. — On the alluvial banks of the Arkansas. — 
Obs. Perennial. Flowers dioicous, collected into paniculated spikes ; 
calix 5-parted, membranaceous, subtended by three paleaceous bracts ; 
corolla none, nor any petaloid process; stamens five, all fertile ; anthers 
2-celled ; calix of the fruit-bearing flower only, subtended by long 
copious woolly hairs; stile one; stigmas two, filiform; fruit a 1-seeded 
membranaceous utriculus; the seed dark brown, containing an incurved 
embryo. This description, which so materially differs from that of 
others, proves an essential affinity to the genus Amaranthus, from which 
it merely differs in the utriculus, which bursts irregularly, and in the 
singular wool, which subtends the base of the female calix. 

Paronychia dichotoma, Gen. Am. vol. 2, p. 159 (Illecebrum di- 
chotomum, Willd.). — On the denudated prairies of the Arkansas and 
Red rivers. 

1. Anychia dichotoma. 2. A. capillacea, Gen. Am. vol. 2, p. 159. 
Perfectly distinct from the preceding, whose place it wholly occupies 
in the northern states. 

Oplotheca Jloridana, Gen. Am. vol. 2, p. 78, 79. — Obs. Root 



A FLORA OF ARKANSAS TERRITORY. 167 

annual ; stem branched from the base ; leaves thick and somewhat suc- 
culent, no way scabrous in a living state. Flowers spirally imbricated, 
in five ? rows. 



Phytolacca decandra. 

Rivina *portulaccoides. Eacemis simplicibus ; floribus tetrandris ; 
foliis ovatis subundulatis acuminatis glabris; caule sulcato herbaceo; 
baccis siccis. — Hah. On the alluvial lands of the Verdigris river, near 
its confluence with the Arkansas. — Obs. Plant smooth, three or four 
feet high ; racemes many-flowered, erect, axillary and terminal ; calix 
rosaceous, becoming green in the fruit; utriculus greenish and juice- 
less ; seed lunate, on one side convex. Nearly allied to R. laevis. 

SANTALACEAE. 

Comandra umbellata, Gen. Am. vol. 1, p. 157 (Thesium umbel- 
latum, Lin.). 

Hamiltonia oleifera, Willd. (Pyrularia, Mich.). 
1. Nyssa biflora. 2. N. candicans. 

THYMELEAE. 

Dirca palustris. — In the alluvial lands of the Pecannery settle- 
ment. 

LAURINEAE. 
1. Laurus sassafras and (3 albida. 2. L. benzoin. 

AMENTACEAE. 

1. Salix conifera. 2. S. nigra. 3. S. longifolia. 

1. Populus monilifera. — Abundant in the inundated banks of the 
Arkansas and Red river. The bark always appears whiter and smoother 
than in the following, and the branches are not angular ; in other re- 
spects they are precisely alike. 2. P. angulata. 

Myrica cerifera. — Hah. On the pine cliffs contiguous to the Ar- 
kansas. 



168 COLLECTIONS TOWARDS 

Betula populifolia.—On the banks of Grand river of the Arkansas ; 
rare. 

CAitriNus Americana. 

Ostrya virginica. — Banks of the Arkansas. 

Fagus sylvatica. — Not met with to the south of the river St Francis. 

1. Castanea pumila. — Chiefly on the summits of hills and moun- 
tains. 2. C. nana, foliis oblongis, acutis, mucronato-serratis, glabris: 
nucibus solitariis. — Hah. On the pine-hills of the Arkansas ; a shrubby 
species, allied to C. pumila (C. nana, Muhl. Catal. et Herb.). The 
younger leaves are sometimes slightly pubescent. This species also 
grows abundantly around Tallahassee, in West Florida. It is always 
more dwarf than C. pumila. 

1. Querctjs phellos. 2. Q. imbricaria. 3. Q. aquatiea. 4. Q. 
nigra. 5. Q. tinctoria. 6. Q. coccinea. 7. Q. rubra. 8. Q. fal- 
cata. 9. Q. obtusiloba. 10. Q. macrocarpa. 11. Q. lyrata. 12. 
Q. alba. 13. Q. bicolor. 14. Q. montana. 15. Q. castanea. 16. 
Q. chinquapin. — On the hills contiguous to the Great Salt river, and 
on the summits of the mountains of the Pottoe. 

Corylus Americana. — On the banks of the Salaiseau and Spadrie 
creeks of the Arkansas ; rare. 

Liquidambar styracijlua. — Obs. Masculine ament conic, each 
flower polyandrous ; proper calix 5-leaved, the exterior leaflets larger. 
In this country, as in South Carolina, it affords storax by incision. 

Platanus occidentalis. In this country it is not large, and appears 
to be on the verge of its southern limit. 

1. Juglans nigra. 2. J. cinerea. 

1. Carya (Gen. Am. vol. 2, p. 220) olivaeformis. 2. C. alba. 
3. C. tomeniosa. 4. C. amara. 5. C. porcina. 6. C. aquatiea. 

1. Fraxinus quadrangulata. 2. F. Caroliniana. 3. F. sambuci- 
folia. — Obs. Leaves and petioles before expansion covered with glandu- 
lar scales, emitting the odour of the walnut; branches glabrous, the 
bark of the trunk reticulately rimose. 

URTICAE. 

1. Urtica urens. 2. U. procera. — This species often attains the 
height of eight or ten feet. 



A FLORA OF ARKANSAS TERRITORY. 169 

3. U. *purpurascens. Pumila, hirsuta ; foliis oppositis cordato-ovatis 
dentatis longe petiolatis ; floribus monoicis glomeratis subsessilibus. — 
Hab. In the shady alluvial and overflown forests of the Mississippi 
and Arkansas. Flowering in February. — Obs. Perennial and urent. 
Stem quadrangular, six to ten inches high, grooved, purple and hispid ; 
petiole of the lower leaves as long as the lamina (one inch) ; leaf hispid, 
roundish-cordate, dentate, on the lower part of the stem obtuse, higher 
up acute, partly 5-nerved, beneath commonly purple ; stipules linear, 
reflected ; flowers axillary, in shortly pedunculated conglomerate clus- 
ters, shorter than the petiole, and coming out by pairs ; stamens four, 
elastic; gland depressed; female calix 2-leaved; seed elliptic, com- 
pressed. 4. U. Canadensis. 

Boehmeria cylindrica. 

Parietaria Pennsylvania. 

Celtis *integrifolia. Foliis oblique ovatis acuminatis integris 
membranaceis glabriusculis, pedunculis adnatis subbifloris. — Hab. On 
the banks of the Mississippi, White, Red and Arkansas rivers, &c. 
forming a tree of moderate magnitude, with the bark even or rimose ; 
branches flexuous ; leaves smaller than usual ; stipules oblong and mem- 
branaceous, caducous ; flowers dioicous, often ternate, with two of the 
pedicells frequently conjoined; stamina mostly five, rarely six; berries 
solitary, fulvous brown, and of a saccharine taste. Flowering in March. 
C. occidentalis, (3 integrifolia. Gen. Am. vol. 2, p. 202. 

1. Ulmus Americana. 

2. U. *crassifolia. Foliis parvulis confertis oblongo-ovatis obtusis 
serratis, basi inaequalibus; ramis teretibus. — Hab. On the prairies of 
Red river. A species bearing some resemblance to U. alata, but much 
more nearly related to U. pumila of Siberia. — Obs. A tree of moderate 
magnitude, crowded with small, thick and opaque scabrous leaves and 
intricate spreading branches, affording a dense shade, and of a very 
deep verdure. The leaves are moreover somewhat pubescent beneath, 
scarcely an inch long, and about five lines wide, with the margin for 
the most part simply serrated and the serratures obtuse. The flowers 
and fruit I have never seen. 

1. Morus rubra. 2. M. scabra. 

Maclura aurantiaca. — Hab. In two or three localities on the banks 
vol. v. — 2 s 



170 COLLECTIONS TOWARDS 

of the Arkansas, as, near the Cadron settlement, and on the banks of 
the Pottoe, a few miles from Fort Smith ; but only abundant on the 
banks of Red river and the Washita. — Ohs. Not being acquainted with 
the stameniferous flowers of this genus when I published it in the 
Genera of North American Plants, vol. 2, p. 233, I shall now add a 
description of them, so as to complete the character. The male flowers, 
which I obtained near the confluence of Red river and the Kiamesha, 
in a withered and persistent state, appeared to have been in flower 
early in the month of May. They are quite small, and of a greenish 
colour, collected into roundish, clustered and pedunculated racemes, 
after the manner of beech flowers of the same sex, each being fur- 
nished with a proper filiform peduncle. The calix, as in Morus, is 
4-parted, with oblong segments, and not more conspicuous or larger 
than the ordinary flower of a nettle ; the stamens are commonly four 
in number, sometimes less ; the filaments, which are pubescent at the 
base, appear longer than the calix, and by their structure, in all proba- 
bility, spring forward elastically after the opening of the flower, as is 
common with Urtica and some neighbouring genera. The 2-celled 
anthers, as well as the filaments, are also persistent. 

The wood of this tree appears almost precisely similar to that of the 
Fustick (Morus tinctoria) of commerce, but does not afford a perma- 
nent dye. From the true Fustick this plant is perfectly distinct ; its 
fruit is vastly larger, and not, as in that, composed of distinct acinic but 
of germs which naturally ingraft themselves into a simple many-seeded 
berry like the orange, &c. 

Humulus lupulus. 

EUPHORBIACEAE. 

1. Euphorbia cyathophora. — Near Fort Smith. This species, in 
the United States, is always herbaceous and annual. In the West 
Indies it appears to be shrubby. 2. E. graminifolia. — Agreeing with 
Michaux's description, except in being perfectly smooth, and apparently 
not much inclined to branch. 

3. E. dentata, Mich. Hirsuta, erecta; foliis oppositis alternisve, 
ovato-lanceolatis dentatisconcoloribus; floribusad summitatescongestis. 



A FLORA OF ARKANSAS TERRITORY. 171 

— Hab. Banks of the Arkansas. — Obs. Stem hirsute and branching 
from the base; upper surface of the leaves smooth; dentures often 
uncinate; calicine glands green and cup-shaped; angles of the fruit 
obtuse. 

4. E. hypericifolia. 5. E. thymifolia (E. maculata, Jacquin. Hort. 
Vind. t. 186, ft *disticha). Foliis distichis approximatis ; caule sub- 
erecto. — Hab. Banks of the Mississippi and Arkansas. 

6. E. *herniaroides. Humifusa prostrata glaberrima; foliis oppo- 
sitis subrotundo-ovalibus integerrimis ; floribus sparsis plerumque ag- 
gregatis, coccus carinatus. — Hab. On the overflowed banks of the 
Arkansas and Mississippi. Nearly allied to E. microphylla of India. — 
Obs. Annual. Stem prostrate, diffusely branched, sometimes repent 
towards the base ; leaves roundish-oval, about the size of those of thyme ; 
stipules partly ovate, membranaceous ; flowers approximating, axillary 
and terminal, greenish and inconspicuous. 

7. E. *maritima. Parvula, glabra; foliis oppositis integerrimis 
lineari-oblongis brevibus ; floribus sparsis dichotomalibus subsessilibus, 
fructibus subrotundis; caule procumbente. — Hab. On the sea beach of 
New Jersey. — Obs. Annual. The plant small, diffusely and dichoto- 
mously branched, the branches not flaccid ; stipules setaceous ; flowers 
green and inconspicuous, approximating towards the summits of the 
branchlets ; styles very short ; the fruit smooth and roundish, with the 
angles almost obsolete, and more than twice the size of that of E. thy- 
mifolia, though the plant is of nearly the same magnitude, and per- 
fectly smooth. — This species appears to be somewhat allied to E. poly- 
gonifolia, and I have introduced it here in consequence of its affinity 
to the following. 

8. E. *arenaria. Glabra, foliis oppositis integerrimis linearibus 
oblongiusculis obtusis remotis; pedunculis dichotomalibus solitariis; 
corolla alba tetrapetala. — Hab. On the sandy banks of the Arkansas 
and Red rivers. — Obs. Annual. Stem diffusely branched, somewhat 
glaucous ; leaves about an inch long ; petals white and conspicuous, as 
in E, corollata; fruit roundish, the angles obtuse. Flowering in June 
and July. 

9. E. *heterantha. Caule erecto angulato, opposite ramoso; foliis 
oppositis lineari-lanceolatis acutis integerrimis ; floribus sparsis dichoto- 



172 COLLECTIONS TOWARDS 

malibus luteis monoicis.— Hab. On the sandy banks of the Arkansas, 
from Fort Smith to Salt river. Flowering in July. — Obs. Annual. 
Stem erect and much branched, one to two feet high ; leaves thin, all 
of the same colour, two to two and a half inches long, and about half 
an inch wide in a younger state, on the under side as well as the un- 
expanded flowers slightly pubescent, those of the branchlets very 
narrow and linear ; flowers dichotomal and sometimes partly axillar ; 
calicine involucrum cyathiform, the border merely 5-cleft, the seg- 
ments subovate and acute, above yellow, each bearing a cup-shaped 
gland at its base ; very few of the flowers fructiferous ; stamens, as in 
the rest of the genus, articulated, perfecting at different times; fruit 
smooth and distinctly 3-lobed. The flowers differ materially from 
those of any other of the North American species. 

10. E. *peploides. Umbella subtrifida dichotoma, involucellis 
reniformi-cordatis ; foliis integerrimis cuneato-obovatis subconfertis 
erectis ; laciniis petaloideis bicornibus.— Hab. From the town of Ar- 
kansas to the garrison of Fort Smith, in denudated soils. Flowering 
in April. — Obs. Annual. Stem about a span high, simple or branched 
towards the summit; leaves smooth, thickly scattered, erect, sometimes 
subimbricate, sessile, cuneate and partly retuse, the upper ones largest ; 
umbell 3 or 4-cleft; proper involucrum suboval; leaves of the involu- 
cell cordate-reniform and obtuse ; flowers dichotomal, small and yel- 
lowish; segments of the involucrum four and five, crescent shaped, 
with the extremities subulate; capsule 3-lobed, smooth and even. 
Nearly allied to E. peplus. 

11. E. obtusata, Ph. Flor. Am. Sept. 2, p. 606. — Very nearly 
allied to the preceding. 12. E. marginata. — Hab. On the banks of 
the Arkansas from the Verdigris to Salt river. — Obs. Stamina nurne- 
rous, intermingled with infertile pubescent filaments. 1 3. E. corollata. 

Acalypha virginica. — Obs. Male flowers minute, disposed in a 
conglomerated pedunculate spike, arising from the base of the feminine 
involucrum ; calix 4-parted ; corolla none ; stamina four to eight ?, 
minute. Feminine flowers three or more together ; calix 3-parted ; 
corolla none ; capsule tricoccous, hirsute ; stigmas three, multifid (four, 
five or more cleft). 

Tragia *angustifolia. Hirsuta, caule erecto ramoso ; foliis inferi- 



A FLORA OF ARKANSAS TERRITORY. 173 

oribus subovatis petiolatis acute dentatis, superioribus lineari-oblongis 
sessilibus ; pedicellis bracteis longioribus. — Hab. On the prairies of Red 
river, in arid situations. — Obs. Perennial. Stem five or six inches 
high, somewhat branched, and, as well as the other parts of the plant, 
slightly hirsute and stinging ; stipules subulate and minute ; flowers 
often tetrandrous, with a 4-cleft calix ; capsule hispid. Nearly allied to 
T. urens, but the leaves are every where equally toothed, and the plant 
perennial. 

2. T. *betonicaefolia. Hirsuta, caule erecto subsimplici ; foliis cor- 
dato-ovatis petiolatis, acute dentatis ; pedicellis bracteis brevioribus. — 
Hab. With the preceding, to which it is nearly related, and also to T. 
urticaefolia. This species I have also collected in East Tennessee, and 
like the former it is perennial. From the figure of T. nepetaefolia, 
given by Cavanilles, I should have concluded it to be the same plant, 
only that it is described as an annual, much branched, and with the 
leaves glaucous beneath, in all which particulars it differs from our 
plant. 

1. Crot on glandulosum. 2. C. capitatum. 3. C. elliptieum (Cro- 
tonopsis elliptica, Willd.). 

4. C. *muricatum. Caule herbaceo ramosissimo; foliis oblongo- 
lanceolatis integerrimis tomentosis ; floribus dioicis, masculis subpani- 
culatis glomeratis ; stigmata multifida ; capsula muricata. — Hab. On 
the sand beaches of Great Salt river, Arkansas. Flowering in Sep- 
tember. — Obs. Annual. The whole plant covered with a whitish 
stellate pubescence. Stem much branched, about two feet high ; leaves 
alternate and opposite, petiolate, those of the female plant narrower 
and green on the upper surface ; branches of the staminiferous plant 
terminating in naked paniculated clusters of flowers, consisting merely 
of a roundish calix, each containing about ten or twelve uncombined 
stamens. Female, mostly solitary, dichotomal and terminal ; the calix 
5-cleft, and divided nearly to its base, with the segments acute ; corolla 
none ; styles three, stigmas about eighteen ! capsule subglobose, trico- 
ceous, tomentose and muricate, with soft protuberances. The whole 
plant, as in most of the genus, aromatic. 

Crotonopsis linearis, Mich. (Croton?). 
vol. v. — 2 T 



174 COLLECTIONS TOWARDS 

*ApHORAf . Polygama. Mas. Calix quinquepartitus ; petala quin- 
que ; filamentum columnare ; stamina septem, duo interiora ; rudimenta 
quinque, minuta. Fern. Calix major; petala nulla ; filamenta quinque, 
infertilia ; stigmata tria, bifida ; capsula tricocca, trisperma. 

Herba perennis, non lactescens, odore foetida, caule simplici ; folia 
integra exstipulata, alterna; flores racemosi, axillares, bracteolati. Di- 
taxis affine, sed habitu diversa. 

A. mercurialina. Caule subsimplici ; foliis obtusis pubescentibus ; 
petalis integris. 

Descript. Root perennial. The whole plant thinly covered with 
undivided appressed hairs; stem simple, grooved, from twelve to fifteen 
inches high ; leaves oblong-ovate, entire and obtuse, partly 3-nerved, 
alternate, sessile and rather numerous, from ten to fifteen lines long 
and about five lines wide ; racemes pedunculate, solitary and axillary, 
much longer than the leaves ; the flowers, which are greenish, sub- 
tended by minute bracts, the staminiferous ones much more numerous 
than the others, and sustained by shorter pedicells. Some of the plants 
produce only male flowers, others female or an admixture of both. 
Male calix 5-parted, the segments linear-lanceolate, acute and erect; 
petals oblong, also greenish ; filaments united into a column ; anthers 
in two sets, two and sometimes three above the other five, 2-celled. 
The rudiments of five other filaments appear round the base of the 
antheriferous column. Female calix producing lanceolate and acute 
spreading segments, divided to the base, and at least three times larger 
than those of the male flower ; corolla none ; infertile filaments five, 
conspicuous; style very short; stigmas three, short and reflected, partly 
bifid ; capsule tricoccous, pubescent, cells 1-seeded. I have not been 
able to trace the affinities of this curious plant, which in some respect 
resembles Mercuriaiis annua. It bears no affinity to Croton, its pubes- 
cence is simple and its odour fetid ; Ditaxis, to which it is closely 
allied, is an arborescent dioicous plant. — Hab. In hilly and denudated 
portions of the calcareous prairies of Red river, near the confluence of 
the Kiamesha. Flowering in the latter part of May and June — Obs. 



f From «<?5§i* sterility, in allusion to the infertile filaments existing in the flowers of both 
sexes. 



A FLORA OF ARKANSAS TERRITORY. 175 

The Croton lanceolatum, Cavan. ic. 6, p. 38, t. 557, f. 2, appears to 
be a second species of this genus, but produces only five ? stamens and 
five glands exterior to the germ and stamina, in place of filaments ; but 
this species ought perhaps to be re-examined in a living state, as the 
flowers are minute. 

*MASCHALANTHUs.f Monoica. Calix sexpartitus ; stamina mona- 
delpha, tria; torus glandulosus, sex ad duodecim-dentatus: styli tres; 
capsula trilocularis ; loculis dispermis. 

1. M. obovalus (Phyllanthus Carolinianus, Mich. Fl. Am. vol. 2, 
p. 209). Annuus. Foliis obovatis obtusiusculis ; floribus subgeminis 
axillaribus sessilibus ; caule erecto ramoso tereti. 

2. M. *polygonoides. Suffruticosus.humilis; foliis cuneato-oblongis 
acutiusculis, stipulis membranaceis subulatis ; floribus axillaribus pe- 
dunculatis subquinatis. — Hab. On calcareous rocks in the plains of 
Red river. Flowering in May and June. — Obs. Root woody ; stem 
very short (four to six inches), sending out numerous branches from 
the base, which towards the root are crowded with sphacelous stipules ; 
branches filiform, terete and decumbent ; pedicells capillary. Mascu- 
line calix minute, the segments membranaceous on the margins; 
stamina three, monadelphous; glandular disk 6-toothed?; petals none. 
Female flowers mixed with those which are staminiferous, or occa- 
sionally on a distinct plant; the calix larger and foliaceous ; petals none. 
The whole aspect and magnitude of the plant is similar to that of 
Polygonum aviculare. To this genus ought probably to be referred 
several other species included in Phyllanthus. 

*Lepidanthus4 Dioica. Calix quinquepartitus ; petala quinque; 
stamina quinque, libera; torus glandulosus, decemdentatus ; styli tres, 
bifidi ; capsula trilocularis ; loculis dispermis. 

Frutex humilis; folia alterna integra, stipulis minutis; flores axil- 
lares. 

L. phyllanthoides. Descript. Shrub much branched, two to three 
feet high ; branches ferruginous and brittle ; branchlets striate, a little 

t From ftnirxtlMi axilla, and avfloc a flower, the flowers being strictly axillary, and not 
produced upon foliaceous expansions of the stem. 

% From -Kurts a scale or petal, and avflos a flower ; in allusion to the existence of petals in 
this genus which are wanting in Phyllanthus. 



176 COLLECTIONS TOWARDS 

hairy; leaves roundish-oval, entire, very obtuse, subsessile and reticu- 
lately veined ; stipules minute, ferruginous, pilose and acute ; peduncles 
filiform ; the male flowers growing commonly by three together; the 
female ones single. Male calix 5-parted; segments oblong, obtuse, 
and with the margin pubescent ; petals five, alternate, yellowish-green, 
cuneate-oblong, obtuse ; glandular ring or torus 10-toothed; stamina 
five, unconnected ; styles three, abortive ; stigmas undivided. Female 
calix almost exceeding the fruit in magnitude, 5-parted, the divisions 
roundish-oval, green and foliaceous; petals five, minute, almost like 
glandular appendages; styles three, bifid ; capsule round and somewhat 
succulent, 3-celled, cells 2-seeded ; seeds triquetrous, not elastically 
arillate ? 

This plant is nearly allied to Phyllanthus, and more particularly to 
the North American section of that genus. The leaves possess in a 
weaker degree the aroma and flavour of tea. — Hab. In the torrents of 
the Mazern mountains, towards the sources of the Pottoe and Kiame- 
sha, as far as the vicinity of Red river ; abundant. Flowering in May 
and June. 

Jatropha stimulosa, Mich. — In the upland forests of Red river. 

Stillingia *lanceolata. Herbacea ; foliis subsessilibus, ovato-lan- 
ceolatis acutis, serratis. — Hab. In the prairies at Belle Point, Fort 
Smith. Nearly allied to S. sylvatica. — Obs. Spike about three inches 
long; the flowers yellowish and diandrous; cells of the anthers remote, 
only partially opening along the margin. 



Forestiera, Poiret, Encyc. suppl. 2, p. 664 (Adelia, Mich. Fl. 
Bor. Am. t. 48; Borya, Willd. Sp. pi. 4, p. 711; Pursh, 1, p. 22; 
Bigelovia, Smith, Encyc. Lond. Suppl.). 

Dioica. Mas. Involucrum tetraphyllum, multiflorum ; calix ; 
corolla 0; stamina 4 — 6, decidua, pedicello nudo insidentia iis arti- 
culata, diverso tempore erumpentia. Fern. Stigma capitatum ; drupa 
monosperma obliqua. 

F. acuminata. — Obs. A large shrub, sometimes bordering upon a 
tree, and sending out many stems from the same root. Branches not 
unfrequently terminating in spines. Male flowers irregularly scattered 



A FLORA OF ARKANSAS TERRITORY. 177 

over the branches in sessile buds, which appear before the develope- 
ment of the leaves ; they are destitute of a proper calix and corolla. 
The involucrum consists of nothing more than the four innermost 
greenish decussated bud scales, the lower ones being smaller, sphace- 
lous and more numerous. The flowers are aggregated by six, eight, 
or more together, and the stamina, four to six in number, are articu- 
lated to a common receptacular pedicell, and exserted beyond the in- 
volucrum, perfecting at different times ; anthers roundish, adnate to 
the filaments. The singular structure of the flowers, notwithstanding 
the disparity of the fruit, renders this plant inseparable from the order 
of Euphorbia. — Hab. In the inundated lands of the Ohio, Mississippi, 
Arkansas and Red rivers. 

2. F. *pubescens. Foliis ovatis serrulatis pubescentibus subpetio- 
latis ; fructibus oblongis parvulis. — Hab. In the prairies of Red river. 
— Obs. A low and very much branched shrub, almost similar to a 
sloe bush; branchlets and leaves pubescent; leaves obtuse or acute, 
opposite ; fruit cylindric-oblong, black and saccharine to the taste, upon 
longish peduncles, and scarcely half as large as that of F. acuminata, 
the nut striated and a little oblique, the shell flexible ; embryo flat 
and erect, immersed in the centre of a cartilaginous albumen. As this 
plant is now cultivated in the gardens of Messrs Landreth and Bartram, 
I imagine it to be the same which Mr Pursh saw among the specimens 
collected by Lyons, which I can by no means reconcile to the descrip- 
tion of F. ligustrina of Michaux. 

PLANTAGINEAE. 

1. Plantago major. 2. P. virginica. 

3. P. *purpurascens. Foliis lanceolatis dentatis pubescentibus ; spica 
laxiuscula ; stamina exserta ; scapo tereti hirsute — Hab. On the banks 
of the Arkansas ; abundant. Nearly allied to P. virginica, but with 
the stamens always exserted, and the leaves often retrorsely toothed. — 
Obs. Biennial. Almost canescently pubescent ; anthers purple. 

4. P. *heterophylla. Foliis linearibus sublaciniatis planis, basi lana- 
tis ; scapo tereti. — Hab. On the banks of the Mississippi and Arkansas ; 
frequent. Allied to P. maritima, but not succulent, the plant much 

vol. v. — 2 u 



178 COLLECTIONS TOWARDS 

smaller, with the leaves sometimes almost filiform, and the scape pu- 
bescent. 

5. P. pusilla, Gen. Am. vol. 1, p. 100 (P. aristata, Mich. Fl. Am. 
1, p. 95). 6. P. gnaphaloides, Gen. Am. vol. 1, p. 100 (P. lagopus, 
Ph. Fl. Am. 1, p. 99). 

7. P. *squarrosa. Stamina inclusa ; foliis linearibus striatis glabris ; 
scapo tereti lanuginoso ; bracteis linearibus longissimis. — Hah. In arid 
and denudated places in the prairies near Belle Point or Fort Smith. — 
Obs. Annual. Leaves four or five inches long, two or three lines 
broad, smooth, shining and arid, attenuated at the base, membrana- 
ceously sheathing ; caudex woolly ; bracts from half to three quarters 
of an inch long, nearly smooth and filiform; calix woolly, segments 
obtuse; capsule 2-seeded. Allied to P. gnaphaloides. 

NYCTAGINEAE. 

1. Calymenia corymbosa (Mirabilis corymbosa, Cavan. ic. 4, p. 55, 
t. 379; Allionia nyctaginea, Mich. Fl. Am. 1, p. 100; Ph. Flor. Am. 
1, p. 97 ; Calymenia nyctaginea, Gen. Am. vol. 1, p. 25). 

2. C. angustifolia, Gen. Am. vol. 1, p. 26. 

PRIMULACEAE. 

Androsace occidentalis. — Hah. On the rocky summit of a hill in 
Cedar prairie, ten miles from the garrison. 

Dodecatheon integrifolium, (3 *album. Foliis ovatis, integrius- 
culis, umbellis paucifloris ; bracteis lanceolatis acutis ; floribus albidis. — 
Hah. In humid prairies near Fort Smith. Flowering in April and 
May. — Obs. Leaves ovate or lanceolate, sometimes subdenticulate, 
four or five inches long ; segments of the calix and bracts very acute, 
the latter sometimes acuminated ; flowers constantly white, segments 
elliptic-oblong or oblong-lanceolate, spotted towards the base ; incras- 
sated filaments, sometimes purple. 

Lysimachta ciliata. 

Anagallis arvensis. Introduced. 

Micranthemum orbiculatum. 

Centunculus lanceolatus. — On the margins of ponds near Fort 
Smith. 



A FLORA OF ARKANSAS TERRITORY. 179 

Samolus Valeranili.—Sz&Y the town of Arkansas. 

Utricularia vulgaris. 

SCROPHULARINEAE. 

Pedicularis Canadensis. — The flower is here always ochroleucous. 

MELAMrYRUM lineare (M. Americanum, Mich.). 

Scrophularia Marilandica. 

Antirrhinum Canadense. 

Veronica peregrina, Willd. Sp. PI. 1, p. 76; Vahl. Enum. pi. 1, 
p. 85.— Common. 

Leptandra virginica, Nutt. Gen. Am. vol. 1, p. 7 (Veronica vir- 
ginica, Lin. ; Callystachya, Rafinesque. A name heretofore employed 
for another genus). 

Coelinsia *violacea. Puherula, foliis ovato-lanceolatis, remote 
denticulatis ; corolla subconcolore ; labio superiore inferiore dimidio 
minore, laciniis omnibus apice bifidis; capsulis subdecemspermis. — 
Hab. On the hills and upland woods of the Arkansas and Red rivers : 
abundant. Flowering in April and May. 

Descript. Annual. Root fibrous ; stem terete, oppositely branched, 
pulverulently pubescent, mostly purple, and from four to twelve inches 
high ; radical leaves oblong-ovate, those of the stem ovate-lanceolate, 
sessile, opposite, remotely denticulate and acute, of a somewhat thickish 
consistence and covered with a pubescence similar to that of the stem, 
the uppermost verticillate in threes; calix subcampanulate, 5-cleft, 
the base angular, segments ovate-lanceolate acute ; corolla bright vio- 
let (like that of many species of the genus Phlox), the upper lip paler ; 
segments bifid at the extremity, those of the lower lip partly obcordate, 
segments of the upper somewhat truncate, and about half the size of 
the lower ; the palate of the upper lip marked with a reniform, yellow- 
ish and fulvous spot, which is immaculate in the centre ; stamina four, 
declinate, the rudiment of a fifth at the base of the tube of the corolla ; 
filaments pubescent towards the base ; style simple, filiform ; stigma 
minute ; capsule roundish-ovate, partly 2-celled, imperfectly 4-valved ; 
germ about 10-seeded? seeds much smaller than in C. verna. Allied 
to C. grandiflora of Oregon. 



180 COLLECTIONS TOWARDS 

Mimulus alatus, Willd. Sp. PI. 3, p. 361 ; Ph. Fl. Am. 2, p. 426. 

1. Gerard ix purpurea. 2. G. tenuifolia and (3 *parviflora. Flo- 
ribus minoribus; calice tubo corollae aequali, dentibus acuminatis; 
fructibus majoribus. — Hah. In the prairies of the Arkansas above the 
Verdigris river. Apparently a distinct species. — Obs. Annual. The 
stem is less branched, and inclined to grow taller than G. tenuifolia, 
whose flowers are larger, with a much smaller calix. 

3. G. Hongifolia. Caule subsimplici ; foliis filiformibus scabris, 
pedunculo elongato longioribus; floribus maximis; calicis dentibus 
longe acuminatis. — Hah. On the banks of the Arkansas. Flowering in 
August and September. — Obs. At first sight this species might be con- 
founded with G. purpurea, although perfectly distinct, and apparently 
intermediate with it and G. tenuifolia. Annual. Stem twelve to 
eighteen inches, quadrangular ; leaves opposite, from one and a half to 
two inches in length, and not broader than those of the Weymouth pine ; 
the peduncles a little shorter, opposite and axillary; calix campanulate, 
its acuminate segments nearly its length ; corolla somewhat larger than 
that of G. purpurea, purple, with the margins of the lobes pubescent. 

4. G. *heterophylla. Foliis scabris lineari-lanceolatis acutissimis, 
inferioribus sublaciniatis trifidis ; floribus subsessilibus ; calicinis laci- 
niis linearibus acuminatis patentibus.— Hob. In the prairies of the 
Arkansas, near Great Salt river. Flowering in September. — Obs. 
Annual. Stem angular, about two feet high, and much branched ; 
leaves opposite and alternate, the lower ones trifid or laciniate ; the 
flowers approximating towards the summits of the branches, purple, 
with the segments pubescent along the margin ; segments of the calix 
linear and very acute, as long as the undivided base, and falcate or 
spreading. 

5. G. auriculata, Mich. Flor. Am. 2, p. 20. 6. G. quercifolia, 
Pursh, 2, p. 423. 7. G. petlicularia. 

Seymeria macrophylla, Gen. Am. vol. 2, p. 49. — On the banks of 
the Arkansas near the garrison. 

Euchroma coccinea, Gen. Am. vol. 2, p. 55 (Bartsia coccinea, Lin.). 

2. E. ^purpurea. Foliis cuneatis trifidis sublaciniatis, bracteis 
rubris consimilibus ; calix corollisque coloratis quadrifidis, unilateralis ; 
corolla laciniis acutis. — Hab. On rocks in the hilly prairies of Red 



A FLORA OF ARKANSAS TERRITORY. 181 

river. Flowering in May.— Obs. Perennial. Stem tomentose, the 
leaves more slightly so ; bracts, calix and corolla of a brilliant reddish 
purple ; segments of the calix linear, all inclined to one side, and nearly 
the length of the corolla ; apex of the upper lip of the corolla greenish 
(no glands at the base of the lower lip) ; seed covered with a reticu- 
lated and perforated membranaceous vesicle. Considerably related to 
E. grandijlora, but differing in the proportions of the flower, and the 
dilation and brilliant colour of the bracts. 

1. Herpestis rotundifolia. 2. H. Brownei. — Banks of the Mis- 
sissippi. 

1. Gratiola virginica. 2. G. pilosa. 3. G. anagallidea, Mich. 
(G. acuminata, Elliott, Sketch Bot. Carol. 1, p. 15, not of Pursh). 

1. Lindernia pyxidaria (L. dilatata, Muhl. Catal. ; Elliott, Bot. 
Carol. 1, p. 16). 2. L. attenuata. Muhl. Catal.— 06s. The capsule 
in this genus appears to be generally 1-celled. 

Chelone glabra. 

1. Pentstemon laevigatum, Willd. Sp. PI. 3, p. 228 ; Pursh, 2, p. 
427. 

2. P. digitalis. Glaberrimum; foliis caulinis connatis ovato-lan- 
ceolatis acuminatis repando-denticulatis ; calicibus viscosis, laciniis acu- 
minatis reflexis; corolla magna subcampanulata, appendice superne 
barbato. — Hob. In wet woods and prairies ; common. Flowering in 
May — Obs. Allied to P. campanulata. Perennial. Leaves broad ; 
panicle naked, trichotomous, few-flowered, ultimate branches and calix 
viscidly pubescent ; corolla similar to digitalis, pure white and minutely 
pubescent, the tube exserted, orifice inflated, subcampanulate and terete; 
the upper lip a little shorter than the lower and coarctate, the inferior 
3-lobed and dilated, the margin of the orifice on the lower side some- 
times bearded ; sterile filament or appendage partly exserted, longitu- 
dinally bearded ; anthers smooth, dark purple. 

3. P. *tubaeflorum. Foliis ovatis connatis denticulatis glabris ; 
caule nudiusculo elato ; calice corollisque viscoso-pubescentibus, laciniis 
ovatis ; corolla tubaeformi, limbo intus villoso, appendice barbato. — 
Hab. In wettish prairies, from Fort Smith to Red river. Flowering 
in May and June. — Obs. Perennial. Radical leaves elliptic-ovate, 
entire and smooth, cauline all situated towards the base of the stem, 

vol. v. — 2 v 



182 COLLECTIONS TOWARDS 

lower ones oblong-ovate ; stem two or three feet high, the leaves so 
small and remote above as to give it the appearance of being naked ; 
segments of the calix appressed ; corolla of a pure white, not plaited 
beneath, segments oval ; the whole orifice and tube villous. A very- 
beautiful species, with the flowers rather small and crowded as it were 
in verticillate clusters. 

4. P. *Cobaca. Puberulum, caule pumilo ; foliis oblongo-ovatis 
argute serrulatis nitidis ; floribus pubescentibus maximis inflatis pur- 
pureis, intus striatis ; calice laciniis ovatis ; appendice longitudinaliter 
barbato. — Hah. In the sterile and denudated portions of the prairies of 
Red river, in calcareous soil. Flowering in May. — Obs. Perennial. 
Upper leaves ovate, beneath slightly pubescent ; flowers by pairs ; leaves 
broadish and thick ; calix viscidly pubescent, segments oblong-ovate ; 
flowers bluish purple, nearly as large, and almost of the same form as 
those of Cobaea scandens ! ; stem about a span high. 



Orobanche bijlora, Gen. Am. vol. 2, p. 59 (O. uniflora, Lin.). — 
In the Osage prairie, near the Verdigris river. 

Capraria multifida. — Obs. Calix 5-parted, the segments subulate; 
corolla tubular, subbilabiate, base of the tube somewhat globose, border 
4-lobed; lobes rounded, upper segment emarginate, the lower ones 
entire; capsule ovate, 1 -celled, 2 and at length 4-valved ; seeds very 
numerous and minute ; duration annual ; leaves opposite and ternate, 
lyrate, partly twice trifid, the segments linear-oblong and obtuse. This 
genus appears to be divided, and requires revision with living speci- 
mens. I have elsewhere proposed this plant as a genus distinct from 
the true Caprarias by the name of Leucospora. 

Buchnera Americana. — The specimens uncommonly large. 

ACANTHACEAE. 

1. Ruellia strepens. 

2. R. *humilis. Erecta, hirsuta ; foliis oblongo-ovatis integriuscu- 
lis sessilibus; pedunculis 1 — 3-floris; calicis laciniis filiformibus tubo 
corollae duplo brevioribus. — Hab. On rocks in the upland forests 
and prairies. — Obs. Perennial. Stem seldom exceeding a span ; the 



A FLORA OF ARKANSAS TERRITORY. 183 

leaves and flowers very similar to those of R. strepens, but sessile and 
not perfectly entire. Flower pale blue, commonly two inches long. 

1. Justicia ensiformis^ Walter, p. 63 (J. pedunculosa, Mich. Flor. 
1, p. 7). Q. J. humilis, Mich. Flor. 1, p. 8. — Around New Orleans. 

Dicliptera resupinala, Vahl. Enum. 1, p. 114 (Justicia brachiata, 
Pursh, 1, p. 14). Floribus axillaribus subsessilibus pedunculatisque 
subverticillatis, bracteis bivalvibus subcordatis, foliis ovatis. — Hab. In 
shady alluvial forests throughout the Arkansas territory; common. — 
Obs. Perennial. Stem erect, low, and considerably branched, hex- 
angular, and on two of the sides grooved, sometimes striking out roots 
from its base ; leaves in full grown plants from one to two inches wide, 
and five or six inches long, upon longish petioles, and minutely and 
unequally pubescent ; floral branchlets axillary and terminal, the clus- 
ters subsessile, irregularly 3 to 6-flowered ; bracts concealing the calix, 
which is simple and very small, with subulate segments ; corolla bila- 
biate, pale violet purple, rather small, lobes oblong, undivided, reflected, 
and almost equal in magnitude, the upper slightly tridentate at the 
extremity and maculate at the base, the lower 2-toothed, the tube 
compressed and contorted ; filaments two, diantheriferous ; style undi- 
vided ; capsule suboval, mucronulate, sessile and compressed, the valves 
membranaceous, attached to a curved cartilaginous border, which 
springing apart at the summit, becomes straight, divides the valves 
in the centre and separates them from their base, so as to present an 
appearance not very dissimilar to the blades of a pair of shears ; reti- 
naculum divided, springing upwards, each portion 1 or 2-toothed, but 
seldom more than 1 -seeded ; seed orbicular and compressed, brown and 
hispid. 

BIGNONIACEAE. 

1. Bignonia capreolata. 2. B. radicans. 

Catalpa cordifolia. — On the banks of the Mississippi, near the set- 
tlement called the Big Prairie, a few miles below New Madrid, but 
apparently only naturalized. I have since observed this tree truly 
indigenous on the banks of the Chatahoochee, near Columbus in Geor- 
gia, and pretty frequent in West Florida and Lower Alabama. 



184 COLLECTIONS TOWARDS 



MYOPORINEAE. 

Avicennia nitida? — Near the outlets of the Mississippi, and on the 
sea islands near the Balize ; called improperly, by the fishermen, 
Mangle. 

VERBENACEAE. 

1. Verbena urticifolia. The root is said to be a tonic, useful in 
intermittent fever. 2. V. hastata. 3. V. bracteosa. 4. V. stricta. 
5. V. Caroliniana. 6. V. rugosa, Willd. Enum. 633. 

Glandularia, Gmelin. Calix tubulosus quinquedentatus, denti- 
bus setaceis inaequalibus ; corollae limbus quinquefidus subaequalis, 
lobis emarginatis, ore villoso ; stamina quatuor; stigma bilabiata; semina 
quatuor. Foliis trifidis laciniatis oppositis ; spica solitaria pedunculata, 
corolla Buchnerae. 

1. G. Aubletia. Assurgens, foliis trifidis incisis hirsutis, seminibus 
laeviusculis (Verbena Aubletia, Ait. Kewens, 1, p. 33; Mich. Flor. 2, 
p. 13; Jacq. Hort. Vind. 2, p. 82, t. 176; V. longiflora, Lamarck, 
Illust. 1, p. 57; Jussieu, Gen. PI. p. 109; Buchnera Canadensis, Lin. 
Mant. p. 88 ; Glandularia Carolinensis, Gmel. Syst. Nat. 2, p. 920). 
— Hab. Every where common in elevated prairies throughout the 
Arkansas territory. 

2. Q.*bipinnatifida. Suberecta,hirsuta; foliis trifidis bipinnatifidis, 
laciniis linearibus, seminibus impresso-punctatis. — Hab. On the open 
calcareous hills of Red river. Flowering in May and June. — Obs. 
Perennial. Leaves trifid, divisions trifidly pinnatifid, somewhat hirsute ; 
bracts subulate, longer than the calix; calix tubular, dentures subulate 
unequal, the lowest segment very short ; tube of the corolla nearly 
straight, longer than the calix ; border large and flat, 5-cleft, lobes 
obcordate and emarginate, with the orifice villous; stamina four, 
fertile, didynamous and included ; style at length exserted ; stigma 
bilabiate, the lobes unequal ; corolla lilac blue, the border equal and 
similar to that of Aubletia, which species the whole plant strongly re- 
sembles. These two similar species, with several more South Ameri- 



A FLORA OF ARKANSAS TERRITORY. 185 

can ones, appear to justify their separation from Verbena, which had 
formerly been attempted by Gmelin. 

Zapania nodiflora. 

Callicarpa Americana. — On the banks of rivers ; common. 

LABIATAE. 

1. Salvia lyrata. 2. S. Claytoni, Elliott, Bot. Carol. 1, p. 32. 

3. S. *longtfolia. Fuberula, foliis lineari-lanceolatis acutis inte- 
gris, radicalibus villosis serratis ; calice trifido, caule pumilo. — Hab. In 
the prairies not uncommon. — Obs. Perennial. Nearly allied to S.azu- 
rea, but bearing flowers of nearly double the magnitude, and of a pale 
blue. The plant also possesses the fetid odour of Salvia sclarea. 

1. Monarda mollis, Pursh, 1, p. 18 (M. altissima? Muhl. Catal. 
p. 3). — Obs. Stem two or three feet high, brown and glaucous, some- 
times pubescent, but with the angles always obtuse ; leaves long, ovate- 
lanceolate, acuminate and deeply serrate, lighter coloured beneath, but 
very slightly pubescent ; bracts cordate-ovate ; clusters of flowers single, 
uncommonly large ; calix glandular and smooth, pilose at the summit 
dentures very short ; corolla pale purple (and in one variety white) ; 
apex of the upper lip attenuated, remarkably and singularly bearded, 
so as to be in this way distinguished from every other species. — Hah. 
From Canada to the southern extremity of the Arkansas territory ; 
common. 

2. M. fistulosa, Willd. Sp. PI. 1, p. 124; Ph. 1, p. 18. 

3. M. JRusseliana. Gracilis, foliis ovato-lanceolatis acuminatis re- 
mote serratis brevi petiolatis hirsutis, caule acutangulo, capitulis sim- 
plicibus, bracteis coloratis, corollis maculatis. — Hab. In shady woods 
around Fort Smith, Belle Point; common. Flowering in May. — Obs. 
Perennial. Stem about a foot high, angles acute and somewhat hispid ; 
leaves hirsute, lower ones cordate-ovate, serrate ; bracts pale red ; calix 
equal, pilose, the segments divaricate, glandular and hispid; corolla 
white, the lower lip spotted with carmine red and undulated, the apex 
3-lobed, middle lobe elongated ; tube slender ; stamina exserted ; anthers 
at first red, lobes divaricate ; stigma simple, subulate. 

vol. v. — 2 w 



186 COLLECTIONS TOWARDS 

(*CoRYANTHUs.)f Corolla ringens; labio superiore fornicato cari- 
nato, apice emarginato, filamentis subaequali ; labio inferiore trilobo. 

4. M. *aristata. Foliis lineari-lanceolatis serratis acutis glabriuscu- 
lis, floribus verticillatis, corollis maculatis, calicis dentibus longissime 
aristatis, bracteis coloratis multi-seriatis. — Hab. In the plains of Red 
river, and rarely on the upper part of the Arkansas. Flowering in 
May and June. — Obs. Perennial and annual; stem obtuse-angular, 
covered with a minute pubescence, the axills commonly bearing clus- 
ters of lesser leaves ; bracts oblong, purplish-blue, awned and ciliated, 
consisting of many series ; calix cylindric and striated, the orifice closed 
with villous hairs, the dentures equal with each other, awned, the awns 
bearded and nearly equal to the length of the calix ; corolla almost 
white, sparingly spotted, and chiefly on the under lip. Allied to M. 
punctata, and with it forming a subgenus, characterized by the cari- 
nated upper lip as long as the stamina. 

5. M. punctata. — Common on the banks of all the larger western 
rivers, and in old fields. 

Cunila mariana. — From the Cadron to Red river, on woody hills. 

1. Hedeoma hirta, Gen. Am. vol. 1, p. 16 (H. hispida, Pursh, 
Flor. Am. Septent. 2, p. 414). — Hab. In denudated prairies near Belle 
Point Fort, Arkansas. 

2. H. *Jlrkansana. Caule ramoso ; foliis lineari-lanceolatis, antice 
subserratis, superioribus integerrimus ; verticillis subquadrifloris, pedi- 
cellis ad basin bibracteolatis ; floribus tetrandris. — Hab. In moist and 
rocky prairies near the sources of the Kiamesha river. Flowering in 
May and June. — Obs. Nearly allied to H. glabra, and possessing the 
pennyroyal odour ; the whole plant smooth and glandular, four to six 
inches high ; pedicells nearly equal to the cylindric calix, the dentures 
setaceous ; corolla subcampanulate, blue, with the palate white. 

Collinsonia Canadensis.— Common. 
1. LYCorus virginicus. 2. L. vulgaris. 

3. L. sinuatus, Elliott. Caule simplici; foliis majusculis, omnibus 
pinnatifidis, laciniis lineari-lanceolatis, acutis, subserratis; calicibus 



t From x-ifvt a helmet, and *vfloc a flower ; in allusion to the characteristic distinction of 
this section, the galeated upper lip. 



A FLORA OF ARKANSAS TERRITORY. 187 

acutis. — Hab. On the banks of the Arkansas, occasionally inundated. 
The plant large, and with the axills many-flowered. 

Nepeta cataria. — Introduced and naturalized. 

1. Hyssopus nepeloides. 2. H. scrophulariaefolius, Pursh, 2, p. 406. 

Mentha borealis, Mich. Flor. Am. 2, p. 2; Pursh, Flor. 2, p. 405. 

Teucrium virginicum, Willd. Sp. PI. 3, p. 22. 

Glechoma hederacea, Willd. Sp. PI. 3, p. 85. 

Lamium amplexicaule, Willd. Sp. PI. 3, p. 90. 

Stachys aspera, Mich. Flor. Am. 2, p. 5 ; Pursh, 2, p. 407. 2. S. 
hyssopifolia, Mich. 2, p. 4 ; Pursh, 2, p. 407. 

Marrubium vulgare, Willd. Sp. PI. 3, p. 111. — Naturalized. 

Pycnanthemum incanum, Mich. 2, p. 7 ; Pursh, 2, p. 409. 2. P. 
linifolium, Pursh, 2, p. 409 (Brachystemum linifolium, Willd. Enum. 
p. 623). 3. P. virginicum, Gen. Am. vol. 2, p. 33 (P. lanceolatum, 
Pursh, 2, p. 410). 4. P. muticum, Persoon's Synopsis, 2, p. 128 
(Brachystemum muticum, Mich. Fl. Am. 2, p. 6). 5. P. pilosum, 
Gen. Am. vol. 2, p. 33. 

Melissa officinalis, Willd. Sp. PI. 3, p. 146.— -Naturalized. 

Calamintha nepeta, Pursh. Fl. Am. 2, p. 413. — Naturalized. 

1. Dracocephalum virginianum, Willd. 3, p. 149, (3 album. — 
This is the prevailing variety, bearing flowers which are nearly white. 

2. D. ^intermedium. Floribus spicatis remotis, foliis lineari-lan- 
ceolatis subdenticulatis, calicibus brevibus — Hab. On the prairies in 
moist places, from Arkansas to Red river. — Obs. A much smaller spe- 
cies than D. virginianum, and more nearly allied to D. denticulatum, 
but differs in its acute and partly entire leaves, and the peculiar short- 
ness of the calix; the colour of the flower is of a pale purple, often 
almost white. Nearly allied to D. variegatum, but with a different 
flower. 

Clinopodium vulgare, Willd. Sp. PI. 3, p. 131 ; Pursh, 2, p. 410. 

Origanum vulgare, Willd.; Pursh, Flor. Am. 2, p. 411. 

1. Trichostema dichotoma, Lin. 2. T. linearis, Gen. Am. vol. 
2, p. 39. — Hab. On the hills of the Cadron, and precisely similar to 
the eastern plant. 

1. Scutellaria lateriflora, Willd. 

2. S.parvula, Mich. Fl. Am. 2, p. 11 ; Pursh, 2. p. 412.— Obs. In 



188 COLLECTIONS TOWARDS 

this small and very pubescent species, which is not more than three or 
four inches high, the root presents moniliform tubers and sends out 
creeping shoots, the leaves are also subserrate, and the flowers very 
small. It inhabits the clefts of rocks, in somewhat shady places. 

3. S. versicolor ', (3 ^mollis. — Obs. This variety differs considerably 
from the common species of the western states, to which I applied the 
name of versicolor, rather than that of cordifolia, given to it by Muhlen- 
berg, as there are several other species with heart-shaped leaves. The 
present variety, for such I consider it, is, like the original species, a 
plant of rather unusual magnitude in the genus, every where softly 
pubescent, but not glandular, and with the dentations of the leaves 
rather acute than obtuse ; the flowers are also larger, and nearly of a 
deep and uniform blue colour. — Hob. In the vicinity of thickets on 
the prairies of Red river; somewhat rare. 

Prunella vulgaris, Willd. Sp. PL 3, p. 176. 

Phryma leptostachya, Willd. Sp. PI. 3, p. 179. 

ASPERIFOLIAE. 

Myosotis verna, Gen. Am. Appendix. — Obs. Perhaps only a variety 
of M. arvensis, but certainly indigenous. 

1. Cynoglossum officinale. 2. C. virginicum, Lin. Sp. PI. 134 
(C. amplexicaule, Mich. Fl. Am. 1, p. 132). 

1. Lithospermum arvense, Willd. Sp. PL; Pursh, 1, p. 131. 

2. L. *tenellurn. Seminibus glabriusculis convexis, foliis linearibus 
acutis strigosis, floribus remotis pedunculatis ; calicibus foliaceis, laciniis 
inaequalibus. — Hob. In arid places in the prairies of Red river. 
Flowering in June. — Obs. Annual. Stem about a span, slender and 
somewhat branched, and, as well as the rest of the plant, clothed with 
short appressed whitish hairs ; leaves very narrow, and attenuated at 
either end ; flowers somewhat scattered, small and white ; calix 5-leaved, 
the leaflets of unequal size ; corolla funnel-formed, the border 5-lobed, 
the lobes oblong, at first plaited ; orifice pervious ; tube slender, round- 
ish, and staminiferous towards the base ; stigma small and slightly bifid ; 
nuts four, externally convex and somewhat pilose, internally connivent 



A FLORA OF ARKANSAS TERRITORY. 189 

and angular, attached somewhat obliquely to the inconspicuous base of 
the style, and with the umbilicus imperforate. Perhaps not precisely 
a Lithospermum, bearing indeed some affinity to Cynoglossum, and by 
no means according with the usual character of the fruit of this genus 
as described by Roemer and Schultes, in their recent and greatly aug- 
mented edition of the Systema Vegetabilium, vol. 4, p. 6. 

1. Batschia Gmelini, Mich. Fl. Am. 1, p. 130; Pursh, 1, p. 132. 
— Hal). In the woods of Arkansas and Red river. 2. B. canescens, 
Mich. Flor. Am.; Ph. 1, p. 132. 3. B. longijlora, which is the Li- 
thospermum angustifolium of Muhlenberg's Herbarium. — Obs. All the 
species of this genus are, with apparent propriety, referred by the cele- 
brated Lehman to the genus Lithospermum. 

Pulmonaria virginica, Willd.; Pursh. 1, p. 130. 

Heliotropium curassavicum. Foliis oblongo-lanceolatis carnosis 
glaucis oppositis alternisque, spicis conjugatis compositisve, caule pro- 
cumbente. (II. curassavicum and H. chenopodioides, Humboldt and 
Bonpland ; Willd. Enum. Hort. Berol. 1, p. 175, and Sp. PL 1, p. 743.) 
— Hab. On the sandy banks of the Great Salt river, and in similar 
situations on those of the Arkansas ; also on the shores of both the 
Atlantic and Pacific oceans, chiefly in the tropical regions. 

Tiaridium. Corolla hypocrateriformis, tubo angulato, fauce coarc- 
tata quinqueradiata, limbi laciniis undulatis; stylus brevissimus, stig- 
mate capitato; nuces 4, biloculares, mitriformes, acuminatae, cohae- 
rentes, basi clausae. Receptaculum commune manifestum nullum. 
Lehman's Asperifoliae, p. 13. 

T. Indicum (Heliotropium Indicum, Lin.; Willd.; Pursh, 1, page 
130. 

Purshia scabra, Roem. and Schultes, 4, p. 51. — Hab. On hills in 
the prairies of Red river, and on the uplands of the Arkansas; frequent. 
— Obs. Both in this species and P. hispida, the segments of the corolla 
are acute. 

*EupL0CA.f Calix quinquepartitus; corolla subinfundibuliformis, 
limbo piano plicato quinquangulato, fauce nuda ; genitalibus inclusis ; 

t From ir\ix.u> to plait ; in allusion to the peculiar character of the corolla. 
VOL. V. 2 X 



190 COLLECTIONS TOWARDS 

stigma annulata, apice barbata ; semina quatuor, per paria approximata, 
angulata, basi imperforata obliqua, calici affixa. 

Herbacea ; folia aspera alterna ; flores sparsi, limbo plicato convolvu- 
laceo. Messerschmidiae Arguziaeque affinis, sed fructu diversa. 

1. E. convolvulacea. — Descript. Root annual, slightly branched; 
stem angular, four to six inches high, sending out a few branches, some- 
times both at the base and the summit; leaves mostly alternate, the 
lowest ones opposite, and, as well as the most part of the plant, asperate 
with very scabrous appressed hairs, their form ovate and entire, sup- 
ported on short petioles ; flowers lateral, approximating and subsessile ; 
calix 5-parted, shorter than the tube of the corolla, the segments linear- 
lanceolate ; corolla white, externally pilose, about the size and form of 
that of Ipomoea coccinea ; the tube ovate, contracted both at its base 
and summit, the stamina inserted below its middle ; border flat, plaited 
and membranaceous, with five angles ; stamina, filaments none ; anthers 
sessile and connivent, situated towards the middle of the tube, ovate 
and acute, opening internally, with the membranes of the cells narrowed 
upwards and diagonally plaited; style included; stigma annulate, hir- 
sutely bearded at the apex; seeds four, hairy, approximating by pairs, 
externally convex, but flat and smooth at the commissure or point of 
mutual approximation, with the umbilical hilum situated above the 
middle of the third and narrowest side of the seed, in immediate con- 
nection with the quadrifid base of the style ; receptacle compressed, 
and at length separated from the base of the style ; cotyledons and 
radicle incurved towards the umbilicus. 

Hab. On the sandy banks of the Arkansas. Flowering in June, 
the flowers of an agreeable odour, and opening towards sunset, as in 
the Mirabilis ! Perhaps this plant ought to be united with the Arguzia 
of Siberia, which requires ulterior examination ; though from the de- 
scription of Messerschmidia incana of Meyer, said to be closely allied 
to Arguzia, and of the fruit of which a very minute description is 
given in the fourth volume of the Systema Vegetabilium of Roemer 
and Schultes, page 306, our plant is very essentially and generically 
distinct. 



A FLORA OF ARKANSAS TERRITORY. 191 



HYDROPHYLLEAE. 

1. Elltsia *mierocatyx. Glabriuscula, decumbens, foliis lyrato- 
pinnatifidis longe pedunculatis, laciniis paucis (3 — 5) lateralibus obli- 
quis inciso-dentatis intermedio trifido obtuso; floribus solitariis minutis. 
(Hydrophyllum pusillum, Muhl. Herb.) — Annual. The leaves very 
slightly hairy, upon long petioles, in three to five divisions ; the lateral 
segments half reniform, toothed, the terminal division nearly entire, 
but trifid; calix minute; corolla very small, subcampanulate, with five 
shallow lobes. — Hab. In Arkansas, Alabama, &c. 

2. E. *ranunculacea. Subhirsuta, caule procumbente; foliis pin- 
natifidis subquinquelobatis, superioribus tripartitis, inciso-dentatis ob- 
tusis longe petiolatis; racemis secundis paucifloris. — Hab. In the 
shady humid alluvial forests of the Arkansas, frequent. Flowering in 
March. 

Descript. Annual. Stems diffuse and procumbent, about a span in 
length ; the upper leaves 3-parted, the lateral segments toothed on the 
lower side (the very reverse of the preceding species), the central seg- 
ment trifid ; racemes 5 to 10 ?-flowered ; flowers upon longish pedicells; 
corolla pale blue, cylindric-campanulate, naked, segments suboval and 
entire ; germ hirsute. — Obs. The leaves, which are much less com- 
pound, differently formed, and furnished with conspicuous petioles, 
readily distinguish this species from the E. ambigua. 

Hydrophyllum virginicum, Willd. Sp. PI. 1, p. 814; Ph. Flor. 
Am. 1, p. 134. 

1. Phacelia *hirsuta. Caule erecto ramoso; foliis pinnatifidis, 
superioribus sessilibus, segmentis integriusculis ; calix, laciniis linearibus 
patentibus ; corolla, lobis integris nudis ; filamentis basi barbatis. — Hab. 
In sylvan prairies ; common from the Cadron to the garrison at Belle 
Point, Arkansas. Flowering in April and May. — Obs. Annual and 
perhaps also biennial. The whole plant hirsute and hairy; stem six 
to twelve inches high, commonly branching from the base ; upper leaves 
not amplexicaule, but closely sessile, pectinately-pinnatifid, the segments 
of the lower leaves sparingly toothed and obtuse, those of the upper 
linear and entire; spike simple, rarely bifid; pedicells longer than the 



192 COLLECTIONS TOWARDS 

calix; calix hirsute, the segments linear; corolla pelviform-campanulate, 
purplish blue, 5-grooved, the grooves naked and melliferous; capsule 
ovate and hirsute, 4 to 8-seeded (the germ 8 to 10-seeded), 

2. P. * glabra. Erecta; foliis pinnatifidis, superioribus amplexi- 
caulibus ciliatis, segmentis integriusculis; calix, laciniis ovatis; corolla, 
lobis integris nudis; filamentis basi barbatis Hab. In humid and ele- 
vated woods on the margins of rivulets, near the Dardanelle settlement. 
Arkansas river. Flowering in April. — Obs. Very similar to the pre- 
ceding; growing, however, not more than five or six inches high. The 
stem terete and branched from the base ; leaves pinnatifid, the lower 
ones petiolate, the segments, three or four pair, are somewhat incisely 
toothed and obtuse; the upper ones amplexicaule, pectinately pinnatifid, 
with the same number of ciliately acute segments; calix subcampanu- 
late, the segments ovate and ciliate; corolla lilac blue, pelviform-cam- 
panulate, rather large and externally pilose, semiquinquifid, the lobes 
suboval; ten purplish spots at the base of the corolla; stamina some- 
what exserted, equal with the corolla, bearded at the base; anthers 
blue; style filiform, bifid; capsule smooth, 4 to 8-seeded. 

Nemophila. Calix decemfidus, laciniis exterioribus reflexis ; corolla 
subcampanulata quinquelobata, lobis emarginatis, ad basin foveolis mar- 
ginatis staminifcris ; stamina brevia, filamentis nudis ; capsula carnosa 
uniloculars, bivalvis; semina quatuor. 

Herba succulenta annua, caule triquetro; foliis alternis pinnatifidis; 
pedunculi longissimi unifiori oppositifolii et terminales, subracemosi, 
racemis incurvis fructibus deflexis; corolla aestivatione convoluta. 
Hydrophyllo affine. 

N. phacelioides. Root fibrous, annual, but more commonly biennial ; 
stem fragile, smooth, somewhat tender and diaphanous, plano-convex, 
twelve to eighteen inches long, branching from the base and decumbent, 
possessing a tenacious and elastic centre ; leaves alternate, pinnatifid, 
somewhat succulent, and on the upper surface a little scabrous ; segments 
five or six pair, subovate or lanceolate, acute, partly falcate, and pre- 
senting a few incisions; petiole ciliated, its internal base lanuginous; 
peduncles 1 -flowered, terete, very long, sometimes near a span, and 
attenuated towards their extremities, at first remote and coming out 
opposite the leaves, but at length, as the period of inflorescence advances, 



A FLORA OF ARKANSAS TERRITORY. 193 

approximating into a kind of raceme, which is primarily curved ; calix 
campanulate, 10-cleft, the segments ovate and acute, ciliate, the larger 
connivent and erect, the exterior much smaller and reflected ; corolla 
pelviform-campanulate, violet-blue, the lobes oval and naked, obliquely 
emarginated, before expansion convolute ; the exterior base producing 
ten purple spots, the internal base furnished with five foveolate necta- 
riferous cavities, with tomentose margins bearing the stamina; stamina 
about half the length of the corolla, the filaments filiform and smooth ; 
anthers sagittate-oblong, brownish-yellow ; style one, bifid, below hir- 
sute ; capsule oval, covered by the connivent calix, somewhat hirsute, 
1 -celled, 4-seeded, the seeds by pairs, alternately immersed in a fleshy 
succulent receptacle, occupying the whole cavity of the capsule. — 
Hah. In the shady woods of Cedar prairie, ten miles from Fort Smith, 
and from thence in similar situations to the sources of the Pottoe. 
Flowering in May. 

SOLANEAE. 

1. Solanum nigrum, Lin. 2. S. Carolinense, Willd. Sp. PL 1, p. 
1043; Pursh, 1, p. 156. 

3. S. triflorum. — Towards the sources of the Arkansas, and near 
the burrows of the American Marmot. — Dr James. In the same situa- 
tions grew also a hirsute variety. 

1. Physalis pubescens, Willd. p. 1023; Feuil. Peruv. 3, t. 1 (P. 
obscura, (3 pubescens, Mich. Flor. Am. 1, p. 149; Pursh, l,p. 157?). 
— According to Father Feuille, the fruit is edible, as in the United 
States. 

2. P. *pumila. — Obs. Perennial. Somewhat hirsutely pubescent ; 
stem erect, twelve to eighteen inches; leaves ovate-lanceolate, appa- 
rently entire and solitary, attenuated down the petiole, which is very 
distinct; segments of the calix acuminate. — The habit very much that 
of Atropa. 

3. P. *longifolia. Glaberrima, caule angulato erecto, foliis solita- 
riis ovato-lanceolatis acuminatis sinuato-dentatis longe pedunculatis, 
floribus solitariis pendulis. — Obs. Herbaceous; root perennial; stem 
angular, about eighteen inches high, and branching above; leaves 

VOL. V. 2 Y 



194 COLLECTIONS TOWARDS 

smooth, four to five inches long, irregularly, sparingly and sinuously 
toothed ; flowers, as usual, yellowish, with five brown blotches towards 
the base ; calix much larger than the berry. It bears much the aspect 
of Capsicum annuum, and, from the diagnosis, appears allied to P. che- 
nopodifolia. — Hab. On the sandy banks of the Arkansas, near Belle 
Point. Flowering in June. 

4. P. * mollis. Tomentosa, incana, foliis geminis subrhomboideo- 
ovatis cordatisve sinuato-dentatis longe petiolatis undatis, floribus soli- 
tariis pendulis. — Obs. Perennial and herbaceous, the root creeping, 
the whole plant covered with a stellate, short and whitish pubescence. 
About twelve to eighteen inches high, and branching above; leaves 
below somewhat cordate-ovate, the upper ones ovate, tending to rhom- 
boidal acute, the margin unequally and sinuately toothed ; flowers soli- 
tary, axillary, ochroleucous ; calix inflated, larger than the berry. Be- 
fore flowering, the plant bears very much the aspect of Rivina humilis. 
— Hab. On the sandy banks of the Arkansas. Flowering in June. 

Datura stramonium, Lin. 

1. Verbascum thapsus, Lin. 

2. V. blaltaria, Lin. — Obs. There is no species of this genus indi- 
genous to America. 

CONVOLVULACEAE. 

1. Convolvulus *hastatus. Foliis hastato-pedatis sericeis, laciniis 
intermediis sublanceolatis caeteris multo majoribus. 

Descript. Root perennial; stem twining, herbaceous and pubescent; 
leaves petiolated, on either surface covered with a short, hoary and silky 
pubescence, the primary ones simply hastate, the rest partly palmated, 
about two inches long, commonly producing on either side of the base 
two lateral, reflected and toothed, or almost entire lobes ; the central 
segment more than twice their length, and double their breadth; 
peduncles solitary, mostly 2-flowered, much longer than the leaves, 
the pedicells each producing two bracts ; segments of the 5-leaved calix 
externally pubescent, imbricated, oval and obtuse, tinged w r ith purple ; 
corolla rose-coloured ? ; stigmas two, filiform ; capsule 2-celled, cells 
2-seeded. — Hab. On the high hills of Red river, contiguous to the 



A FLORA OF ARKANSAS TERRITORY. 195 

confluence of the Kiamesha. Flowering in June. — Obs. This plant 
differs but little apparently from the C. althaeoides of the south of 
Europe and Africa, as described by Linnaeus. Clusius observed this 
species in Spain and Portugal ; it grows also on hills in the vicinity of 
Naples, and in the adjacent islands and continent. 

2. C. arvensis, Lin. Sp. PI. 218; Eng. Bot. t. 312. 

3. C. panduratus, Willd. Sp. PI. 1, p. 850. — A variety with entire 
leaves. 

1. Ipomoea coccinea, Willd. Sp. PI. 1, p. 880; Plumier PI. Amer. 
t. 103; Bot. Mag. 221. 

2. I. lacunosa. Foliis cordatis acuminatis scrobiculatis ? basi an- 
gulatis; pedunculis subunifloris, flore brevioribus. Lin. Sp. PI. (Ed. 
III.) p. 228. — Obs. As remarked by Linnaeus, very similar to I. coc- 
cinea, but with peduncles bearing only one or two pale purple, and in 
the Arkansas plant, white flowers, short and somewhat campanulate. 
The leaves are very thin, not scrobiculate (that I can perceive), and 
with very long acuminated points. — Hob. Rather abundant on the 
banks of Arkansas. Flowering in midsummer and through the au- 
tumn. 

3. I. nil (Convolvulus nil, Willd. Sp. PI. 1, p. 851). 

4. I. tamnifolia, Willd. Sp. PI. 1, p. 885.— Hab. Banks of the Mis- 
sissippi. 

1. Evoltulus nummularius, Willd. Sp. PI. — Hab. Banks of the 
Mississippi. 

2. E. pilosus. Erectus, foliis lineari-oblongis utrinque sericeo- 
pilosis, pedunculis unifloris brevibus. Nuttall's Gen. Am. PI. 1, p. 
174 (E. Nuttallianus, erectus, foliis oblongis utrinque sericeo-tomen- 
tosis, pedunculis unifloris brevibus. Schultes, Syst. Veg. vol. 6, p. 
198; E. argenteus, Pursh, 1, 187). — Obs. Flowers purplish, coming 
out about the middle of the stem; peduncle shorter than the calix; 
calix segments partly linear and acuminate. — Hab. On the high hills 
of Red river near Kiamesha. 

Dichondra repens. Foliis reniformibus emarginatis subtus pubes- 
centibus. Willd. Sp. PI. 2, p. 1353 (D. Carolinensis, Mich. Flor. 
Am. 1, p. 136) — Hab. Banks of the Mississippi near New Orleans. — 
Obs. From an inspection of many specimens, compared with Lamarck's 



196 COLLECTIONS TOWARDS 

figure (111. t. 183), no difference is discernible, and the leaves of the 
American plant are more frequently emarginated than otherwise. 

Cusctjta Americana, Willd. Sp. PI. 1, p. 702. 

HYDROLEAE. 

Hydrolea *ovata. Spinosa, puberula, foliis ovatis utrinque acutis, 
floribus corymbosis laciniis ovatis, calicibus hirsutis. 

Descript. Perennial. The whole plant covered more or less with a 
minute and soft pubescence. Stem about eighteen inches high, herb- 
aceous, branching only at the period of flowering ; leaves of the radical 
shoots almost linear and crowded, those of the stem elliptic, ovate, 
acute at either end, and entire on the margin ; the axills commonly pro- 
ducing slender solitary spines, being apparently so many abortive 
branchlets ; flowers bright blue, crowded towards the summits of the 
fastigiate branchlets ; calix 5-cleft, hairy, the segments linear-lanceolate ; 
corolla pelviform-campanulate, with ovate segments somewhat larger 
than those of H. spinosa, as figured by Aublet; stamens about the 
length of the corolla ; styles filiform, two and three ; capsule 2 and 
3-valved ; seeds numerous and minute. — Hah. On the margin of ponds 
throughout Arkansas. 

POLEMONIACEAE. 

Polemonium reptans, Willd. Sp. PI. 1, p. 886. — On the banks of 
the Mississippi ; rare. 

1. Phlox paniculata, Willd. Sp. PI. 1, p. 839. 

2. P. maculala, Willd. Sp. PI. 1, p. 840. 

3. P. pilosa, Willd. Sp. PI. 1, p. 840 (Phlox aristata, Mich. Flor. 
Am. 1, p. 144); Icon. Pluk. Aim. 133, t. 98, f. 1. 

4. P. *glomerata. 

5. P. reptans, Mich. Flor. Am. 1, p. 144 (Phlox stolonifera, Bot. 
Mag. 563). 

Cantua coronopifolia, Willd. Sp. PI. p. 879 (Cantua thyrsoides, 
Jussieu in Annales du Mus. 3, p. 119; Ipomopsis elegans, Mich. Flor. 
Am. 1, p. 141 ; Ipomeria coronopifolia, Nuttall's Gen. Am. vol. 1, p. 



A FLORA OF ARKANSAS TERRITORY. 



197 



124). — Obs. Differs from Cantua merely by the angular seeds. — Hab. 
On the elevated prairies of Red river, where the flowers are of a bright 
scarlet, and spotted with a deeper tinge of colour. 



JASMINEAE. 



Olea Americana, Willd. Sp. PI. 1, p. 45; Ic. Catesb. Carol. 1, t. 
61. — Hab. On the banks of the Mississippi near New Orleans. 



GENTIANEAE. 

Gentiana linearis, Willd. Sp. PI. 1, p. 1339 (G. puberula, Mich. 
Flor. Am. 1, p. 176). 

Lisianthus glaucifolius. Foliis ovato-oblongis sessilibus, pedun- 
culis elongatis unifloris, laciniis corollae tubo longioribus. Lamarck, 
Encyc. p. 660; Jacquin. ic. rar. 1, t. 33; Collect. 1, p. 64. — Obs. 
This plant is so accurately described by Lamarck, that any thing addi- 
tional is almost superfluous. It is a glaucous, somewhat thick and 
smooth leaved herbaceous perennial, of low growth, with a terete 
dichotomously branched stem. The peduncles are long, bearing large 
funnel-formed and somewhat spreading flowers of a violet purple, con- 
siderably darker at the base and within the tube; the segments are 
very deep, oval and acute, and the calix segments much acuminated ; 
the stigma large, capitate and bilamellate ; the capsule 2-celled ; the 
seeds numerous, round and punctate, but without margins. The whole 
plant, by habit, evidently approaches the genus Gentiana. — Hab. On 
the sandy banks of the Great Salt river of Arkansas ; rare. It has 
flowered at Mr William Bartram's botanic garden, Kingsessing near 
Philadelphia, in September, and appeared to be sufficiently hardy to 
withstand the climate. 

All the species of this genus (twenty-three in Persoon's Synopsis), 
except two in Madagascar, are indigenous to the islands of the West 
Indies and the kingdom of Peru. 

1. Sabbatia *campestris. Erecta, foliis ovatis amplexicaulibus, 
pedunculis elongatis subfastigiatis, calicibus alatis, laciniis linearibus ; 
corollam 5-partitam superantibus. 

Descript. Annual and bitter; stem angular, about one foot high, 
vol. v. — 2 z 



19S COLLECTIONS TOWARDS 

branches dichotomous, peduncles few, elongated, and forming a strag- 
gling corymb; leaves ovate, amplexicaule and acute, 3 to 5-nerved ; 
calix somewhat longer than the corolla, segments linear-lanceolate, the 
angles of the junction of the segments salient or alated ; corolla rosa- 
ceous, about the form and size of S. angularis, the segments oboval, 
the base of the corolla marked with a 5-rayed greenish star; anthers 
revolute; style one; stigma deeply bifid. — Hah. In the open prairies 
of Arkansas and Red river; common. Flowering in June and July. 
— Obs. Perfectly distinct from Chironia trinervia of Ceylon, with 
which, however, it agrees in the artificial character ; but the plant of 
Ceylon produces oval leaves, acute at both extremities, large blue 
flowers, and is probably a genuine Chironia, a genus not yet discovered 
in America. 

2. S. angularis, Pursh, Flor. Am. 1, p. 137. 



Villarsia lacunosa, Venten. Choix de Plant., p. 9 (V. aquatica, 
Gmelin, Syst. Veg. 447; Menyanthes trachysperma, Mich. Flor. Am. 
1, p. 126; Villarsia cordata, Elliott, Sketches Bot.). — Obs. This plant 
is dioicous and polygamous. In the plant of Mr Elliott, which grows 
also in the ponds of New Jersey, the leaves are larger and cordate, the 
stamina effoete, and the stigmas exserted. In the male plant, as com- 
monly observed, the leaves and flowers are smaller, the anthers perfect, 
the stigmas small, and the germ infertile. 

SriGELiA Marilandica. Lin. Syst. Veg. p. 197; Mich. Flor. Am. 1, 
p. 147 ; Ic. Curt. Magaz. t. 80. — Hob. On the banks of the Arkansas, 
in the forests near to the first cliffs on the banks of the river. 

ASCLEPIADEAE. 

1. Asclepias debilis, Mich. Flor. Am. p. 116. — Rather common 
on the banks of the Ohio and Mississippi. 

2. A. variegata, Willd. Sp. PI. 1, p. 1265 ; Icon. Bot. Magaz. 1 182 ; 
Pluk. Aim. t. 77, f. 1. — Hub. Near the Cadron settlement. 

3. A. obtusifolia, Mich. Flor. Am. 1, p. 115. — Hah. Near the gar- 
rison at Belle Point. 

4. A. quadrifolia, Jacquin, Obs. 2, t. 23 (Apocynum umbellatum 



A FLORA OF ARKANSAS TERRITORY. 199 

album, latiore folio, tetraphyllon, ex Terra Mariana, Pluken. Mantis, 
p. 16). — Hab. Near Belle Point Fort. 

5. A. parvijlora, Willd. Sp. PI. 1, p. 1267 (Apocynum petraeum 
ramosum, salicis folio venoso, siliqua medio tumente, Virginianum, 
Phyt. t. 261, f. 3, mala). — Hab. Common along the banks of the 
Ohio and Mississippi. 

6. A. verticillata, Mich. Flor. Am. 1, p. 116; Icon. Pluk. Mant. t. 
336, f. 4. — Hab. Near the Cadron settlement. 

7. A. tuberosa, Willd. Sp. PI. 1, p. 1273 ; Icon. Dillen. Hort. Eltham. 
t. 30, f. 34. — Hab. Common both in the prairies of the Arkansas and 
Red rivers. Sometimes nearly scarlet. 

*PoLYOTusf (Acerates, Elliott)4 Corolla rotata reflexa; lepan- 
thium simplex, quinquepartitum, laciniae ovatae concavae absque 
corniculis basi inauriculatae. Genitalia Asclepiadis, Gompholobio 
affine, habitu et fructificatione Asclepias. 

1. P. *heterophyllus (Asclepias viridiflora, Pursh, Flor. Am. 1, p. 
181). Villosus, erectus, foliis oppositis oblongo-ovatis plerumque acu- 
tis, umbellis globosis caulinis; lepanthium antheridio subaequale. 

Descript. Root perennial ; stem herbaceous, simple, terete ; leaves 
opposite, very shortly petiolate and somewhat rigid, varying in figure 
from ovate to oblong or elliptic, and either obtuse or acute, sub- 
hirsutely villous, a little scabrous and undulated on the margin, three 
inches long, by about one and a half inches broad, reticulately veined 
and pectinately nerved, the nerves confluent below the margin ; urn- 
bells extra-axillary, dense and globose ; bracts subulate ; calix segments 
linear-lanceolate, acute; corolla rigidly reflected, segments oblong, 
acute, greenish; lepanthium (or nectary, L.) 5-parted, segments linear- 
oblong, nearly equal with the antheridium (or staminal crown), of a 
purplish green colour, closely appressed, concave, and scarcely auricu- 
late at the base, devoid of awns, originating separately from the base 
of the antheridium ; fissures of the antheridium angularly salient near 
the summit; cusps small and membranaceous; pollinia (masses of pol- 



t From ttoxus many, and Ov S , «>« an ear, from the empty and auriculate form of the lepan- 
thia or nectaries. 

% This name has been already employed for another genus. 



200 COLLECTIONS TOWARDS 

len) even, longish stipitate, partly club-shaped, cereaeeous and hyaline, 
deciduous, alternating in the receiving cells ; follicles two, smooth and 
even ; seeds comose, and attached as in Asclepias. — Hab. From Fort 
Smith to Red river, on rocks and in dry prairies. Flowering in June. 
Mr Pursh found this species from Pennsylvania to Virginia. Pro- 
fessor Ives discovered the same plant near New Haven, and likewise 
described and figured in Silliman's Journal, a lanceolate leaved variety, 
which he then supposed to be a new species, but which he afterwards 
justly regarded as a mere uncertain variety ; the leaves of this species 
varying from oval to ovate, lanceolate and oblong, and are either flat, 
undulated, smooth or pubescent. The plant of Arkansas differs from 
that of New Haven more constantly in the colour of the lepanthium, 
which is somewhat brown instead of yellowish green. 

2. P. lanuginosus (Asclepias lanuginosa, Nuttall's Gen. Am. vol. 1, 
p. 168). Decumbens, foliis ovatis sparsis, umbellis subsolitariis termi- 
nalibus. — Obs. Root tuberous; stem four to six inches high; flowers 
greenish. A dubious species, and requires re-examination in a living 
or more perfect state. — Hab. On dry and gravelly hills, about thirty 
miles below the confluence of White river with the Missouri. 

3. P. longifolius (Asclepias longifolia, Mich. Flor. Am. 1, p. 116; 
Acerates longifolia, Elliott, Sketches Bot. p. 317). Puberulus, caule 
suberecto, foliis sparsis praelongo-linearibus acutis, umbellis caulinis 
pedunculalis; lepanthium stipitatum antheridio brevius, folliculis vil- 
losis. — Obs. Perennial and herbaceous. Stem two to three feet high, 
slightly pubescent; leaves half an inch wide and half a foot long, 
scabrous on the margin, the nerves confluent below the margin, midrib 
beneath pubescent; umbells many, subglobose, loose; bracts subulate; 
pedicells pubescent, nearly an inch in length ; flowers smaller, greenish, 
petals obscure purple at the summit, reflected ; segments of the lepan- 
thium oblong, concave, with a purplish line near the base, shorter than 
the antheridium, stipitate below, and distinctly inserted ; clefts of the 
antheridium salient at the summit; cusps membranaceous; follicles 
two, villous, rostrate. — Hab. On the margins of ponds, and in places 
overflowed by winter rains, from Illinois and Missouri to Red river. 
Flowering in June. Also in swamps near the Atlantic sea coast, from 
Sussex county in Delaware (v. v.) to Georgia. 



A FLORA OF ARKANSAS TERRITORY. 201 

4. P. *angustifo!ius. Caule erecto, foliis linearibus sub-oppositis, 
umbellis caulinis subsessilibus; lepanthium antheridio sublongius, ses- 
sile, foliolis apice tridentatis. 

Desaript. Perennial. Stem simple, herbaceous and slender, the 
lower part naked, about eighteen inches high ; leaves very long, narrow 
and acute, somewhat revolute and scabrous on the margin, one to one 
and a half lines wide, opposite and alternate, nerves confluent below 
the margin ; umbells globular, small, three or four to eight ; pedicells 
about the length of the flowers ; flowers greenish, with a mixture of 
white ; segments of the corolla oblong, reflected ; lepanthium sessile, 
divisions linear, longer than the antheridium, tridentate above, the 
central denture minute, concave and auriculate below; clefts of the 
antheridium salient from the base to the summit; cusps broad and 
membranaceous, concealing the stigma; follicles two. — Hah. In dry 
prairies from Fort Smith to Red river. Flowering in June. — Obs. 
This species appears to be very nearly related to Gomphocarpus, and 
also very nearly to Asclepias, particularly A. cinerea, from which it 
merely differs in the absence of the short internal awn; it may, how- 
ever, be considered as present in the central, acute and shorter third 
denture of the segments of the lepanthium. 

Dubious Species. 5. P. obovatus (Asclepias obovata, Elliott, 
Sketches, p. 321). Foliis obovatis mucronatis, subtus tomentosis; 
umbellis subsessilibus; lepanthium antheridio duplo longius. — Hah. 
In Georg : a. 

Anantherix, Nuttall, Gen. Am. vol. 1, p. 169. Corolla subcam- 
panulata quinquefida; lepanthium simplex, quinquelobum, lobis com- 
pressis vacuis incurvatis laminula ab apice interior! auctis; antheridium 
superius interdum pedicellatum. Caetera Asclepias. 

Caulis erectus, herbaceus ; folia alterna aut opposita, subverticillata, 
interdum axillis spinulosis; flores magni umbellati aut subpaniculati, 
terminales ; folliculi muricati aut laeves. Calotropis affine. 

1. A. viridis (Anantherix viridis, Nuttall, Gen. Am. vol. 1, p. 169; 

Asclepias viridis? Walter, Flor. Car. p. 107; Asclepias connivens, 

Baldwin in Elliott's Sketches, p. 320 ; Podostigma viridis, Elliott, p. 

327). Foliis oppositis sessilibus obovatis oblongis mucronulatis glabri- 

vol. v. — 3 A 



202 COLLECTIONS TOWARDS 

usculis, umbellis caulinis subpaniculatis paucifloris, lepanthii laciniis 
longissimis. — Hah. In damp pine barrens near St Mary's. 

2. A. *panicidatus (Asclepias viridis? Walter, p. 107; Pursh, 1, p. 
183?). Foliis sparsis ovato-oblongis obtusiusculis mucronulatis ; um- 
bellis divisis subpaniculatis ; lepanthium corolla duplo brevius ; follicu- 
lis muricatis. 

Descript. Perennial. Stem angular and smooth, one to two feet 
high ; leaves scattered, numerous, ovate-oblong, shortly petiolate, nearly 
smooth with the margin scabrous, four or five inches long and one to 
one and a half broad, axills and summits of the petioles producing 
minute and soft spines ; umbells several, terminal, rather loose, branch- 
ing and few-flowered, with the flowers fastigiate ; peduncles about an 
inch long ; calix small, appressed, 5-parted, segments linear-lanceolate ; 
corolla subcampanulate, deeply 5-cleft, divisions large and ovate, exter- 
nally depressed lengthways along the centre, at all times connivent and 
erect, colour yellowish-green ; lepanthium contiguous with the corolla, 
5-lobed, variegated purple and white ; lobes compressed, obtusely cari- 
nate, hollow and rounded, and thickened at the summit, with the folds 
closed, an internal thickish lamella arising near the internal summit 
closing the fold and longitudinally adnate ; there are also five inter- 
calary, obtuse and somewhat crustaceous dentures interposed betwixt 
the lobes of the lepanthium; antheridium roundish, obtusely pent- 
agonal, the lateral fissures situated within the salient angles ; the usual 
membranaceous cusps obsolete ; stigma thick and discoid, pentagonal ; 
pollinia disposed as in Asclepias, the masses somewhat scymitar-shaped, 
their stipes articulated; follicles two, muricated with soft spines; seeds 
comose. — Hab. In Cedar prairie near Fort Smith, and also near Red 
river. Flowering in May. 

3. A. *decumbens. Foliis sparsis suboppositis ovato-lanceolatis prae- 
longis acutis ; umbella subglobosa terminali ; lepanthium corollae sub- 
aequale. 

Descript. Perennial. Stems numerous, simple, decumbent, some- 
what angular, twelve to eighteen inches long, and crowded with shortly 
petiolated, long and lanceolate leaves, acute and scabrous on the margin. 
The general aspect is similar to the preceding species, but the umbell 
is solitary, terminal and crowded; peduncles pubescent, about an inch 



A FLORA OF ARKANSAS TERRITORY. 203 

long ; calix as in the preceding ; segments of the corolla the same colour, 
but shorter, scarcely covering the brown lepanthium, of which the seg- 
ments are very patulous and incurved, and exceed the antheridium in 
length ; the chasms of the antheridium are remarkably salient, angular 
and crustaceous ; with the follicles I am unacquainted. — Hab. On dry 
hills near the confluence of Kiamesha and Red river. Flowering in 
July. 

Subgenus. Stylandra. Laminulae lepanthii nullae ; antheridium 
pedicellatum ; folliculi laeves. 

4. A. (S.) pumila (Stylandra pumila, Nuttall, Gen. Am. vol. 1, p. 
170; Podostigma pubescens, Elliott, Sketches, 1, p. 326; Asclepias 
pedicellata, Walt. p. 106; Pursh, 1, p. 182). Foliis linearibus subop- 
positis sessilibus, corollae laciniis lepanthio subtriplo longioribus. — Hab. 
In dry pine barrens, Effingham county, Georgia, Elliott. Near St 
Mary's, Dr Baldwin. Near Charleston, Mr Fraser. — Obs. This genus, 
which will probably prove abundant in species, is very nearly allied to 
the Calotropis of R. Brown, but differs essentially in the insertion of 
the lepanthium and the form and character of its segments. 

Enslenia, Nuttall, Gen. Am. vol. 1, p. 164. Corolla quinque- 
partita erecta; lepanthium simplex quinquepartitum petaloideum 
planum truncatum, laciniis in filum bifidum desinentibus; stigma 
conica subbilamellata. Caetera Asclepias. 

Herba volubilis; folia opposita; flores umbellati. 

E. albida, Gen. Am. (loc. cit). — Hab. Near Fort Smith and other 
places along the banks of the Arkansas. Found also on the banks 
of the Potomac, and on the banks of the Scioto and Ohio, &c. 



ARTICLE VII. 



A Remarkable Arrangement of Numbers, constituting a Magic 
Cyclovolute. By E. Nutty, Philadelphia. Read before the American 
Philosophical Society, June With, 1834. 

The Magic Circle of Dr Franklin has been long admired, as em- 
bracing the most ingenious arrangement of numbers ever formed. It 
consists of five sets of circles, of which the first or principal includes 
nine circumferences, bounding eight concentric rings. These rings 
are equally intersected by four diameters or eight radii, on which, and 
in the middle of each ring, are placed the series of integral numbers 
from 12 to 75, both inclusive. In addition to this series, there is an 
auxiliary 12 occupying the common centre of the rings; and the total 
sixty-five numbers thus disposed, have, as respects the eight rings and 
eight radii, the following remarkable properties. 

First. The eight numbers round each ring, with the auxiliary or 
central number, amount to 360, the number of sexagesimal degrees 
in a circle. 

Secondly. The eight numbers along each radius, with the auxiliary 
number, amount to 360. 

Thirdly. The four numbers in each semi-ring terminating in a 
principal diameter, intermediate between two particular radii, with 
half the auxiliary number, form the sum 180, the degrees in a semi- 
circle. 

vol. v. — 3 B 



206 REMARKABLE ARRANGEMENT OF NUMBERS. 

Fourthly. Every four adjacent numbers in any two consecutive 
rings, with half the auxiliary number, give the same amount, 180. 

As to the four remaining sets of circles and the rings which they 
form, their centres are at the four points in which the principal diam- 
eter, and a conjugate perpendicular to it, intersect the least and interior 
circumference. If our attention, for the instant, be confined to any 
one of these centres, and to the corresponding set of circles, the bound- 
ing circumferences of the exterior and interior rings will be seen to 
touch the greatest and least of the nine principal circumferences, at 
points in the principal diameter or its conjugate. According to this 
construction there are Jive rings between the bounding circumferences 
of each of the four sets of circles under consideration ; and all the 
twenty rings thus constituted possess the same property with the eight 
rings first mentioned ; or in more specific terms, the eight numbers in 
each of the twenty secondary rings, with the auxiliary number at the 
principal centre, form the sum 360. 

These are the different properties comprised in the Magic Circle, 
left by its original and sagacious author. They certainly must be 
regarded as not a little curious, and would seem to require a consider- 
able familiarity with the powers of numbers. As to the mode of 
investigation by which they were first discovered, we have seen no 
account sufficient to enable us to pronounce with any degree of con- 
fidence. We should not, however, be inclined to think that they 
resulted either from conjecture or trial, although they are by no means 
confined to the particular distribution of numbers published. We 
should rather be disposed to join in the opinion that they were sug- 
gested by remarks made on other arrangements previously formed. 
But still we are forced to believe that they must have been deduced 
from views which were incapable of embracing in its full extent the 
general problem, whence originated the present observations. The 
reasons which justify this conclusion will immediately appear on a 
glance at the drawing which accompanies this paper, and which may 
be regarded as a generalization of Dr Franklin's Magic Circle. The 
additions made are Volutes, commencing at the extremities of the 
diameters between the numbered radii; and on which account the 
drawing may not inappropriately be termed a Magic Cyctovolute. 



CONSTITUTING A MAGIC CYCLOVOLUTE. 207 

To trace one of these curves, commence at the extremity A of the 
principal diameter AA 7 , and continue along the circle, of which the 
centre is a, nearly to the extent of a semicircle ; then incline towards 
the least interior circle, ad bb 1 , and terminate in its circumference. 
In like manner another volute may be traced in the opposite direction, 
and thus will appear two of the volutes originating in the point A. 
Six similar volutes may be traced from the extreme points A', B, B' ; 
and all the eight viewed in pairs may be easily recognized by the four 
different colours in which they are delineated. Besides these volutes, 
we may trace eight analogous curves, from the extremities of the 
diameters intermediate between the conjugates AA', BB'. In the 
drawing they may be traced by passing along circular segments, de- 
creasing and changing their colours, whilst verging towards the interior 
circumference aa! bb'. There will thus appear sixteen similar volutes, 
in addition to the circles first described ; and all these have precisely 
the same property relatively to the number 360, which forms the com- 
mon result of the auxiliary 12, and every eight numbers within any 
two consecutive boundaries. 

These, we believe, are all the properties of which the arrangement 
of numbers constituting the cyclovolute appears susceptible ; and we 
intended to subjoin here the investigation which led to them, and to 
the different changes that may be made in disposing the numbers in 
the drawing. We have, however, concluded to omit this investigation 
for4;he moment, and make it the subject of a supplementary note to 
be read at a future meeting. 

Regarding the objects of the Society, this paper is presented without 
any desire for its publication, and chiefly in compliance with the wishes 
of a friend. But as the Magic Circle originated, and has, I presume, 
been completed in Philadelphia; and as it has been considered in 
Europe as the most ingenious arrangement of numbers ever imagined, 
the Society may not be disinclined to insert some notice of the subject 
in their records. 



208 



REMARKABLE ARRANGEMENT OF NUMBERS. 



MAGIC CYCLOVOLUTE. 

















Secondary Circles 






















A 










A' 




B 








B' 




51 


37 


44 


42 


49 


67 


21 


60 


26 


65 


27 


61 


20 


66 


25 


43 


45 


36 


50 


41 


34 


59 


29 


54 


32 


18 


75 


13 


70 


16 


74 


19 


69 


14 


72 


58 


35 


53 


30 


56 


36 


50 


41 


47 


38 


20 


66 


25 


63 


22 


44 


42 


49 


39 


46 


60 


26 


65 


23 


62 


53 
26 


30 
65 


56 
23 


33 
62 


55 
24 


69 
42 


14 

49 


72 
39 


17 
46 


71 

40 


29 

50 


54 
41 


32 

47 


57 
38 


31 

48 


13 


70 


16 


73 


15 


66 


25 


63 


22 


64 


75 


13 


70 


16 


73 


59 


29 


54 


32 


57 


35 


53 


30 


56 


33 


19 


69 


14 


72 


17 


61 
12 


20 
74 


66 
19 


25 

69 


63 
14 


45 

28 


36 

58 


50 
35 


41 
53 


47 
30 


21 

68 


60 

18 


26 
75 


Co 
13 


23 
70 


37 


44 


42 


49 


39 


52 


34 


59 


29 


54 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 




















360 

















A' 



B 



Volutes. 
B' A, B 



A', B A, B' A', B' 



51 
34 


12 

61 


67 

18 


28 
45 


27 


68 


43 


52 


12 

37 


27 

18 


68 
61 


67 

58 


52 
45 


51 
74 


28 


43 


74 


21 


58 


37 


21 34 


36 
53 


75 
26 


20 


59 


44 


35 


60 
13 


19 
66 


59 
50 


60 
53 


19 
42 


36 
29 


35 

26 


20 
13 


75 44 
66 69 


69 


42 


29 


50 


65 


30 


49 


14 


41 


54 


25 


70 


30 


41 


54 


49 


70 


65 


14 | 25 


16 


47 


32 


63 


56 


39 


72 


23 


23 


32 


47 


72 


63 


56 


39 


16 


22 
71 


57 

40 


38 
55 


73 
24 


62 
15 


17 

64 


46 
31 


33 

48 


73 
64 


46 
71 


33 


22 


17 


38 


57 


62 


24 


15 


40 


31 


48 


55 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 



360 



ARTICLE V11I. 



Observations to determine the Magnetic Dip at Baltimore, Philadel- 
phia, New York, West Point, Providence, Springfield and Mbany. 
By A. D. Bache, Professor of Natural Philosophy and Chemistry, 
and Edward H. Courtenay,* Professor of Mathematics, in the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania. Bead November 7th, 1834. 

The following observations of the magnetic dip were made at 
places betw T een the latitudes of 39° 17' and 42° 39' N. and longitudes 
of 71° 25' and 76° 28' W. In all of them a dipping needle made by 
Gambey for the apparatus of the Military Academy at West Point 
was used. This needle is provided with all the adjustments necessary 
to render its use accurate, and its performance is highly satisfactory. 
The vertical circle upon which the dip is read, is graduated to fifteen 
minutes, and can be read with ease to five minutes by the aid of two 
microscopes attached to the glass case which covers the instrument. 
The horizontal circle, which serves to mark the position of the plane 
perpendicular to the magnetic meridian, and hence to place the nee- 
dle in the meridian, is graduated to half degrees, and reads by a ver- 
nier to two minutes. The axis of the needle rests upon two small 
agate supports, and its uniform position upon them is insured by two 

* Late Professor of Natural and Experimental Philosophy at the United States Military- 
Academy. 

VOL. V. — 3 c 



210 ON THE MAGNETIC DIP 

copper y's, which can be raised so as to relieve the needle from the 
agate supports, and then being depressed, restore it to its bearings 
upon them. A sensitive level is attached to the instrument, which is 
levelled by three foot screws. The two needles which accompany 
the instrument are in the form of very acute rhombs, in length across 
the longer diagonal about seven and a half inches, in breadth across the 
shorter diagonal three-eighths of an inch. 

The method of observation usual with this kind of needle was 
resorted to. The eccentricity of the axis of the needle in relation to 
the vertical circle on which the readings were made, was corrected 
by readings at the two extremities of the needle. The want of paral- 
lelism of the zero line and level was corrected by turning the limb 
180° in azimuth, and making two readings, one with the limb direct, 
the other with it reversed. The inclination of the magnetic axis to 
the axis of figure, was corrected by turning the needle in the y's ; and 
the error resulting from the centre of gravity of the needle being out 
of the axis, by inverting the poles of the needle. 

A detailed example of this method will be given to indicate the 
degree of accuracy to which the particular instrument in question en- 
abled us to carry it ; no special interest attaching to these details, they 
are suppressed in other cases : care has been taken that those selected 
are not culled and put forward on account of any peculiar accordance 
of the different parts, but that they fairly represent the series of ob- 
servations. 

MAGNETIC DIP AT BALTIMORE, MARYLAND. 

The dip at Baltimore was observed by one of us when on a visit to 
that city in July of the present year. The place of observation was 
in the front yard of one of the dwellings in Holliday street, opposite 
to the theatre : the time about 5 P.M. All the circumstances attend- 
ing the observations were favourable. 

The latitude and longitude of Baltimore, as stated in the American 
Almanac for 1835, are 39° 17' 13" N. and 76° 37' 50" W. 



AT VARIOUS PLACES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



211 



Needle. 


Observed Dip. 


Date of Observation. 


Observer. 


Weather, &c. 


No. 1, 
No. 2, 
No. 2, 


70° 56'. 5 
70 59 .7 
70 59 .5 


July 19th. 
5 P.M. 


E. H. Courtenay. 


Clear. 


Mean, 


70 58 .6 









MAGNETIC DIP AT PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA. 

These observations were made upon a marble column in the yard 
to the south of Professor Bache's dwelling, in Chestnut street near 
Schuylkill Sixth street. The details of the separate observations are 
given. The latitude of Philadelphia is 39° 56' 59"; and the longi- 
tude, according to the determination given by Mr S. C. Walker in 
the fifth volume of the Society's Transactions, is 75° 11' 31". 



Needle. 


Limb. 


Nee- 
dle. 


Observed 
Dip 


Remarks, &c. 


Needle. 


Limb. 


Nee- 
dle. 


Observed 
Dip. 


Remarks, &c. 




r 

So j 

o ■- *l 

p-;3 | 
I 

CO © 
® M J 

"o © *\ 
S 1 


W. 
E. 
E. 
W. 
W. 
E. 
E. 
W. 


E. 

w. 

E. 
W. 
W. 
E. 
W. 
E. 


71°33' 
72 32 

71 42 

72 13.5 

71 17 

72 15.5 

71 45.5 

72 21 


July 25th, 

1834. 

About 7 P.M. 

Sum 
575° 39'. 5 

Observers, 
E. H. Courte- 
nay and A. D. 
Bache. 

1 
\ 

Sum 576° 14' 




r 

<o o ! 
o £ "S 

^=3 1 
I 

mo 
© w J 

IS) 

Ph > 1 


E. 
W. 

W. 
E. 
E. 
W. 
W. 
E. 


w. 

E. 
W. 
E. 
W. 

E. 
W. 
E. 


71°42' 

72 16 

71 19.5 

72 45 
72 31 .5 

71 23.5 

72 16 
71 52.5 


August 4th, 

1834. 

Finished at 

8 P.M. 

Weather clear. 

(Cumulus.) 

Wind S. W. 

Tem. 77° Fah. 

Sum 

576° 06'. 

Observer, 
A. D. Bache. 

Sum 
576° 06'. 5 




Mean 71° 57'.4 




Mean 72° 00'. 8 


6 < 


r 

<U o 1 
o ?. "> 

I 

CO © | 

"o © *1 

l*g 1 


W. 
E. 
E. 

W. 

w. 

E. 
E. 
W. 


W. 
E. 
W. 
E. 
W. 
E. 
W. 
E. 


71° 36' 
72 15.5 
72 05 

71 56.5 

72 01 
72 15.5 
72 13.5 
71 51 


6 < 


r 

r b*sV| 

o £ * 

^ 1 
I 

1 *{ 

m © 

© CO ' 

* 1 


E. 
W. 
W. 
E. 
E. 
W. 
W. 
E. 


W. 
E. 
W. 
E. 
W. 
E. 
W. 
E. 


72°14'.5 
72 01 .5 

71 49 

72 15 

72 08.5 
71 46 

71 41 

72 11 




Mean 72° 01'. 7 




Mean 72° 00 '.8 


Mean by the two Needles 71° 59 '.6 


Mean by the two Needles 72° 00'8 


Dip by mean of both Observations 72° 00'. 2 



212 



ON THE MAGNETIC DIP 



MAGNETIC DIP AT NEW YORK. 

The dip was observed on the green in front of Columbia College 
nearly in the position in which the observations of Captain Sabine were 
made in December 1822. The kindness of Professor Renwick fur- 
nished the means of rendering the observations effective, and pointed 
out the locality where those of Captain Sabine were made. 

The latitude of New York, as given by Mr Paine, is 40° 42' 40" N. 
and the longitude 74° 01 ; 08" W. 



Needle. 


Observed Dip. 


Temp. 


Date of Observation. 


Observer. 


Weather. 


No. 1, 

No. 2, 


72° 48'.4 
72 55 .0 


80° Fahr. 


August 7, 1834, 
H A.M. 


A. D. Bache. 


Clear. 
Wind N. W. 


Mean, 


72 51 .7 


| 

i 





The dip observed by Captain Sabine was 73° 00'.5. A comparison of 
the result just given with this, shows a difference of 8'.8, which, if 
we were certain that the decrease had been progressive, would indicate 
a diminution of about nine minutes in the interval of twelve years. 
This seems, however, from the results obtained at West Point, and next 
to be given, not to have been the case, observations there, indicating a 
slight increase from April to July 1834. The decision of this ques- 
tion must be left to future observations. 



MAGNETIC DIP AT WEST POINT, NEW YORK. 

The greatest number of observations made at any one of the places 
at which we have observed, were made at West Point, latitude 41° 23' 
35" X., and longitude 74° 01' W. The first set of observations was 
taken under the shelter of a tent, about the middle of the plain on 
which the buildings of the Military Academy are situated ; the others 
on a brick column, raised for these and similar observations, to the 
north of the residence of Professor Courtenay. 

The following table contains results obtained between the 15th of 
April 1833, and July 14th, 1834. It seems to indicate a gradual 



AT VARIOUS PLACES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



213 



increase in the dip, and although the differences are small, they are, 
except in the case of the last observation, in the same direction. The 
observation made in 1833 is not entirely comparable with those in 
1834, having been made in a different locality. 







Observed Dip. 










No. of 
Series. 


Nee- 
dle. 




Temp. 
Fahr. 


Date of Observa- 
tions. 


Observers. 


Place of Obser- 
vation. 


Separate 
Observs. 


Mean. 


1 


No. 1 


73°26'.4 






April 15, 1833. 


Professors Courte- 


Middle of plain. 




No. 2 


73 25.2 


73°25'.8 




11 A.M. to 
3 P.M. 


nay and Henry. 




2 


No. 1 


73 35.1 






April 22, 1834. 


E. H. Courtenay & "1 




No. 2 


73 35 .3 


73 35.2 




3 P.M. 


A. D. Bache. 




3 


No. 1 


73 35.1 




81° 


May 19, 1834. 


E. H. Courtenay & 






No. 2 


73 35.5 








Assistant Profes- 


Brick column 




No. 1 


73 37.3 


73 36 .0 






sor Cram. 


north of Pro- 


4 


No. 1 


73 36 .6 




65 


June 3, 1834. 


E. H. Courtenay. 


[ fessorCourte- 




No. 2 


73 36.4 


73 36.5 








nay's house. 


5 


No. 1 
No. 2 


73 39.2 
73 39.6 


73 39 .4 


90 


July 9, 1834. 


E. H. Courtenay. 




6 


No. 1 


73 38 .7 


73 38.7 




July 14, 1834. 


E. H. Courtenay. 


Mean of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 : 73° 37'.2. 



MAGNETIC DIP AT PROVIDENCE, RHODE ISLAND J AND AT SPRINGFIELD 

MASSACHUSETTS. 



The observations at both these places were made under disadvan- 
tageous circumstances. Owing to the brief stay which it was possible 
to make at Providence, the observations were unavoidably made in the 
evening, and a brisk breeze from the south and south west increased 
the difficulties incident to that time of the day : but for the kind assist- 
ance of President Wayland, and of Professor Caswell, the observations 
could not have been completed. Needle No. 1 only was observed. 

The place of observation was on the green in front of Brown 
University, and just in rear of the President's house. Latitude 
41° 49' 25" N. and longitude 71° 25' 26" W. 

At Springfield no magnet was at hand for reversing the poles of the 
needle. By comparing, however, the dip observed with needle No. 1 
vol. v — 3 D 



214 



ON THE MAGNETIC DIP 



at Providence and Albany with the poles direct and reversed, we find 
for the former place, that the observed dip with the poles direct fell 
short of that when they were reversed by 1.9 minute, and for the latter 
place, that the observed dip with the poles direct exceeded that when 
they were reversed by 1.7 minute, giving a correction for the eccen- 
tricity of the centre of gravity in needle No. 1 of -f- 0.9 minute. For 
needle No. 2 the same correction obtained from the New York obser- 
vations, where the poles were reversed next before the Springfield 
observations, and from those at Albany, where they were reversed next 
after the Springfield results, is -f- 4.3 minutes and -{-3.9 minutes, the 
mean being + 4.1 minutes. The error from not reversing the poles 
is thus probably reduced to less than one minute. 

The place of observation was in the yard attached to the Hamden 
Coffee-house Hotel. The latitude of Springfield, as stated by Mr Paine, 
is 42° 05' 58" N., and the longitude 72° 36' W. 



Needle. 


Dip. 


Temp. 


Date of Observation. 


Place. 


Observer. 


Weather. 


No. 1, 


74°02'.8 


68° 


August 8, 1834, 
10h P.M. 


Providence. 


A.D.Bache. 


Clear. Wind 
S. and S. W. 


No. 1, 
Do. corrected, 

No. 2, 
Do. corrected, 
Mean corrected, 


74 01 .1 
74 02.0 
74 15.3 
74 09.4 
74 10.7 


65 


August 10, 1834, 
8 A.M. 


Springfield. 


A. D.Bache. 


Cloudy. 
Wind N. E. 



MAGNETIC DIP AT ALBANY, NEW YORK. 



The observations at this place with the two needles were divided by 
a severe thunder storm, which however lasted but fifteen minutes. 
The facilities for observation were perhaps counterbalanced by this 
circumstance. After due examination of the positions which Profes- 
sor Henry had occupied for similar observations ; the want of a proper 
shelter, and other circumstances connected with changes made since 
the date referred to, induced the preference of a station in the lower 
part of the town, in rear of Foot's hotel. 

The latitude of Albany is 42° 39' 03"N., longitude 73° 44' 49" W. 



AT VARIOUS PLACES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



215 



Needle. 


Observed Dip. 


Temp. 


Date of 
Observation. 


Observer. 


Weather. 


No. 1, 
No. 2, 


74° 40'. 8 
74 39 .5 


99° 

88 


Aug. 11,1834, 

2 P.M. 

Do. 


A. D. Bache. 
Do. 


Cumulus. Sun shines near 

needle. 

After a gust. 


Mean, 


74 40 .1 











The dip, as observed by Professor Henry and Assistant Professor 
Cram in the Academy Park in April 1833, was 74° 51.1, exceeding 
the above by ll'.l. 



ARTICLE IX. 



Contributions to Electricity and Magnetism. By Joseph Henry, 
Professor of Natural Philosophy in the College of New Jersey, Prince- 
ton, late of the Albany Academy. 

No. I. — Description of a Galvanic Battery for producing Electricity 
of different Intensities. Bead before the American Philosophical So- 
ciety, January 1 4th, 1835. 

The following account of a Galvanic Battery, constructed under my 
direction for the Physical Department of the College of New Jersey, 
is submitted to the American Philosophical Society with the intention 
of referring to it in some communications which I purpose making on 
the subject of Electricity and Magnetism. It is hoped, however, that 
the arrangement and details of the instrument, in themselves, will be 
found to possess some interest, since they have been adopted in most 
cases after several experiments and much personal labour. 

The apparatus is intended to exhibit most of the phenomena of 
Galvanism and all those of Electro-Magnetism, on a large scale, with 
one battery. It was constructed to illustrate the several facts of these 
branches of science to my class, and also to be used as a convenient 
instrument of research in all cases where no very great degree of in- 
tensity is required. 

The several parts of this battery are not soldered together forming 
vol. v. — 3 E 



218 DESCRIPTION OF A GALVANIC BATTERY 

one permanent galvanic arrangement, but are only temporarily con- 
nected by means of movable conductors and cups of mercury. The 
whole is constructed in reference to the principle well understood of 
producing electricity of greater or less intensity, by a change in the 
method of uniting the several elements with each other. 

The apparatus consists of eighty-eight elements or pairs, composed 
of plates of rolled zinc nearly one eighth of an inch thick, nine inches 
wide, and twelve inches long, inserted into copper cases open at top 
and bottom. Eleven of these elements are suspended together from 
two cross pieces of wood, and the whole number is thus arranged in 
eight sets, of eleven in each. These are supported by the ends of the 
cross-pieces in a strong wooden frame, so as to be immersed in eight 
separate troughs : they thus form as many independent batteries, which 
can be used separately or together as the occasion may require. Each 
trough is divided into eleven cells by wooden partitions coated with 
cement. If one of the cells be charged with dilute acid, a single ele- 
ment may be excited without producing action in any other part of 
the battery. Each set or battery may also be lifted separately from 
the frame by its cross pieces, without disturbing the other parts of the 
apparatus. 

The elements remain stationary, while the troughs are raised to them 
on a movable platform by the common application of a wheel and 
pinion. 

The general arrangement of the whole may be seen at once by a 
reference to the perspective drawing, fig. 1, Plate XXII. a a, &c. 
represent the cross pieces resting on the upper part of the frame of the 
machine ; c c is the movable platform. 

A perspective view of one of the elements on a larger scale is given 
in fig. 3. a a are two cups of cast copper, with a broad stem on the 
bottom ; one soldered to the zinc plate, and the other to the copper 
case. The cavity in these cups is about three eighths of an inch 
wide, a little more than an inch long, and half an inch deep. The 
cups being well amalgamated and partially filled with mercury, receive 
the ends of the copper conductors which unite the several elements. 

For the purpose of suspension, a slip of copper, b b, with a hole in 
it. is soldered to each upper corner of the copper case ; these fit loosely 



FOR PRODUCING ELECTRICITY. 219 

into a mortice or narrow groove in the cross pieces, and are secured by 
a pin of copper wire. When the pins are withdrawn, a single element 
may be removed from any part of the series, without disturbing the 
remainder. 

The zinc plate is fastened into its copper case, without touching, by 
a piece of wood at each corner, with a groove in it to receive the edge 
of the plate. The grooves in the two lower pieces of wood terminate 
at about a quarter of an inch from the lower end, and thus form shoul- 
ders, which prevent the plate from slipping down ; while the wood 
itself is supported by a flange, formed by bending in the lower edges of 
the corner of the copper case. 

There are two principal sets of connectors ; the first is formed of 
bars of cast copper thirteen inches long, an inch wide, and about an 
eighth of an inch thick. On the lower side of these are eleven broad 
projections, which fit loosely into a row of cups on the plates of zinc 
or copper. Fig. 4 represents one of these connectors with a thimble 
soldered on the upper side for the purpose of attaching a conductor, 
which may serve as a pole. 

There are two of these for each of the eight batteries, and when in 
their places, one unites all the zinc, and the other all the copper, so 
that the battery becomes a calorimotor of a single element or pair. 
If with this arrangement the several batteries be connected, zinc to 
zinc and copper to copper, by conductors reaching from one to the 
other, the whole apparatus of eighty-eight elements becomes a large 
calorimotor of a single pair ; but if the copper of the first be united to 
the zinc of the second, and so on, it then forms a calorimotor of eight 
elements, and by a simple change may be reduced to one of four, or of 
two, elements. 

The other set of connectors consists of short pieces of thick copper 
plate, the ends of which are bent down at right angles, so as to dip into 
the cups of mercury : they connect the copper of one element with the 
zinc of the next. Ten of these, intended to unite the elements of one 
battery, are shown in fig. 5. They are attached crosswise to a slip of 
harness leather, which, by its pliability, permits them to fit loosely into 
the cups, while it enables the whole set to be removed as one piece. 
When these connectors are in their places, and the several batteries 



220 DESCRIPTION OF A GALVANIC BATTERY 

united, the copper pole of the one, with the zinc pole of another, and 
so on, the whole series forms a deflagrator of eighty-eight elements. 

The different arrangements of the several connectors will be readily 
understood by a reference to the plan drawing, fig. 2, which exhibits 
one half of the whole apparatus arranged as a deflagrator of forty- 
four elements, and the other half as a calorimotor of four pairs. By 
closely inspecting the drawing, it will be seen that the connexion in 
the upper half of the figure is from the copper of the first element to 
the zinc of the next, and so on through the entire series of forty-four 
elements. In the lower half the union of copper and zinc takes place 
only between the poles of the different batteries ; the several elements 
of which are united so as to act as one plate of copper and one of zinc. 
The four batteries therefore will act together as a calorimotor of four 
elements. The arrangement, as given in the drawing, is intended to 
illustrate by one figure the two sets of connectors ; but such an arrange- 
ment becomes interesting in practice in determining the effect of the 
conjoined actions of batteries producing electricity of different intensities. 

The circuit of the connexions as given in the figure is complete 
except at a b ; the two plates at this point form the poles of the battery. 
A set of poles, however, may be formed at any other point of the circuit, 
by making an interruption at that place. In the same way two or 
more sets may be formed. It furnishes an interesting and instructive 
experiment to place a pair of large decomposing plates at a b and 
another at c d. When only one of these is plunged into a saline solu- 
tion, the circuit being interrupted at the other pair, no effect is pro- 
duced; but as soon as this other is plunged into a similar solution, a 
copious decomposition simultaneously takes place at both. Also the 
contemporaneous action in each element of the battery is pleasingly 
shown by placing at the same time several large magnetic needles on the 
different parts of the apparatus. These instantly change their direction 
when the second pair of decomposing plates touch the solution. 

At first sight it might be supposed that there would be some diffi- 
culty in entering the several plates into their respective cells, but this 
is obviated by the precise movement of the platform on which the 
troughs stand. Its horizontal position is adjusted by four screws 
(e c fig. 1), and its corners slide in grooves in the upright posts of the 



FOR PRODUCING ELECTRICITY. 221 

large frame. Besides this, when the plates are once entered, they are 
not required to be entirely withdrawn from the cells until the end of 
the series of experiments ; since the acid descends as the plates are with- 
drawn, and finally fills but little more than three-fourths of the capa- 
city of the cells. When a plate accidentally catches on the side of the 
cell, the battery to which it belongs is gently raised in its place and 
the plate adjusted. 

This apparatus readily furnishes the means of making comparative 
experiments on the difference produced by partial and perfect insula- 
tion. When no higher degree of intensity is required than that afforded 
by eight pairs of plates, perfect insulation is obtained by the eight 
separate troughs. In higher degrees of intensity the partitions in the 
troughs furnish the means of perfectly insulating forty-eight of the 
elements: this is effected by simply charging with acid every other cell 
in each of the troughs, and connecting the corresponding element by 
conductors, which pass over the intermediate elements without touch- 
ing them : with this arrangement we have six cells in each trough 
separated from one another by a cell without acid, or in effect by a 
stratum of air. For comparison with these a set of troughs has been 
constructed without partitions. 

The want of perfect insulation is not very perceptible in the com- 
mon experiments of the deflagration of large and perfect conductors ; 
but where the decomposition of a liquid is attempted, or the battery 
required to act on a small or imperfect conductor, the loss of power is 
very great, the apparatus partially discharging itself through its own 
liquid, and the intensity at the poles does not increase with a short 
interruption of the current. 

There is also considerable loss on account of imperfect insulation 
even in the case of low intensity, and when the poles are connected by 
a perfect conductor. In one experiment with an arrangement of five 
pairs, and the poles united by a conductor composed of thirty strands 
of copper bell wire, each forty feet long, the loss was found to be at 
least one seventh, as measured by the quantity of zinc surface required 
to be immersed in order to produce the same magnetic effect I would 
infer from this that the most perfect of all Dr Hare's ingenious galvanic 
arrangements is that in which the elements dip into separate glass 
vol. v.— 3 F 



222 DESCRIPTION OF A GALVANIC BATTERY, ETC. 

vessels, as this combines perfect insulation with the power of instan- 
taneous immersion. 

A variety of experiments have been made during the past year with 
this instrument on several points of Galvanism and Electro-Magnetism, 
which will be communicated to the society as soon as my engagements 
will permit me to repeat and arrange them for publication. 



ARTICLE X. 



Contributions to Electricity and Magnetism. By Joseph Henry, 
Professor of Natural Philosophy in the College of New Jersey, Prince- 
ton, late of the Albany Academy. 

No. ,11. — On the Influence of a Spiral Conductor in increasing 
the Intensity of Electricity from a Galvanic Arrangement of a Single 
Pair, fyc. Read before the American Philosophical Society, February 
6th, 1835. 

In the American Journal of Science for July 1832, I announced a 
fact in Galvanism which I believe had never before been published. 
The same fact, however, appears to have been since observed by Mr 
Faraday, and has lately been noticed by him in the November number 
of the London and Edinburgh Journal of Science for 1834. 

The phenomenon as described by me is as follows. " When a small 
battery is moderately excited by diluted acid, and its poles, terminated by 
cups of mercury, are connected by a copper wire not more than a foot 
in length, no spark is perceived when the connection is either formed 
or broken ; but if a wire thirty or forty feet long be used instead of 
the short wire, though no spark will be perceptible when the connec- 
tion is made, yet when it is broken by drawing one end of the wire 
from its cup of mercury, a vivid spark is produced. If the action of 
the battery be very intense, a spark will be given by a short wire ; in 



224 INFLUENCE OF A SPIRAL CONDUCTOR 

this case it is only necessary to wait a few minutes until the action 
partially subsides, or no more sparks are given ; if the long wire be 
now substituted, a spark will again be obtained. The effect appears 
somewhat increased by coiling the wire into a helix ; it seems also to 
depend in some measure on the length and thickness of the wire. I 
can account for these phenomena only by supposing the long wire to 
become charged with electricity, which, by its reaction on itself, pro- 
jects a spark when the connection is broken."* 

The above was published immediately before my removal from 
Albany to Princeton, and new duties interrupted, for a time, the fur- 
ther prosecution of the subject. I have, however, been able during 
the past year to resume in part my investigations, and among others, 
have made a number of observations and experiments which develope 
some new circumstances in reference to this curious phenomenon. 

These, though not as complete as I could wish, are now presented 
to the Society, with the belief that they will be interesting at this time 
on account of the recent publication of Mr Faraday on the same sub- 
ject. 

The experiments are not given in the precise order in which they 
were first made, but in that which I deem best suited to render them 
easily understood ; they have, however, been repeated for publication 
in almost the same order in which they are here given. 

1. A galvanic battery, consisting of a single plate of zinc and cop- 
per, and exposing one and a half square feet of zinc surface, including 
both sides of the plate, was excited with diluted sulphuric acid, and 
then permitted to stand until the intensity of the action became nearly 
constant. The poles connected by a piece of copper bell wire of the 
ordinary size and five inches long, gave no spark when the contact was 
broken. 

2. A long portion of wire, from the same piece with that used in the 
last experiment, was divided into equal lengths of fifteen feet, by making 
a loop at each division, which could be inserted into the cups of mer- 
cury on the poles of the battery. These loops being amalgamated and 
dipped in succession into one of the cups while the first end of the 

* Silliman's Journal, vol. 22, page 408. 



IN INCREASING THE INTENSITY OF ELECTRICITY. 225 

wire constantly remained in the other, the effect was noted. The first 
length, or fifteen feet, gave a very feeble spark, which was scarcely per- 
ceptible- The second, or thirty feet, produced a spark a little more 
intense, and the effect constantly increased with each additional length 
until one hundred and twenty feet were used ; beyond this there was 
no perceptible increase ; and a wire of two hundred and forty feet gave 
a spark of rather less intensity. From other observations I infer, that 
the length necessary to produce a maximum result, varies with the 
intensity of the action of the battery, and also with its siz?. 

3. With equal lengths of copper wire of unequal diameters, the 
effect was greater with the larger : this also appears to depend in some 
degree on the size of the battery. 

4. A length of about forty feet of the wire used in experinients first 
and second, was covered with silk and coiled into a cylindrical helix of 
about two inches in height and the same in diameter. This gave a 
more intense spark than the same wire when uncoiled. 

5. A ribbon of sheet copper nearly an inch wide and twenty-eight 
and a half feet long, was covered with silk, and rolled into a fiat spiral 
similar to the form in which woollen binding is found in commerce. 
With this a vivid spark was produced, accompanied by a loud snap. 
The same ribbon uncoiled gave a feeble spark, similar in intensity to 
that produced by the wire in experiment third. When coiled again 
the snap was produced as at first. This was repeated many times in 
succession, and always with the same result. 

6. To test still farther the influence of coiling, a second ribbon was 
procured precisely similar in length and in all other respects to the one 
used in the last experiment. The effect was noted with one of these 
coiled into a fiat spiral and the other uncoiled, and again with the first 
uncoiled and the second coiled. When uncoiled, each gave a feeble 
spark of apparently equal intensity ; when coiled, a loud snap. One of 
these ribbons was next doubled into two equal strands, and then rolled 
into a double spiral with the point of doubling at the centre. By this 
arrangement the electricity, in passing through the spiral, would move 
in opposite directions in each contiguous spire, and it was supposed that 
in this case the opposite actions which might be produced would neu- 
tralize each other. The result was in accordance with the anticipation : 

vol. v. — 3 G 



226 INFLUENCE OF A SPIRAL CONDUCTOR 

the double spiral gave no spark whatever, while the other ribbon coiled 
into a single spiral produced as before a loud snap. Lest the effect 
might be due to some accidental touching of the different spires, the 
double spiral was covered with an additional coating of silk, and also 
the other ribbon was coiled in the same manner ; the effect with both 
was the same. 

7. In order to increase if possible the intensity of the spark while 
the battery remained the same, larger spirals were applied in succession. 
The effect was increased until one of ninety-six feet long, an inch and 
a half wide and weighing fifteen pounds, was used. The snap from 
this was so loud that it could be distinctly heard in an adjoining room 
with the intervening door closed. Want of materials has prevented 
me from trying a larger spiral conductor than this, but it is probable 
that there is a length which, with a given quantity and intensity of 
galvanism would produce a maximum effect. When the size of the 
battery is increased, a much greater effect is produced with the same 
spiral. Thus when the galvanic apparatus described in the first article 
is arranged as a calorimotor of eight pairs, the snap produced on break- 
ing contact with the spiral last described, resembled the discharge of a 
small Leyden jar highly charged. 

8. A handle of thick copper was soldered on each end of the large 
spiral at right angles to the ribbon, similar to those attached to the 
wires in Pixii's magneto-electric machine for giving shocks. When 
one of these was grasped by each hand and the contact broken, a shock 
was received which was felt at the elbows, and this was repeated as 
often as the contact was broken. This shock is rather a singular phe- 
nomenon, since it appears to be produced by a lateral discharge, and it 
is therefore important to determine its direction in reference to the 
primary current. 

A shock is also received when the copper of the battery is grasped 
by one hand, and the handle attached to the copper pole of the ribbon 
with the other. This may be called the direct shock, since it is pro- 
duced by a part of the direct current. It is, however, far less intense 
than that produced by the lateral discharge. 

10. When the poles were joined by two coils connected by a cup of 
mercury between them, a spark was produced by breaking the circuit 



IN INCREASING THE INTENSITY OP ELECTRICITY. 227 

at the middle point, and when a pair of platina wires was introduced 
into the circuit with the large coil and immersed in a solution of acid, 
decomposition took place in the liquid at each rupture of contact, as 
was shown by a bubble of gas given off at each wire. It must be 
recollected that the shocks and the decomposition here described were 
produced by the electricity from a single pair of plates. 

11. The contact with the poles of the battery and the large spiral 
being broken in a vessel containing a mixture of hydrogen and atmos- 
pheric air, an explosion was produced. 

I should also mention that the spark is generally attended with a de- 
flagration of the mercury, and that when the end of the spiral is brought 
in contact with the edge of the copper cup or the plate of the battery, 
a vivid deflagration of the metal takes place. The sides of the cup 
sometimes give a spark when none can be drawn from the surface of 
the mercury. This circumstance requires to be guarded against when 
experimenting on the comparative intensities of sparks from different 
arrangements. If the battery formerly described (fig. 1, Plate XII.) 
be arranged as a calorimotor, and one end of a large spiral conductor be 
attached to one pole, and the other end drawn along the edge of the 
connector, fig. 4, a series of loud and rapid explosions is produced, 
accompanied by a brilliant deflagration of the metal, and this takes place 
when the excitement of the battery is too feeble to heat to redness a 
small platina wire. 

12. A number of experiments were made to determine the effect of 
introducing a cylinder of soft iron into the axis of the flat spiral, in 
reference to the shock, the spark, &c, but no difference could be ob- 
served with the large spiral conductor. The effect of the iron was 
merged in that of the spiral. When, however, one of the smaller rib- 
bons was formed into a hollow cylindrical helix of about nine inches 
long, and a cylinder of soft iron an inch and a half in diameter was 
inserted, the spark appeared a little more intense than without the iron. 
The obliquity of the spires in this case was unfavourable to their mutual 
action, while the magnetism w T as greater than with the flat spiral, since 
the conductor closely surrounded the whole length of the cylinder. 

I would infer, from these experiments, that some effects heretofore 
attributed to magneto-electric action are chiefly due to the reaction 



228 INFLUENCE OF A SPIRAL CONDUCTOR 

on each other of the several spires of the coil which surround the 
magnet. 

13. One of the most singular results in this investigation was first 
obtained in operating with the large galvanic battery (fig. 2. Plate XXII.). 
The whole instrument was arranged as a calorimotor of eight pairs,and 
a large spiral conductor introduced into the circuit at c d, while a piece 
of thick copper wire about five inches long united the poles at a b. 
In this state an explosion or loud snap was produced, not only when 
the contact was broken at the spiral, but also when one end of the 
short wire at the other extremity of the apparatus was drawn from its 
cup. All the other short movable connectors of the battery gave a 
similar result. When the spiral was removed from the circuit and a 
short wire substituted, no effect of the kind was produced. From this 
experiment it appears that the influence of the spiral is exerted through 
at least eight alternations of zinc, acid and copper, and thus gives to a 
short wire at the other extremity of the circuit the power of producing 
a spark. 

14. The influence of the coil was likewise manifest when the zinc 
and copper plates of a single pair were separated from each other to 
the distance of fourteen inches in a trough without partitions, filled 
with diluted acid. Although the electrical intensity in this case must 
have been very low, yet there was but little reduction in the apparent 
intensity of the spark. 

15. The spiral conductor produces, however, little or no increase of 
effect when introduced into a galvanic circuit of considerable intensity. 
Thus when the large spiral used in experiment seventh, eighth, &c. was 
made to connect the poles of two Cruikshank's troughs, each containing 
fifty-six four inch plates, no greater effect was perceived than with a 
short thick wire: in both cases in making the contact a feeble spark 
was given, attended with a slight deflagration of the mercury. The 
batteries at the same time were in sufficiently intense action to give a 
disagreeable shock. It is probable, however, that if the length of the 
coil were increased in some proportion to the increase of intensity, an 
increased effect, would still be produced. 

In operating with the apparatus described in the last experiment, a 
phenomenon was observed in reference to the action of the battery 



IN INCREASING THE INTENSITY OF ELECTRICITY. 229 

itself, which I do not recollect to have seen mentioned, although it is 
intimately connected with the facts of Magneto-Electricity, as well as 
with the subject of these investigations, viz. When the body is made to 
form a part of a galvanic circuit composed of a number of elements, a 
shock is, of course, felt at the moment of completing the circuit. If 
the battery be not very large, little or no effect will be perceived dur- 
ing the uninterrupted circulation of the galvanic current; but if the 
circuit be interrupted by breaking the contact at any point, a shock 
will be felt at the moment, nearly as intense as that given when the 
contact was first formed. The secondary shock is rendered more evi- 
dent, when the battery is in feeble action, by placing in the mouth the 
end of one of the wires connected with the poles ; a shock and flash of 
light will be perceived when the circuit is completed, and also the 
same when the contact is broken at any point, but nothing of the kind 
will be perceived in the intermediate time, although the circuit may 
continue uninterrupted for some minutes. This I consider an import- 
ant fact in reference to the action of the voltaic current. 

The phenomena described in this paper appear to be intimately con- 
nected with those of Magneto-Electricity, and this opinion I advanced 
with the announcement of the first fact of these researches in the 
American Journal of Science. They may, I conceive, be all referred 
to that species of dynamical Induction discovered by Mr Faraday, which 
produces the following phenomenon, namely: when two wires, A and 
B, are placed side by side, but not in contact, and a voltaic current is 
passed through A, there is a current produced in B, but in an opposite 
direction. The current in B exists only for an instant, although the 
current in A may be indefinitely continued ; but if the current in A be 
stopped, there is produced in B a second current, in an opposite direc- 
tion however to the first current. 

The above fundamental fact in Magneto-Electricity appears to me 
to be a direct consequence of the statical principles of "Electrical 
Induction''' as mathematically investigated by Cavendish, Poisson and 
others. When the two wires A and B are in their natural state, an equi- 
librium is sustained by the attractions and repulsions of the two fluids 
in each wire ; or, according to the theory of Franklin and Cavendish, by 
the attractions and repulsions of the one fluid, and the matter of the two 
vol. v.— 3 H 



230 INFLUENCE OF A SPIRAL CONDUCTOR 

wires. If a current of free electricity be passed through A, the natu- 
ral equilibrium of B will be disturbed for an instant, in a similar manner 
to the disturbance of the equilibrium in an insulated conductor, by the 
sudden addition of fluid to a contiguous conductor. On account of the 
repulsive action of the fluid, the current in B will have an opposite 
direction to that in A ; and if the intensity of action remains constant, 
a new state of equilibrium will be assumed. The second state, how- 
ever, of B may perhaps be regarded as one of tension, and as soon as 
the extra action ceases in it, the fluid in B will resume its natural state 
of distribution, and thus a returning current for an instant be produced. 

The action of the spiral conductor in producing sparks, is but another 
case of the same action ; for since action and reaction are equal and in 
contrary directions, if a current established in A produces a current in 
an opposite direction in B, then a current transmitted through B should 
accelerate or increase the intensity of a current already existing in the 
same direction in A. In this way the current in the several successive 
spires of the coil maybe conceived to accelerate, or to tend to accelerate 
each other: aud when the contact is broken, the fluid of the first spire 
is projected from it with intensity by the repulsive action of the fluid 
in all the succeeding spires. 

In the case of the double spiral conductor, in experiment sixth, the 
fluid is passing in an opposite direction ; and according to the same 
views, a retardation or decrease of intensity should take place. 

The phenomenon of the secondary shock with the battery, appears 
to me to be a consequence of the law of Mr Faraday. The parts of 
the human body contiguous to those through which the principal cur- 
rent is passing, may be considered as in the state of the second wire B ; 
when the principal current ceases, a shock is produced by the returning 
current of the natural electricity of the body. 

If this explanation be correct, the same principle will readily account 
for a curious phenomenon discovered several years since by Savary, but 
which I believe still remains an isolated fact. When a current is trans- 
mitted through a wire, and a number of small needles are placed trans- 
verse to it, but at different distances, the direction of the magnetic 
polarity of the needles varies with their distance from the conducting 
wire. The action is also periodical ; diminishing as the distance in- 



IN INCREASING THE INTENSITY OF ELECTRICITY. 231 

creases, until it becomes zero ; the polarity of the needles is then inverted, 
acquires a maximum, decreases to zero again, and then resumes the 
first polarity ; several alternations of this kind being observed.* Now 
this is precisely what would take place if we suppose that the principal 
current induces a secondary one in an opposite direction in the air 
surrounding the conductor, and this again another in an opposite direc- 
tion at a great distance, and so on. The needles at different distances 
would be acted on by the different currents, and thus the phenomena 
described be produced. 

The action of the spiral is also probably connected with the fact in 
common electricity called the lateral discharge : and likewise with an 
appearance discovered some years since by Nobili, of a vivid light, pro- 
duced when a Leyden jar is discharged through a flat spiral. 

The foregoing views are not presumed to be given as exhibiting the 
actual operation of nature in producing the phenomena described, but 
rather as the hypotheses which have served as the basis of my investi- 
gations, and which may farther serve as formulae from which to deduce 
new consequences to be established or disproved by experiment. 

Many points of this subject are involved in an obscurity which 
requires more precise and extended investigation ; we may, however, 
confidently anticipate much additional light from the promised publi- 
cation of Mr Faraday's late researches in this branch of science. 

* Cummings's Demonferrande, page 247; also Edinburgh Journal, October 1826. 



ARTICLE XI. 



Collection of Observations on the Solar Eclipse of November 30th, 
1834, made at Philadelphia, Haverford, West-Hills, Baltimore, the 
University of Virginia, Norfolk, Cincinnati and Nashville. Reported 
March 6th, 1835. 

The Committee appointed to make a collection of Observations on 
the recent Solar Eclipse, respectfully report the following for publica- 
tion in the Transactions of the Society. 

Alex. Dallas Bache. 

Jos. Roberts, Jun. 

Isaiah Lukens. 



Memorandum of Observations of the Solar Eclipse of November 30th, 1 834, made at the 
University of Pennsylvania. By Edward H. Courtenay, Professor of Mathematics in 
the University of Pennsylvania. 

During one or two hours immediately preceding the commencement 
of the eclipse, the sun was frequently obscured by clouds ; but these, 
although not entirely dispersed, had disappeared sufficiently to permit 
a very satisfactory observation of the commencement. For several 
seconds (say five or six) previous to the first distinct impression on the 
sun's disk, a slight tremulous motion was distinctly observed near that 
vol. v. — 3 I 



234 COLLECTION OF OBSERVATIONS ON THE 

point of the limb at which the eclipse was expected to commence. 
This served as an additional guide to the eye, which was accordingly 
found to be directed very accurately to the point at which the indenta- 
tion first occurred. The limb of the sun at this time was beautifully 
defined; soon after the commencement, the clouds began again to accu- 
mulate, and at the period of greatest obscuration the sun was entirely 
concealed. About twenty minutes before the end the clouds had again 
dispersed, leaving the sun much brighter than at any previous period 
during the eclipse, and giving promise of a highly satisfactory observa- 
tion of the end ; but at fifteen or twenty seconds before the final sepa- 
ration of the disks a light fleecy cloud passed before them, alternately 
concealing the sun and permitting him to be seen. The effect of this 
was to dazzle the eye, and to render the vision so far imperfect that the 
instant of separation of the disks could not be fixed as satisfactorily as 
that of the commencement. The observations were made with a sixty 
inch refractor by Dollond belonging to the University of Pennsylvania, 
the diameter of the object glass being three and three-fourths inches. 
The time keeper was a chronometer of excellent character by Parkin- 
son and Frodsham, and its error and rate were ascertained by frequent 
transits of the sun and stars on the day of the eclipse and for several 
days previous. The limbs of the sun and moon, when not obscured 
by clouds, were defined as distinctly as could have been desired. The 
colour of the sun's disk, as seen through the dark glass used, was a 
bright orange extremely agreeable to the eye ; that of the moon in- 
tensely black. 

The times observed, reduced to the meridian of Independence Hall, 
were as follows : 

h. 
Commencement, 1 

End, 3 

Duration, 2 

Observations of the temperature were likewise made with two ther- 
mometers by Pastorelli (the bulb being uncoated); the one exposed to 
the sun's rays on the south side of the university, the other well shel- 
tered from the sun and having a north western exposure. The sudden 
and frequent fluctuations of the thermometer in the sun are attributable 
to the frequent interposition of clouds. 



m. 


sec. 


00 


10.5 


37 


51.5 


37 


41 



SOLAR ECLIPSE OF NOVEMBER 30, 1834. 



235 





Therm. 


Therm. 






Hour. 


in Sun. 


in Shade. 






10 15 A.M. 


64 


44 


Very clear. Wind N. W. 




10 30 A.M. 


64 


46 


Very clear. Wind N. W. 




11 00 A.M. 


70 


46 


Very clear. Wind N. W. 




11 30 A.M. 


63 


47 


Thin white clouds. 




12 00 M. 


59 


47 


Sun shining through clouds. 




12 30 P.M. 


54 


47 


Clouds thicker. 




12 45 P.M. 


64 


48 


Sun quite bright. 




12 55 P.M. 
1 05 P.M. 


66 
68 


48 
48 


Sun quite bright.") n , r-& i 
c, H - ... , . . e . v > Commencement ot iiid 
Sun quite bright. J 


ipse. 


1 15 P.M. 


58 


48 


Sun considerably obscured. 




1 30 P.M. 


55 


48 


Sun considerably obscured. 




1 45 P.M. 


52 


47 


Sun nearly invisible. 




2 00 P.M. 


50 


47 


Sun just visible. 




2 10 P.M. 


4S 


46i 


Sun entirely gone. 




2 20 P.M. 


4S 


46 


Sun entirely gone. Greatest obscuration. 




2 30 P.M. 


4S 


46 


Clouds thinner. Sun can be seen. 




2 40 P. M. 


4S 


46 


Sun continues to grow brighter. 




2 50 P.M. 


4S| 


46 


Sun quite bright. 




3 00 P.M. 


48i 


45§ 


Sun quite bright. 




3 15 P.M. 


4S§ 


45| 


Sun quite bright. 




3 30 P.M. 


54 


46 


Sun very bright. 




3 45 P.M. 


50 


46 


Sun very bright. 





Observations of a hollow magnetic needle (by Lukens) suspended 
horizontally by silk fibres, and placed in one of the west windows of 
the University. 



Hour. 


Division indicated by 
South Pole. 


Hour. 


Division indicated by 
South Pole. 


11 00 A.M. 


25' W. 


2 10 P.M. 


24' W. 


11 30 A.M. 


27 W. 


2 20 P.M. 


23 W. 


12 00 M. 


30 W. 


2 40 P.M. 


23 W. 


12 30 P.M. 


28 W. 


2 50 P.M. 


23 W. 


12 45 P.M. 


28 W. 


3 00 P.M. 


24 W. 


1 15 P.M. 


29 W. 


3 15 P.M. 


24 W. 


1 30 P.M. 


30 W. 


3 30 P.M. 


26 W. 


1 45 P.M. 


29 W. 


3 45 P.M. 


24 W. 


2 00 P.M. 


25 W. 






The divisions pointed out 


by the needle indicate r 


lothing as to the actual amount of the magnetic vari- 


ation, but simply the chang 


3 in variation during the 


eclipse. 



236 COLLECTION OF OBSERVATIONS ON THE 



Observations on the Eclipse of the Sun November 30th, 1834, made at Friends' Observatory, 
Fourth Street, Philadelphia. By Joseph Roberts, Jun. 

The morning was clear and without clouds till about eleven o'clock, 
when the eastern, western and southern sky became overcast with thin 
white clouds moving from the west. At noon determined the state of 
the clock by the fixed transit instrument. The beginning of the 
eclipse, observed with an achromatic telescope with a power of about 
38, happened at 1 h. m. 15.85 sec. mean civil time, corrected for 
the rate of the clock, determined by transits both before and after the 
eclipse. The observation of the beginning was very good ; but from a 
few minutes after the beginning till some time after the end of the eclipse 
there was a constant succession of clouds between the sun and the 
observer, often so dense as to render the sun invisible ; at the time 
of the greatest obscuration the sun was visible through thin clouds. 
Determined the magnitude of the eclipse when compared with a mea- 
sure of the sun's diameter, taken with a Troughton micrometer near 
noon of the same day. The obscured part measured 10.755 digits, 
which diners from the calculation about a three hundredth part of a 
digit, or five seconds. This observation was made under unfavourable 
circumstances. The end of the eclipse happened at 3 h. 37 m. 45 sec. 
mean time corrected. A haze about the sun may have caused the 
disappearance of the moon a few seconds before the actual end of the 
eclipse, in which case the latter number should be increased a few 
seconds. 



Observations on the Solar Eclipse of November 30th, 1834, made at Philadelphia and Ger- 
mantown, Pennsylvania. Communicated by S. C. Walker. 

The following observations of the Solar Eclipse of November 30th 
have been communicated to me by the respective observers. They 
are all expressed in mean solar time of the Hall of Independence, lon- 
gitude 5 h. m. 43.9 sec, latitude 39° 56' 59". 



SOLAR ECLIPSE OF NOVEMBER 30, 1834. 



237 



Beginning. 


End. 


Observer. 


Place of Observation. 


h. m. sec. 


h. m. 


sec. 






1 15.3 


3 37 


55.3 
54.3 


Wistar. 
Lukens. 


C. Wistar's House, Germantown. 






58. S 


T. M'Euen. 


T. M'Euen's House, Philadelphia. 


10.3 


38 


01.3 


C. M'Euen. 






37 


52.9 


Young. 


Third Street, near South Street. 


14.2 




14.4 


Espy. 


100 south Eighth Street. 


20.0 






Riggs. 




15.8 


38 


00.2 


Walker. 





Observations of the temperature during the eclipse. By T. M'Euen. 



Hour. 


Therm. Fahr. 


Hour. 


Therm. Fahr. 


1 12 


50°. 5 


2 40 


45°.00 


1 24 


50 .0 


2 50 


45 .00 


1 30 


49 .0 


2 55 


Dew point, 24 .00 


1 42 


48 .0 


3 00 


44 .75 


1 58 


47 .25 


3 15 


44 .50 


2 10 


46 .5 


3 45 


44 .50 


2 20 


46 .0 


3 55 


44.00 


2 30 


45 .25 







Note of Meteorological Observations made during the Solar Eclipse of November 30th, 1834. 
By «/?. D. Bache, Professor of Natural Philosophy and Chemistry in the University of 
Pennsylvania. 

The day of the eclipse was one of a series of days above the ordinary 
temperature of the season ; a thermometer which on Thursday the 4th 
of December stood in the shade at 2 P.M. at 35^° Fahrenheit, stood 
in the same place on November 28th at 51°, at the same time on the 
29th at 48°, on the 1st of December at 51°, on the 2d at 47°, and on 
the day of the eclipse at 455°. During the eclipse the thermometer 
in the shade fell from 49° at 1 o'clock to 43 i° at 2 h. 22 in., the tem- 
perature being obtained by swinging the thermometer. On the fol- 
lowing day, which was cloudy, the clouds being however less dense 
than on the 30th, the thermometer rose during the same time 2^°; 
and on the 28th, at which time there were fewer clouds, 2|°. The 
vol. v.— 3 K 



238 COLLECTION OF OBSERVATIONS ON THE 

effect of the clouds in preventing the rise of the thermometer being 
taken at f of a degree, gives, in addition to a rise of 2° prevented, a 
depression of 5|° produced, making 7^° for the effect on the air. In 
the eclipse of 1831 the observed effect on the temperature of the air, 
not taking into account the rise which would in other circumstances 
have been produced, was 4f° Fahrenheit, which was, however, much 
more felt than the present, the fall being from 35^° Fahrenheit to 30f°. 

A thermometer with the bulb blackened by writing ink, and con- 
fined in a plate glass case, fell from 101°, at which it stood at 1 P.M., 
to 46° at 2 h. 30 m., which was the lowest point that it attained, the 
depression amounting to 55° in one hour and a half, from the effect of 
the clouds and of the eclipse. In the eclipse of 1831 the depression of 
a similar instrument not protected from the air was 36°. The variable 
effect of the temperature of the air renders such comparisons very 
vague. 

The time of greatest obscuration from clouds coincided nearly with 
that from the eclipse, and the varying density of the clouds rendered 
the photometer of no service, and disappointed me in observations 
which had been arranged for that instrument. The photometer, which 
in 1831 exhibited at the time of greatest obscuration a quantity of 
light from the direct action of the sun amounting to 4° in 56.5, or ^, 
gave but 2 for the same quantity on the present occasion. This remark 
applies only to the direct light, for that which was reflected was greater 
than in 1831. The dew point, which at 7 A.M. was at 28°, fell, on 
the formation of clouds, and was at 1 h. 40 m. 24°, and at 2 h. 40 m. 
23*°. 

A series of magnetic observations on the dip, intensity and variation 
were made, and the results will at a future date be communicated. 
They may have an important bearing on the theory of the diurnal 
variation. 



SOLAR ECLIPSE OF NOVE31BER 30, 1834. 239 



Observations of the times of beginning and end of the Eclipse of the Sun, 11th month 30th, 
1834, made at Haverford School, Latitude 40° V 12" North. By J. Gummere, Pro- 
fessor of Natural Philosophy and Mathematics. 

h. m. sec. 
Beginning, 59 12 
End, 3 36 53 

The state and rate of the clock were determined by a number of 
observations of the sun's meridian passage, including one on the day of 
the eclipse : the state of the transit instrument, a twenty inch one by 
Dollond, being carefully examined by observed transits of high and 
low stars. The observations of the eclipse were made with a forty-six 
inch achromatic by Tully and Sons, just received. It has four astron- 
omical eye pieces, but was not accompanied by a statement of their 
powers, and I have not yet had leisure to ascertain them. The lowest 
was used; it is probably about forty. At the time of commencement 
part, of a small cloud, too dense to admit of distinct vision through it, 
obscured the sun for a few seconds, in consequence of which the time 
of beginning, as given above, may be in error to the amount of three 
or four seconds. The observation of the end was free from obstruc- 
tion, and is, I think, accurate. The latitude of our place may be 
regarded as a near approximation. I have not yet made a sufficient 
number of observations to consider it accurately determined. 



Observations on the Solar Eclipse of November SOth 1834, made at West-Hills, Long 
Island. By F. R. Hassler, Esq. Communicated by Mr John A. Dahlgren, of the 

United States Navy. 

By direction of Mr Hassler the following observations of the late 
solar eclipse, made by him at West-Hills, Long Island, 30th November 
1834, are communicated. 

h. m. sec. 
First contact, 1 09 53.93 mean time, 
Last contact, 3 45 18.65 mean time, 



240 COLLECTION OF OBSERVATIONS ON THE 

Latitude, 40° 48' 47".82 N. 

Assumed longitude, 4 h. 53 m. 52.7 sec. W. 

The station is one of the principal points of the triangulation selected 
by Mr Hassler for the coast survey. 

Observations were made on the day of the eclipse, by order of Mr 
Hassler, to determine the rate and error of the chronometers and astron- 
omical clock. The apparent time was deduced from the sun's Z. D. 
in series of ten repetitions, each measured by the repeating circle. 

Altitudes were also measured with a reflecting circle of double repe- 
tition on Mr Hassler's principle : but as one of the sets was interrupted 
by the tremor of the mercury from the motion of some of the spec- 
tators, the series was rendered imperfect, and could not therefore be 
used. The latitude was determined by two series on the sun, and 
seven on a Ursae Minoris, being all the weather admitted of during the 
month of November. 



Observations of the Solar Eclipse of November 30th, 1834, made at Baltimore. By 

Lewis Brantz. 

The place of observation is about one mile west from Monument 
Square. The latitude being 39° 17' 12" W. The time was observed 
minutely by a chronometer of Parkinson and Frodsham, whose rate 
has for some time back been 0".5 slow, and the local mean time was 
ascertained by sets of altitudes of the sun, accurately observed on the 
forenoons immediately preceding and succeeding the eclipse. 

The contacts were observed by a Dollond's achromatic telescope 
with a power of eighty-five, assisted by a lesser one of about thirty. 
The two observations agreed so nearly as not to admit of any distinction. 

h. m. sec. 
Beginning, 12 51 58 mean time at Baltimore, 

End, 3 31 29^ do. do. 

The temperature by a thermometer exposed to the sun, and by an- 
other in a northern exposure, was as follows : 



SOLAR ECLIPSE OF NOVEMBER 30, 1834. 241 





Therm, 


, in 


Sun. 


Therm, to North. 


2 M. 


66° 


Fahr. 


50° Fahr. 


1 P.M. 


66 






51 


2 P.M. 


55 






49 


3 P.M. 


62 






50 



Times of beginning and end of the Solar Eclipse of November 30th, 1834, observed at the 
University of Virginia. By R. M. Patterson, Professor of Natural Philosophy in the 
University of Virginia. 

h. m. sec. 
Commencement, 41 11 

End, 3 23 43 

In 1831 the thermometer in the sun was at 33° Fahrenheit in the 
middle of the eclipse, and at 51° at the end. On this occasion it was 
at 54^° to 57° at the middle, 70° to 76° at the beginning, and at 66° at 
the end ; two different thermometers being noted. The thermometer 
in the shade varied only a degree and a half. 



Register of Observations made at Norfolk, Virginia. By Captain Jl. Talcott, of Corps of 
Engineers. Latitude of station 36° 5V 10". November 30th, 1834. 

Time by pocket chron. Alt. of sun with 18 inch repeating circle. 



h. m. 


sec. 














8 32 


08.5 


' & 


A 





0" 






33 


06 


^ 


B 




2 






34 


02 


^ 


C 




5 






Reversed 






D 









Barom. 30.3 


35 


44 


^ 


A 






146° 09' 20" 


Therm. 48° 


36 


42 


^ 


B 






9 45 




37 


39 


"■"» 


C 
D 






9 45 
9 25 





* «•> Sun's upper limb ; w Sun's lower limb. 
VOL. V. 3 L 



242 



COLLECTION OF OBSERVATIONS ON THE 



Again, 



h. m. 


sec. 


8 43 


03.5 


44 


02 


45 


00 


Reversed 




48 


11 


Lost 




50 


10 



A, B, C and D same as preceding. 



A 


289° 37' 30" 




B 


05 


Barom. 30.3 


C 


00 


Therm. 48° 


D 


10 





After measuring the foregoing altitudes of the sun, the level was 
clamped, and the following observations for equal altitudes made. 



h. 


m. 


sec. 


h. m. sec. 


8 


57 


54 A.M. — 


Barom. 30.29 2 27 42.4 P.M. ^ Barom. 30.32 




58 


57 A.M. -v 


Therm. 48° 26 40 P.M. — Therm. 50° 




59 


59 A.M. — 


25 38 


9 


02 


07 A.M. — } 






03 


11 A.M. ^i 


- The lower limb of the sun was obscured by the moon P.I\J 




04 


14 A.M. ^3 




Time 


i by chron. 


Alt. of sun with 18 inch repeating circle. 


h. 


m. 


sec. 




3 


35 


06 P.M. — < 


A 289° 37' 10" 




35 


56 P.M. — 


B 36 30 Barom. 30.34 


Reve 


36 
rsed 


46 P.M. ^ 


C 36 35 Therm. 48° 
D 36 50 




38 


10 P.M. — 


A 90 26 55 




39 


01.2 P.M. ~ 


B 27 10 




39 


50 P.M..-V 


C 27 25 



Again, 



h. 


m. 


sec. 








3 


47 
48 
49 


48 P.M. ~ 
3S P.M. ~ 
26 P.M. w 


A, 


B, C and D as before. 




sve 


rsed 
50 


56 P.M. — 


A 


255° 23' 57" 


Barom. 30.34 




51 


45.2 P.M. ~ 


B 


24 00 


Therm. 48° 




52 


34 P.M. — 


C 
D 


23 45 
23 40 





SOLAR ECLIPSE OF NOVEMBER SO, 1834. 243 

h. m. sec. 

49 52 Commencement of eclipse. 

2 14 00 Greatest obscuration. 

3 30 52 End of eclipse. 

The v. sine of crescent measured by 257 divisions of micrometer scale, the value of 
each division being .45191" or 45". 191 to each thread of the screw. 

The foregoing; observations for time were made by setting the teles- 
cope of the circle, and taking the transit of the sun's first limb, and 
then reversed. It was thought that the interval, if both limbs were 
observed, would be too great to allow of taking an arithmetical mean 
for the time. The second limb was taken after reversing in all but 
the first morning observation, when the first limb was observed before 
and after reversing. 

To correct, if necessary, any inequality in the rate of the pocket 
chronometer, in the correctness of which I had little confidence, as it 
was habitually used as a pocket watch, I compared it about every hour 
with the clock, which was set going for the occasion. The rate of the 
clock could be depended upon for uniformity, but what that was, was 
unknown, as it had been moved in the interval of my absence, and 
there was no opportunity, owing to the bad weather, of ascertaining 
the true time or rate until Sunday the day of the eclipse. 

Comparison of clock and chronometer : — 





h. m. sec. 


h. m. sec. 


h. m. sec. 


h. m. sec. 


Clock, 


20 41 00 


21 28 00 


22 28 00 


24 00 00 


Chron. 


20 22 10.13 


21 09 08.13 


22 09 05.6 


23 41 01.07 


Clock, 


00 45 00 


1 45 00 


3 05 00 


4 19 00 


Chron. 


00 25 58.4 


1 25 56 


2 45 52 


3 59 48.5 



In addition to the foregoing observations, the following measure- 
ments were made of the chord of the obscured segment of the sun 
with a spider's line micrometer. The telescope to which it was applied 
was not mounted on the equatorial, and the measurements were not 
therefore made with as great accuracy as they could have been under 
more favourable circumstances. They are, however, appended, that 
they may be examined and used if of any value. The value of the 
micrometer, as before stated, is .45191" for each division. By taking 
a mean of several measurements of the sun's diameter when on or near 
the meridian, say .452". 



244 



COLLECTION OF OBSERVATIONS ON THE 



Time by Chronometer. 


Div. of Micrometer. 


Time by Chronometer. 


Div. of Micrometer. 


h. m. sec. 




h. m. sec. 




52 16.2 


10S7 


3 17 16.3 


2516 


53 20 


128S 


IS OS 


2451 


54 20.2 


1434 


19 5S.4 


2373 


55 12 


1530.5 


20 36.3 


2305 


56 22.3 


1701 


21 34 


2219 


57 56 


1844 


23 38 


1S92 


5S 36.2 


1931 


24 22 


1S27 


59 36.2 


2040 


25 OS 


1724 


1 00 OS. 4 


2095 


25 56 


1616 


04 5S.4 


2489 


26 30 


1520 


05 42.3 


2543 


27 0S.4 


1409 


13 5S.4 


3064 


2S 10 


1241 


14 44 


3102 


28 52 


1053 


3 13 00 


2839 


29 13 


946 


14 16,2 


2750 


29 42.4 


792 


15 30 


2647 


30 26 


502 


16 26 


25S0 







The following measurements were made of the versed sines of the 
unobscured part of the sun's disk. The difficulty of measuring Jhese 
accurately, was much greater than of measuring the chords ; in those 
the perpendicular hair could be made to coincide with the angles of 
the disk, and there was no doubt of the measured line being perpen- 
dicular to the parallel lines of the micrometer. In measuring the 
versed sines, the eye alone could decide, except so far as it could be 
aided by first bringing the perpendicular line to coincide with the 
angular points, and then moving the telescope in azimuth to bring the 
parallel wires on the concave and convex parts of the crescent; but 
this line changed its angle with the horizon so rapidly, that little assist- 
ance could be derived from this practice. 



Time by Chronometer. 


Div. of Micrometer. 


h. m. sec. 




1 17 40 


2915 


21 12 


2762 


33 18 


2150 


39 28 


1833 


4S 16 


13S1 


50 28 


1263 


2 OS 4S 


378 


14 00 


257 


20 24 


431 


33 02 


1050 


41 47 


1531 


3 06 04 


2S21 


09 46 


3011 



SOLAR ECLIPSE OF NOVEMBER 30, 1834. 245 



Time of beginning and end of Solar Eclipse of November 30th, 1 834, observed at Cincin- 
nati, Ohio. By Elisha Dwelle, Surveyor-General's Office, and John Locke, M.D. 

h. m. sec. 
Observed time of beginning, 3 39.7 

End, 2 49 39.7 

There were a few clouds in the morning, but by eight o'clock they 
were nearly dissipated, and the weather was in every respect favour- 
able for observation. 

The thermometer, in the shade, sunk during the observation from 
46° to 44°, but rose afterwards to 48°. Yenus was distinctly visible, 
and Antares and Lyra were seen by some observers. 



Observations made on the 30th of November 1834, at Nashville, Tennessee. By James 
Hamilton, Professor of Natural Philosophy in the Nashville University. 

The day was unusually pleasant, and as not a cloud was visible, the 
opportunities of observation were very favourable. The situation of 
observation was at the University buildings, about three quarters of a 
mile east of south from the public square of Nashville, in latitude 
36° 9' 32". 6 6, as is believed from many very careful trials, and in 
longitude about 5 h. 47 m. 16 sec. west. The latitude of the square, 
as determined by circumpolar stars, is about 36° 10' 7". The local 
time was obtained by equal altitudes of the sun, taken by a superior 
sextant, previously adjusted with much care. The time of the sun's 
passage through the wires of a transit instrument, not adjusted how- 
ever precisely to the meridian, but of which the deviation had pre- 
viously been ascertained, was also noted to obtain the error of the 
chronometer. The result differed from the former but one-tenth of a 
second. Unfortunately, in ascertaining the error of the chronometer, 
the beginning of the eclipse was not observed, but the end was looked 
for with unremitting vigilance, and occurred at 2 h. 41 m. 45.2 sec. 
vol. y. — 3 m 



246 



COLLECTION OP OBSERVATIONS ON THE 



The telescope used for observation was one of Dollond's refractors; 
the power used was 50, which was preferred to the 80 or 100, because 
it gave a much clearer view than these latter. 

Venus was seen during one hour and three quarters. Two ther- 
mometers, Fahrenheit's scale, were placed in the sun, one of which 
had the bulb covered with thin blackened paper. Another thermom- 
eter was suspended on the north side of a brick building, and was of 
course in the shade. 





Thermometer in the Sun. 






Time. 






Therm, in Shade. 


Barometer. 




Naked bulb. 


Blackened bulb. 






h. m. 


deg. 


deg. 


deg. 


deg. 


11 23 


66.5 


82.5 


47 


29.710 


33 


67 


87 


47 


710 


43 


69.5 


87 


47 


700 


53* 


70.5 


87 


47 


695 


12 03 


72 


87 


47 


670 


13 


69.5 


80 


47.5 


662 


23 


66.5 


76.5 


48 


658 


33 


66.5 


75 


47.25 


650 


43 


66 


72.5 


48 


640 


53 


66 


71 


47 


63S 


1 03 


63 


64.5 


46.25 


630 


13 


59.5 


59.5 


46 


630 


23t 


56.5 


56 


45.5 


625 


33 


57 


57.5 


45 


618 


43 


57.5 


59.5 


45 


610 


53 


61.5 


64.5 


46 


610 


2 03 


64 


69 


46.5 


620 


13 


-66.5 


69.5 


48 


620 


23 


68 


73 


48 


610 


33 


6S 


73 


48 


600 


43J 











It will be seen from these observations that the naked thermometer 
in the sun continued to rise until ten minutes after the eclipse began, 
when it stood at 72°. That the blackened thermometer had then 
risen to 87°, and that at the greatest obscuration both had fallen to 
nearly the same degree; the naked thermometer to 56.5° through 15.5°, 



* Eclipse begins. 



t Greatest obscuration. 



X Eclipse had endecK 



SOLAR ECLIPSE OF NOVEMBER 30, 1834. 247 

blackened to 56° through 31°. The thermometer in the shade fell 
only two degrees, from 47° to 45°. The changes of the thermometer 
in the shade, as well as of the barometer, present some anomalies, no 
doubt caused in both by the sudden diminution of heat. The descent 
of the mercury in the barometer generally continues with much uni- 
formity until about three o'clock, when it reaches the minimum posi- 
tion. On this occasion it rose a little about two o'clock, and after 
twenty minutes fell again. At twenty minutes past one o'clock a lens 
one foot in diameter, whose principal focal length is two feet, was not 
able to collect sufficient rays to burn blackened paper, though perfectly 
dry ; but when brought to bear upon the bulb of a thermometer for 
two minutes, caused a rise from 54° to 57°. 



ARTICLE XII. 



De Lingua Othomitorum Dissertatio ; Jluctore Emmanuele Naxera, 
Mexicano, Jlcademix Litterarise, Zacatecarum Socio. Communicated 
to the American Philosophical Society, 6th March 1835. 



Intuenti mihi, viri gravissimi, antiquae Mexici victas Divinitates, 
et quas natura, benigno sub quo primam ego lucem vidi C03I0, liberali 
manu donavit divitias, vestra hac domu, a vestro nimis noto erga 
antiqua nationum monumenta studio collectas, pulcherrimoque ordine 
compositas, atque ibi illius quae Anahuac fuit, mihi spolia contemplanti, 
itavivida dulcis patriae subiit imago, ut me in ejus sinu potius, quam ab 
ea exulem, inter pristinas Mexici Paenates, magna cum voluptate, esse 
credebam. Meos ante oculos tunc temporis, magnificentissimum Ten- 
oxtitlanis templum ab impia pietate, cujus nescio, sed cultissimi tamen 
veterisque populi arte constructum : Cholulae columna, multis ab hinc 
saeculis, ut, jam oblitae rei, a natione nunc etiam oblita, memoria num- 
quam periret, aedificata : Popocatepec, albo nivis linteo, quasi chlamyde 
coopertus, venerabile mari terraeque caput demonstrans : horti, depictis 
floribus ridentes, a lasciviantibus auris suaviter impulsi, statimque re- 
pulsi, hinc illincque aquis, ut Veneris olim filiae, supernatantes : horri- 

VOL. V. 3 N 



250 ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 

dum, lato ore, ignem cineresque evomens, quibus nescio iris, Xurullum : 
Mexicus, mea ilia vita charior Mexicus, lacubus, canalibusque circum- 
data: ipsi illi lacus, et canales innumeris cymbis, a puellis Indianis, 
nigro capillo, et nigris oculis pulcberrimis, super fructuum olerumque 
tbrono sedentibus, suavi voce, et suaviori lingua, haereditate ab earum 
avis recepta, antiquas historias, virginales a mores, et Mexici antiqui fata 
cauentibus, lamentantibusque, remigio gubernatis, arati: sacra robora, 
Hircaniis aetate paria, Tenoxtitlanis civitatem, ut vigiles ac custodes, 
circumcingentia: Chapultepeci mons, cujus in nemore, nihil aliud 
nisi passerum modulamen, ac rivorum triste murmur, antiquorum 
regum, quorum ibi silentia oblitaque sepulchra jacent, manes pertur- 
bat, ex aquis apparentem urbem contemplatur : urbs, denique, Mexicus 
ilia, ubi adhuc Moctecuzomae regali veste, regali visu, regali majestate 
conspicui circum augusta umbra vagat; ubi Cortesii strenui, reges 
debellantis, nationes antiquas expugnantis, gravis, virilisque aspectus, et 
nunc videri, videtur; ubi miserrimi, non tamen lugendi sed admirandi 
Guatemozii, ex equuleo, ejus a secretis viro calamitosum eorum casum 
ipsiusque dolores, ingentibus clamoribus lamentanti, dicentis, " Num- 
quid et ego in rosarum lecto occubo?" vox Romano digna, auditur: 
ubi tandem et quia victor et quia victus, Hispane Leo, rugire tu audire : 
tuque, Mexicana Aquila, mea dulcis mater, et victa et victrix, tuos 
sub alis filios congregas ac foves; ubi eo unde venerunt, tot guberna- 
torum imperia, quot, paucis annis, apparuerunt, repente arrepta rediisse 
videmus. En quae meos ante oculos, cumulatim praetereunt. Qui 
non tunc Mexicani cordis sensus? quos animus motus non experietur? 
Nam optime ille philosophus: vel ipsi patriae lapides cari. Et sic 
Themistocles, apud Metastasium, regi interroganti, quid tantum amaret 
in Athenis, mirabiliter respondit : 

" Tutto, signor: le ceneri degli Avi, 
Le sacre leggi, i tutelari Numi, 
La favella, i costumi, 
II sudor che mi costa, 
Lo splendor che ne trassi ; 
L'aria, i tronchi, il terren, le mura, i sassi." 

Quis vero, viri gravissimi, ex Mexicanis, ave istis patriae exuviis dicat 
quin etvobis illas conservantibus, gratias, easque quam maximas, referat ? 



ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 251 

Ecce vobis, quae tantum mihi animum tantamque addidit audaciam, ut 
ante vestram sapientum coronam,ad me, gratum erga vos, exhibendum 
sistam, rationem. Quod vero, vobis dignuin donum, imo, non indig- 
num, ex me devovere possim ? Liceat mihi, et quae pauper possum 
ante Minervae, cujus vos sacerdotio fungitis, aras offerre. De Anahuac 
quae dicturus sum agent, et ilia etiam mihi cara, quae juventutis oblec- 
tamenta fuerunt. Sunto nunc exilii spolia opima, ea si vobis placeant. 

De antiquitatibus ergo Mexicanis orationem habiturus, non semel, 
sed pluries, dummodo id vos mihi concedatis honoris, ab ea lingua 
exordiri volo quae, licet magis ab omnibus barbara habeatur, minus 
recentibus formulis implicata, multae aetatis, agrestem vultum, multo- 
rumque saeculorum ab hoc nostro, simplicitatem prae se fert. Non 
enim dulcis, ut Tarasca ; non dives, ut Mexicana ; non facilis, ut Hu- 
asteca; sed ea dura, jejuna, ori ingrata, aurique ingratior: nil in ea non 
rusticum, nil non vastum, nil non inconditum. Populus, earn qui 
loquebatur, non cultus, non ullo disciplinarum genere perpolitus, inter 
septentrionem orientemque, in Anahuacensi plaga, vitam pauperem, 
fere sylvestrem degebat, nunc vero, hinc illincque divisus, a prima 
eorum sede, ab Hispanis exules, non meliorem pristina, miserrimis 
pagis, vivunt illi. Eorum ipsi linguam, Hiahiu nominabant, quod 
nomen fortasse Germani scriberent Hiang-hiung. Hia apud eos, quod 
Latinis sermo ; Hiu vero sedere, manere, quiescere, vult. Quapropter 
Hiahiu, sermo qui quievit, interpretandum, verborum sensus postulat 
fidus. 

Quae hujus cognominis causa? Numquid alii inter eos populi iter 
facientes, alias loquentes linguas, diversos illis sermones sucessive don- 
arunt? Sed tunc illos propriam hospitibus donasse, non alienam ab 
hospitibus recipisse, credere oportet. An potius illi ipsi, multas dis- 
tracti per terras, nunc hunc, turn ilium ediscere sermonem, veterem 
frequenter exuere, novumque induere, coacti sunt? Sed si eorum 
linguae, pacis tranquillitatisque nomen imposuere, seipsos errantes, 
peregrines, appellaverunt. Othomi enim, ita interpretandum : Otho, 
nil; imi, sedentes ; nomen valde proprium,quibus nee etiam sub Mexica- 
norum Hispanorumve imperio, sedere licuit. Unde ergo illi ? Quas 
terras peragrarunt ? Quas linguas ediscerunt dedisceruntque? Quam 
tandem Hiu, sedentem, denominabant ? En quae eorum a lingua, 



252 ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 

petenda, si prius ejus natura develanda cognoscendaque erit. Atque 
iterum, an haec ex earum numero, lingua erit quae imminutae, vel ex 
iis quae auctae Anahuacensi sub ccelo haberi debet? Nulla ne ibi 
soror? Non etiam ejus Mater? Sine dubio, nobis certo certius illud 
esse potest, Mexicanam, Tarascam, Huastecam, Tarahumaram, Zapo- 
tecam,Matlatzingara,Pirindamque linguas alias omnino ab Othomitica, 
alium proinde earum originem esse. A Mexicanis vero eorum domi- 
nis, Huastecisve eorum vicinis, quod unice poterant, id acceperunt, 
nempe, conjugandi artificium ; caetera vero omnia si non iutegra, saltern 
incorrupta a patribus recepta, Othomiti, quod postea videbimus, serva- 
runt. Rudis ilia, tamen nescio quid venerabile, antiquum redolens, 
lingua. 

Si quis vero, ad barbaros homines, de barbarorum linguis moribus- 
que, examinationem mandandam credat, ille Terentii dicentis, " nil a 
me humani alienum puto," meminerit, et quomodo homines veteribus 
fuerunt aetatibus, scire non dedignabitur. Praeterea, quos antiqui Indi 
modos, ad linguas perpoliendas ornandasque adhiberunt, Philologia 
optime, nunc temporis, noscit, historia edocet, philosophia intellexit; 
interest ergo ut nunc et quo illae linguae pristino in statu fuerint, 
eadem perfectione agnoscamus. Neque sua illi Othomitico pulchri- 
tudo deest: non quidem lenis, luxurians, nitida, sed ut rapes nuda, aut 
senex robur, ita quid asperum sed sublime videtur. Quae quis pul- 
chra non judicabit? 

Utrum aliquando scripta haec Othomitorum lingua fuerit, quodve 
scripturae genus habuerit, presenti tempore, discutere, ullo sine fructu, 
cum certe ilia scriptura, si unquam extiterit, cognita non sit, esset. 
Itaque de lingua numquam scripta, loquuturus, non de litteris, sed de 
sonis quae de ejus alphabeto dicenda sunt, me agere velle necessum 
puto. 

Quinque vocalium literarum, a, e, i vel y, o, u (u Hispanici vel ou 
Gallici), sonos, diversummode tamen expressos, habent Othomiti. A, 
enim aliquando ex pectore exiens a nasu finaliter exprimitur, aliquando 
vero in gutture incipit, et repentino hiatu secatur, qui sonus agrestis, 
hispidusque est quern Ludovicus de Neve y Molina, voce Hispanica, 
hueco, Quintilianus fuscam vocem vocat ; aliquando tandem naturali, 
claroque sono, profertur. 



ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 253 

E, tunc longissime protrahitur, quasi balatum ovium imitans, unde 
Ludovico Neve y Molina hunc sonum ovejuno, quod Hispanice ovillum 
sonat, vocare placuit; nunc vero gutture pectoreque incipiens, gradatim 
voce elevatur, cumque fortior est, repente quasi per aera diffusus, dis- 
paret; quern sonum gutturalem nominare possumus. Hie enim e gut- 
ture natus, ascendit ut a nasu occidatur, quern sonum nasalem vocabi- 
mus ; illic vero nulla gradatione, aequali voce, ut e Gallicum et a vel 
ay Anglicum profertur. 

I, duplici sono exprimitur; primo quidem naturali nobisque com- 
muni ; secundo vero nasali omnino, ut Anglorum ing. 

0, nullo vocis gradu modulatur, semperque ut o Gallicum expri- 
mendum. 

U, Hispanicum vel Italicum, aut ou Gallicum semper sit; non tamen 
eodem modo proferendum. Aliquando nasu profertur, velut ung Ger- 
manicum ; aliquando vero gutturale, quasi grunnitum porcorum imi- 
tans; denique et naturali vocis motu dicendum est. 

1. Quinque itaque Othomiti Indiani intonationibus, ad vocales ex- 
primendas utuntur. 

Prima enim quae nimis protrahit sonum, utrum pking Sinensium 
intonationi similis dici potest, sapientes decernent. 

Secunda vero ex pectore guttureque incepta, cum fortior, tunc evan- 
escit ; fortasse khin sinico non discordans. 

Tertia, a nasus opera acta, chang sinensis nomine avocari, a recto 
non multum devium iret. 

Quarta ex gutture oborta, non multum durat, cum repente dum 
plus valet rumpatur. Eritne ita ut sinicum/z'? Alii viderint. 

Quinta vero, vix intonatio dici potest: non enim vox ex ea aut au- 
getur aut minuitur, nee ascendit descenditve ullo ex gradu ; semper 
ilia, eadem in via,ut ita dicam, decurrit : ut nascitur, ita vivere desinit. 

Consonantium litterarum soni ita se habent. B, D, ut apud Gallos, 
G semper durum, ut apud nos ante vocales a et o ; H fortiter exspi- 
ratum, velut ch Germanorum ; M, N, ut apud Gallos et Italos ; GN 
ut ii Hispanicum; P,K,R, ultima suavis semper, numquam durum ut 
R Hispanorum; S, T, Z, ut Gallorum ; W, Anglorum, in water; ph 
nee ut nostra/, nee ut q> Graecum, sonat; X, semper ut ks; CH ut 
Anglorum in church. Est et alius illis sonus, qui solum ts litteris 
vol. v. — 3 o 



254 ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 

exprimi potest. K simplex vel duplex est. Duplex Hispano-Mexi- 
cani grammatici cc castanuelas vocant, quia ejus sonus similis est 
stridori a simia facto, nuces frangenti. Litteris cc, qq, vel qh oculis 
pingitur. T, aliquando etiam duplo souitu eflfertur. 

Non tamen id satis, cum multa verba incipiunt finiuntque, cumque 
duobus ex syllabis unum verbum faciunt, medio verbo, et gutturis et 
nasus, et anhelationis hiatiisque intonatione, vocem modulant; quae, 
quomodo nostris litteris exarari notarique possent? Qua de causa, illi 
qui priiis de lingua difficile onus scribendi sibi assumpsere, aliquando 
h, aliquando ng aliquando mi, et etiam nug, mm, litteris, ad ilia expri- 
menda usi fuere. Hinc enim, liquido constat illud, ni fallor: 

2. Nostris, nee Hebraeis, Graecisve litteris lingua ilia scribi, non nisi 
difficillime potest. 

3. Deinde, nulla via nos homonyma verba, quorum varia significa- 
tio, seu gestibus, seu levi modulatione, expressa, etiam cum loquuntur, 
nisi ex circumstantibus distingui nequit, separare aut annotare pos- 
sumus. 

4. Sua itaque sui generis scriptura indigeret Othomitorum lingua, 
si scribenda foret. 

5. Ita illius generis scriptura invenienda, quae non modo litteras, 
sed et intonationes ipsas depingeret ; nam diversa intonatio uni verbo 
diversum sensum donat. (Vide annotationem, in fine, sub littera A). 

Et hoc licet punctis, ut Massoreticis, exempli gratia, assequi, haberi- 
que possemus, tamen adhuc vacuum nobis implendum esset; nam 
multa verba iisdem sonis iisdem et intonationibus, non idem significant. 
He enim, exempli gratia, mons ; he glacies ; he fingere, est. Moid cor : 
moid anima: moui animi indoles: moui animi motus. Nheau bonus : 
nheau pulcher : nheau aptus : nheau Justus : nheau perfectus : nheau 
urbanus, aliaque innumera ; quapropter : 

6. Othomitica lingua, eo scribendi genere indigeret, quo et diversus 
verbi sensus ex diversis signis animadverti posset. 

7. Hoc forsitan, sinicis signis, obtineri liceret. 

8. Est, itaque quaedam inter utramque linguam analogia. 

9. Proindeque, earum natura, non multum dissimilis credenda. 
Quod quidem, nee affirmare, nee negare audeo ; hoc vero quomodo 



ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 255 

possem ? illud nolo ; sed facta solum exponere meum est ; quisque ex 
iis quae sequantur, ea mecum considerabit. 

10. Nomina aut una aut duobus constant syllabis, perpauca tribus; 
haec vero post dominationem Hispanam, ut puto, composita. Quae 
diversis hisce syllabis componuntur ita generis sunt, ut quaeque syl- 
laba pristinum sensum earum quaelibet retineat, ac servet. Unde, 
nomina, quae plures quam unam, syllabas habent, ex syllabis aliquid 
significantibusantea,praeexistentibusque,et in compositione earum sig- 
nificationem haud amittentibus, formantur. (Vide Annot. A. B. et C). 

Nullum inflexionis genus ilia nomina cognoscunt: eumque idem 
quod nomen, id verbum ; idemque, ut nomen substantivum habeatur, 
particula na, quae in ista lingua unum, ac etiam, pronomen ille, ilia, 
illud, significat, unde articuli vices gerit, afficitur. Non tamen id, 
nisi cum dubii, vel aequivoci periculo adest. Plurale a singulari 
nomine, cum ya, vel ye aut e discernitur. Ye, vel e pluviam significat, 
ya particulae significatio ignoratur. 

10. Una itaque particula sensu carens esse dici potest. 

11. Et nomina omnino flexionibus carentia. 

12. Nullum nominibus genus. Quod adjectivum, id et substanti- 
vum est (vide not. D). Adjectivum substantivo praeit. Cum adjec- 
tivum pro substantivo ponitur, na in set mutatur, ut na nheau, bonitas ; 
sa nheau, bonum ; na nheau y'eh, bonus homo. Sa nil per se significat, 
significationem adjectivam designat. 

Particularum auxilio quae et tempus et personam indicant, verba 
conjugantur. Triplex cuilibet tempori particula : quae in singulari, illae 
in plurali numero ; unde hie ab illo, pronominum he, nos ; wi, vos ; yu, 
ille, auxilio distinguitur. Quatuor supra decern particulae illae sunt, 
sensuque, nunc temporis saltern, ut quae apud sinenses vacuse, vocantur,* 
carent. Indicandi, imperandique modos solum Othomiti cognoscunt. 
Secunda imperativi persona, nulla omnino nota, particulave afficitur, 
sed diversimode ilia formatur: aliquando enim, vcrbo repetito, ut Te, 
facere, Tete, fac: aliquando vero vel nomine vel verbo adjuncto, non 
absimili significatione separato, ut O recordari, Oplio recordari et 
cognoscere, recordare tu, nempe scribe (id enim sibi vult Oplw) et 

* Remusat, Grammaire Chinoise, p. 35, sect. 62. 



256 ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 

non semel tandem verba ilia, facere, exequi, uti, exercere,in executionem 
mandare, verbo jungenda erunt ; sic O recordari sibi, supra lit vidimus, 
vult, et Kha facere ; Okha memento. Quod quidem earn personam 
conficiendi artificium, ante particularum inventionem usumque, et in- 
caeptum, anteaque inventum, quis non videt? Unde, 

13. Tempus fuit, quo conjugations, ut nunc, artificium in eorum 
lingua non haberent Othomiti. 

Veteris formae tempora distinguentis vestigia, adhuc lingua retinet. 
Quod quidem omnibus Anahuacensibus linguis accidit, ut pristinse na- 
turae non omnia amittant, licet longissime ab earum origine sint ; quod 
et aliquando futurum, ut discordiae horridus ille Diabolus, Mexicum 
cruciare, turbareque fatigatus saltern desistat, mei concives, linguarum 
earum, proindeque Indorum ortum itineraque reperturos, credere, spe- 
rareque nos monet. Quamobrem Indi Othomiti, praesenti et nunc tem- 
pore, verborum conjugationi ; ma, ni, rid adjectiva, aliquando addunt. 
Non quidem frequens hie usus, antiquior etideo. Ma, praeterita res; 
mpraesens; mtventura; ma pa praeterita dies, nipa praesens dies; napa, 
futura dies. Illi ergo non semel ita dicunt ni di ma, ego amo: met 
da ma ego amavi : na ga ma ego amabo, quod superfluum inutileque 
est, nam di ma, da ma, ga ma, idem ac sine illis adjectivis, expri- 
mit Neque vero, quis illos elegantiae ergo haec addere putet; non 
enim illi elegantes se curant, neque euphoniae causa id faciunt ; nam 
raro ilia nomina addunt, et se miseros putarent, si ita essent delicati 
ut euphoniam quaererent ! Fortasse multa linguae pars, ut Itali dicunt, 
se riandarebbe nella limatura. 

Eodem conjugandi artificio, Othomiti ac Mexicani eorum Domini, 
et Huasteci eorum confines, utebantur, quod animadvertere a re alie- 
num non est. Eorumne omnium linguae eundem fontem habuerint ? 
eademne, illi ex radice rami germinarunt? Id impossibile, illas cog- 
noscenti, videbitur. Non enim Othomitos formam earn ad verba con- 
juganda, initio vidimus habuise. Aliunde quidem illam receperunt ; 
a Mexicana, nempe vel Huasteca, ut videre hac ex collatione, est. 

En triplex illarum linguarum conjugandi artificium. Chihua apud 
Mexicanos, Tahjal apud Huastecos, Te apud Othomitos, idem tria ilia 
verba, quod facere apud Latinos, sunt. Quo quilibet ex eorum, arti- 
ficio, ad eum conjugandum utebantur, videamus. 



ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 



257 



Mexicanus, 

Huastecus, 

Othoniitus, 

Mexicanus, 

Huastecus, 

Othomitus, 

Mexicanus, 

Huastecus, 

Othomitus, 

Mexicanus, 

Huastecus, 

Othomitus, 

Mexicanus, 

Huastecus, 

Othomitus, 

Mexicanus, 

Huastecus, 

Othomitus, 



Ni 

V 

Di 

Nite 

In 

Di 

Onitla 

V 

Xta 

Onical 

V 

Xta 

Ni 

quia 

Ga 

Onitla 

V 

Gaxta 



chihua 

tahjai 

te 

chihua ya 

tahjai itz 

te hma 

chiuh 

tahjamal 

te 

chiuh ca 

tahjai ac 

te hma 

chihuaz 

tahja 

te 

chiuh 

tahjamal 

te 



Ego facio. 



Ego faciebam. 



Ego feci. 



feceram. 



faciam. 



fecero. 



Imperativo nulla omnino inter ilia et Othomitica verba artificii 
similitude Sed in triplici ilia lingua modus infinitivus non invenitur, 
et in eis futurum imperfectum pro infinitivi . temporibus vices gerit. 
Ita enim, exempli gratia, haec oratio, Ego volo faeere, reddi oporteret; 
in Mexicano, Nieniqui chihuaz 

in Huasteco, Vie quia tahja 

in Othomito, Di ne ga te 



id est, 



Volo, 



faciam. 



Tanti momenti res, ut verba conjugandi artificium, tarn simile in 
linguis sua ex naturatam diversis, casu efformari quomodo potuisset? 
Ejusdem effectus, eadem causa. Ejusdem linguae filias, Othomiti et 
Mexicani linguas quis credet ? Una igitur ex iis linguis ab alia, formam 
illam, imitatione recepit. Ab Othomitis, vix ad duos conjugationis 
modos sequendi capaces, Mexicani mille conjugandi verbi modis, gene- 
ribusque onusti emendicarent ? Othomitine sua in lingua omnis com- 
positionis expertes, verborum formularum donum, Mexicanis syntheti- 
carum formarum peramantibus et Polysyntheticam linguam vel infan- 
tem loquentibus, fecissent ? Absit. Iterumque hie videmus, quod, 
vol. v. — 3 P 



258 ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 

14. Ab alienis, Othomiti conjugandi formam receperunt, ac, 

15. Suo initio proinde, lingua ilia conjugationis formis caruit. 

Si quis vero, Othomitos Indos conjugandi formam a juvene ilia 
lingua Mexicana, quam et culta natio perfecit, qua miserrimus ille et 
rex et philosophus Tezcocanus Netzahualcoyotl elegiaco versu, sublimi 
plectro, ejus omnisque humanitatis casus deploravit, quamque tandem 
Hispani, floridam, phaleratam, ornamentis luxuriantem, divitiis afflu- 
entem admirarunt, non recepisse contendat, is veri metam fortasse 
attinget, etiam si conjugandi artificium Othomitis, agrestem, senem. 
rugis aratam, voce rusticanam illam quae olim in utero, nescio quibus 
a regionibus, Mexicanam illam, gratiosam, et pulchram portavit, quam- 
que mundo in Auahuac edidit, dedisse existimet. Sed de hoc alias, 
nil enim ad praesens. Mexicana lingua, altera antiquior, conjugare 
verba Othomitos docuit: esto: quid deinde? cujuscumque illud jus sit, 
illud rapiat, aut vindicet: non cum eo disputabimus; quanto enim 
raagis, pluresque linguae, primum illarum formarum dominium vindi- 
cent, tanto certius illud erit, Othomitos aliquando non habuisse has 
formas, ab eorum lingua alienas, ab eaque proinde, cum de ea judicare 
velimus, rejiciendas. 

16. Othomiti non nisi activa verba conjugant ; non illis passiva,non 
compulsiva, non casualia, non denique ullum eorum verborum quae 
sive nostris, sive aliis Indianis linguis inveniuntur, genus. 

17. Verba ilia, unius sunt syllabae, aut ad summum, duobus syllabis 
constant (ut videre est in annotationibus sub litteris A et C. 

18. Verba quae sua ex natura sunt, plures quam imam nunquam 
syllabam habent; unde imperativi secunda persona alio cum verbo 
formatur. (Vide Not. C.) Hoc secundum verbum, sensum primo 
analogum, vel ilium intensiorem ut ita dicam, vel extensiorem, secum 
portat; quapropter: 

19. Omnia verba una tantum syllaba constant, imperandi tempus 
si excipias, in secunda persona : 

20. Secunda haec persona duplici syllaba, duplicem sensum evolv- 
ente, constituitur. 

Praeterea, omnia nomina verba esse possunt. Cum enim, substan- 
tive verbo careant Othomiti, verbi illius sensus, idem ac attributum, 
sive, ut scholastici vocant. praedicatum, putant ; aut ut clarius dicam, 



ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 259 

ad existentiae ideam a re existente distinguendam cum impares sint illi 
Indi, una simul utramque ideam involutam considerant. Itaque, si 
Othomitus vult dicere, ego sum bonus, ex nomine nheau, bonus, ver- 
bum esse bonum significans format, idque conjugat, ut Di nheau, vel 
Dna nheau, ego sum bonus; unde cum frequenter ilia nomina ex 
duobus syllabis, ut quae ex duplici significatione composita sint, verba 
habemus duplicis spllabae quidem, sed duplicis sensus etiam conjuganda ; 
quapropter : 

21. Verba ex nominibus facta, dupli syllaba duplicem sensum 
evolvente, conjugantur, si duplices ilia syllabae sint. Ciimque hujus- 
modi verbis, non usus, ut caeteris, secundum verbum vel nomen desig- 
narit, cumque sine eorum aliquo imperativi persona efformari queat, 
hoc in casu Indi we, quod es vel esto dici potest, nomini in verbum 
commutato addunt, ut nheau we, bonus esto. Triplex syllaba tunc, 
sed etiam triplex sensus habebitur, si nomen duplici syllaba constabit, 
ut memthi, dives, di memthi (aut memthi, et fortasse melius) sum dives, 
memthi we, dives esto. 

Sed qua, ratione, quis petet, in parvis quae de Othomitica lingua, 
vocabularies vel lexicis habemus, ut plurimum, verba duplici constant 
syllaba? Quia, eorum auctores, imperativi secundam personam, ut 
quae pro secunda syllaba, ab aliis homophonis verbis, et distinctior, et 
determinatior est, ibi posuere, eo, quidem, modo quo nos, nostris vocum 
indicibus, verborum infinitivum inscribimus. Sanum, laudeque dignum 
consilium. Non tamen illud, dicet quis, auctores isti, patefecerunt, 
aut explanarunt. Fecere utique, atque ut alios qui et postea et illius 
sequentes vestigia scripserunt, ut Sanchez et Rangel omissos faciam, 
eum, qui melius, hac de lingua scripsit, Ludovicum de Neve et Mo- 
lina (Anno MDCCLXVII), consulamus. Ille enim, natione Othomi- 
tus, in ejus de hac lingua institutionibus, pag. 122 animadvertit, ver- 
bum per secundam imperativi personam cognitum fieri, ut quod hac 
in persona nil additum illi, nilve subtractum futurum iri credit. Quod 
ut melius intelligatur, operae pretium est animadvertere, ilium impe- 
rativum quasi radicem verborum credebat habebatque; ex illo enim 
alia tempora formari voluit. Quo factum fuit, u\ obscure, difficillime, 
verbi artificium exposuisset. Nee mirum ; omnes enim qui de Indorum 
linguis scripserunt (paucos recentiores si excipiamus, ut Sandoval, 



260 ON THE OTHOM1 LANGUAGE. 

Avila, aliosque), et institutiones efforinarunt, Antonii Nebricensis ves- 
tigiis adhaerentes, eas Latinis sub forraulis explanare, totis viribus 
insudarunt. Tempora ilia ita ferebant. Nee tarn eos bene de mea 
patria deque litteris merentes reprehendendos, quod sum mas audaciae 
temeritatisque esset, quam ad eos explanandos, istius generis laboribus 
manum apposui. 

Sed bene, repones, illis in lexicis, quaedam verba ilia sine secunda 
syllaba inveniuntur. Id ut verum fateor : ita enim ea verba a lexicis 
exhibentur, ut quae nee in imperativo, alterum verbum recipiant. 
Quae ilia, paucissimo quidem numero, sint verba, et rei causam intelli- 
gemus. Sunt enim illius ilia generis quibus frequentius utitur, et 
quorum sensus cum alio confundi nequit: ea etiam quae difficiliter 
analogo alio adhaererent, ut tsi, manducare; suntque tandem ilia quae 
familiari sermone nunquam imperantur, ut te, senire, clou, mori. Non 
enim ill i miserrimi Othomiti sermone figuris loquente utendi ocasionem 
habuerunt, non poesi ut Tarasci indulsere ; non denique orationes ad 
populum, ad regum coetum, ad principes, ut Mexicani, faciebant. 
Duo hie animadversione digna, sese consideranda offerunt ; unum idque 
primum, maximo rusticitatis statu Othomitos, longo temporis tractu 
degisse, alterum, priusquam verba temporibus distinguerent, fuisse 
tempus, quo nee imperativum distinguendi modum habuissent. 

22. Triplex verborum, Othomitorum in lingua, considerandus status, 
primus cum nullum tempus, nullus modus, nulla persona, in verbis 
distinguebantur; secundus, cum alii verbi auxilio, verborum imperati- 
vum formarunt; tertius, cum alienam conjugandi formam receperunt. 

Quae cum conlemplantur, quis non Othomitorum sermonem mini- 
me a pristino statu remotum videt? Non temporis spatio confectus, 
sed ex natura totus ut Minerva a Jovis capite, si me ita explicare 
liceat, ortus. Praeterea, quam non ilia sermonis forma antiqua ! Quis 
ergo, quousque in saeculis, linguae Othomiticae vetusta aetas attingit, 
dicere potest? 

Utut haec sint, ad verba ilia redeamus : ipsa enim nimis sterilitate 
laborant. Non ex iis participia, non gerundia, non abstracta nomina 
spectes. Quern enirft ad modum, quod apud eos adjectivum quando 
illis placet, substantivum fit, ut sa nheau bonum ; na nheau bonitas, ita 
eliam verbum ipsissimum, nomen abstractum est, ut niadi, amare, 



ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 261 

madi, amor. Hoc enim a madi, secunda persona imperativi sumitur. 
Inter has voces differentia, aliquando sententiarum contextu, frequen- 
tius vero vocis labore procedit. Grammatici leves has articulationis 
differentias, cum duplici ft, vel litera h, distinguere tentant ; sed vani 
hi conatus; istae vocis differentiae, chartae commendari haud facile pos- 
sunt. 

Concreta nomina, verbo te, facere, hie substantive intelligendo. duo- 
bus modis formantur; verbo ista syllaba additur, ut mate, amator, 
amans; aut imperativi secundse person* verbum te adhaeret, ut madi 
(di et teidem fere significantes), dummodo alterum verbum sensu non 
repellat: itaque creator, exempli gratia, dicitur tete, nam ridiculum 
esset dicere tetete, quod idem esset ac actionis factor factor. 

Solemne apud eos est, ut too, qui (relativum), quod hujus modi nomi- 
nibus praeponant, ut too mate qui amat, vel amans. Ex dictis liquet, 

23. Nulla verbalia proprie dicta, verba habere, et 

24. Quos sunt, syllaba addita, verbum significans recipere. 

25. Adverbia adjectivis a nominibus non alia sunt. Omne adjec- 
tivum, igitur, adverbiali sensu intelligi potest, ut nheau, bonum ; nheau, 
bene. Aliquando, et aliud adjectivum addere licet, nernpe, theau, 
omne, ut nheau theau bonum omne; quod sonat ut apud nos bene est. 

En puram,ut puto, linguae Othomiticae iinaginem : si qui Indi illius 
naturam simplicem, ornamenti varietatisque ergo, vitiare conantur, 
quid de illis parvi momenti adhuc mutationibus judicare debeamus, 
ex Domino de Neve audiamus. " Todo lo qual no pertenece a lo 
substancial precisamente, ni al general uso de todos los nativos, sino a 
la mayor energia con que hablan los mas cultos, por lo cual, aunque no 
se observaran estas reglas, no por eso dejaria de entenderse lo que se 
quiere decir," id est, " Qu?e quidem mutationes (nempe litterarum 
commutationes, ut / pro d in quorundam verborum praeteritis, aliaeque 
hujusmodi), non conveniunt linguae, sua ex natura: neque communis 
loquendi apud Indos usus, eas tolerat, nee fert. Novae haec formulae, 
elegantiores ab Indis cultioribus additae sunt, ornamenti elegantiaeque 
gratia; id tamen illis parvipensis, nequid detrimenti sensus linguave 
accipiunt." Quibus in verbis initia corruptions, linguam defprmantia 
videmus, nam ut ilia melius capiantur, nos illud scire debemus, culti- 
ores ladinos, hoc est Latinos, eos Indos in Mexico vocari, non qui in 
vol.— v. 3 Q 



262 ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 

eorum Unguis instructiores, eorumque morura tenaciores, sed qui et 
melius hispane sciunt, qui et Hispanorum sermonis formulas et mores 
affectant. 

Quae cum ita se habeant, quod de lingua ea judicium faciendum 
videamus. 

Nomina, Othomitos apud Indos aut unius sunt syllabae, aut si plures 
habent, quaelibet ex iis sensum pristinum nOn amittunt (ex paragrapho 
No. 10), etearum omnia aliquid significant. (Ex numeris 17, 19,21,23.) 

Verbalia nomina quae vocari possent, aut nullam verbo syllabam 
addunt, aut si addunt, et sensu nova syllaba haud caret. (Ex numeris 
25, 26.) 

Adverbia aut ipsissima adjectiva sunt, aut si alteram syllabam reci- 
piant, haec nomen significans est. (Ex numero 25.) 

Quotquot itaque syllabae in Othomitica lingua sunt, earum quaeli- 
bet, sive per se sit, sive alteri unita adhaereat, semper significat, pristi- 
numque sensum retinet, demptis tamen sex supradecem particulis 
quae, ut apud sinenses, dici possunt vacuis. Cumque ea lingua, cujus 
omnia verba aut monosyllabica sunt aut ex syllabis pristinum sensum 
non amittentibus constent, quin paucae exceptiones, cujus pristina sig- 
nificatio lapsu temporis oblita est, ad id afficiant, (ut mihi vobisque 
optimus, praeses ille vester, Petrus Stephanus Duponceau, dixit in pri- 
mis), ut lingua monosyllabica dici debeat, Othomitorum lingua mono- 
syllabica vocanda habendaque est. 

Cumque id omnino possibile non sit, ut monosyllabica lingua, a 
synthetica, minusque a polysynthetica ortum ducat; sine hie fallendi 
timore, haec stabilire licet. 

Othomiticae linguae origo alias omnino a Zapotecse, Huastecse, Mexi- 
canae, Tarascae, Tarahumaraeque linguarum Anahuacensium, ciim haec 
nunquam monosyllabic* fuisse videantur, origine quaerenda est. 

Diversae itaque illorum Indorum, nempe Othomitorum, dictarum- 
que supra tribuum, aut si ab hinc retro multis saeculis unius familise 
filii fuerunt, multis saeculis etiam ab hinc retro sejuncti, diversas 
terras peragrarunt, non eademque via ad Anahuac caelum petendum, 
iter fecere eorum utrique. 

Othomiti praeterea, alicujus nationis, verbis monosyllabis loquentis, 
aut posteritas, aut hospites. Quae ilia natio? quo id tempore? Erit 



ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 263 

aliquandd, cum philologia, quae secreta ilia historiam fugerunt inveniat, 
ac doceat. 

Si enim Othomitica lingua monosyllabica dicenda, multa illi homo- 
phona esse verba necesse est; et sunt quidem ilia. Vocalia, non 
aequali sono dicenda; nee intonationibus, praeter sonos, Othomiti indi- 
gent. Cum vero illae plures esse nequeant, nee illis homophona omnia 
verba distingui possunt. Qua propter, ex partium dispositione aliisque 
circunstantibus, verborum, cum lingua voce effertur, significatio pen- 
det, et notis, ilia scripta, ad significationem designandam, opus est. 
Nostris id nos litteris praestare non possumus. Itaque, sua illae scrip- 
tura peculiaris invenienda. Ac proinde non ex Hebraei, non ex Graeci, 
nee denique ex recentioribus linguis ilia petenda. Non itaque Otho- 
mitorum lingua, ex iis, unde Hebraea, Graeca, Latina recentioresque 
linguae, fontibus exivit. Ex dictis illud videmus, non monosyllabicae 
nomen linguam earn demereri. 

Sed, si ita esset, suo initio omne compositionis genus abhorruisset ? 
Et quidem cum solum quod illi est, nempe conjugandi artificium, ab 
exteris alienisque receperit, nulla illi sua ex natura synthetica forma, 
ac proinde, nulla hujus generis compositio. Deinde, cum sinensium 
lingua monosyllabica, unius naturae, ut ita dicam, utraque lingua con- 
sideranda, atque tunc fieret, ut Othomitorum ilia sinicis notis scribi 
posset ? Certum id ; sed et illud, sinensium scriptura, optime excellen- 
terque praestandum, si opus esset, vidimus. Quapropter, nee hisce ex 
partibus, ut monosyllabica habeatur, jure Othomitica spoliatur. 

Bene se ita res habeant: sed quae de lingua Othomitica institutiones 
sunt scriptae, aliter videri videntur de ea eorum auctores cogitasse ? 
Nequaquam, viri gravissimi, sed aliam ab hac illis viam, ut se expli- 
carent, eligere placuit. Ante omnia, illi linguam ut scriptam consi- 
derarunt, illi et etymologiam et orthographiam adaptarunt, deinde 
illas cum orali lingua comparantes, cum unam Niobem, ab alia toto 
aliquandd ccelo distinctam vidissent, ut utraque unam facerent, quod 
aliter non poterant explicare, syncopen appellarunt. Ego de lingua 
vocali, illi de scripta, ut loquatur, scripserunt. Praeterea, nori in rebus, 
sed in verbis formulisque, illas explanantibus, eos inter et me est dis- 
cordantia. Solemne fuit illud de Anahuacensibus linguis scriptoribus, 
ut eas ad Latinum compararent, totisque viribus coaequarent, nee id 



264 ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 

solum, sed et Antonium de Nebrixa (celebrem apud Hispanos lingua? 
Latinae Grammatices auctorem), ducem sequentes, constanterque 
imitantes, omnia ad hujus doctissimi viri de Latino institutiones, et 
regulare et explanare voluere. Ipsas illi loquendi formulas, quarum 
magna ex parte, nee ab ipsis Mexicanis comprehenduntur, ex parvulis 
chartis a magistris, Nebricensem opus explanandi gratia, scriptis, 
assumpserunt. Hinc enim et verborum in Huasteca lingua, passiva 
vox erupit: et quinque Mexicanorum declinationes, et alia innumera, 
quae infinitum esset recensere. Quae quidem eorum virorum qui 
nobis multa bona et fecerunt, et curarunt ne perirent, pace dicta, et 
velim et opto. Neque quis nisi injustitia, impudentiaque plenus homo 
illud illis vitio vertere audebit. Quis enim Graecos, quis Romanos, 
barbaros habebit ex eo quod acum nauticam, quod Copernici, Linnei, 
Neutonii detectiones, ignorarunt? Novum, quidem, iter a Philologia 
monstratum est; nunc vero tempus, quo et quae illos praeteriere cog- 
nosces, et quje solum prospexerunt, meridian a luce ponere, et quae 
obseurarunt, dilucidare nunc possunt sapientes. Quod quidem quam 
multi ex Mexicanis, suis illis Anahuacensibus Unguis praestabunt, non 
dubito, illi postquam id cognoscant, quanti apud vos, viros sapientissi- 
mos, istius generis labor habetur; nam nil apud Mexicanos, tam cordi 
est aut unquam fuit, quam eorum patriae et honor, et gloria. Itaque 
bene si vobis ego, mea fortuna, vestraque indulgentia nunc audierim, 
quos non ex meis concivibus, vobis de Anahuacensium linguis, historia, 
natura, ea qua mi hi eloquentia, doctrina, et philosophia non licet, 
erunt loquuturi ! Mihi satis glorias obtigisse, si eos ante viam quam 
illi floribus spargent, irem, et aliquando ipsos una vobiscum, nobis et 
linguarum originem, et hominum qui ante nos hoc in novo orbe fue- 
runt, iter indigitantes, naturasque divitias quae,nostris sub solis, affluunt, 
demonstrantes, et videam et audiam. Utinam, et sub pacis alis et 
umbra, vestro exemplo, in Anahuac, sapientes una congregati, quod 
vos hie pro relligione, pro patria, pro humani generis salute, facitis, 
illic terrarum, aliquando agere incipiant! Me felicem, cum et ut 
vestra, mea in Pairia, altera academia vestra soror, vestra et arnica, 
ea qu?e vos gloria circumfundit non indigna, stabilienda erigendaque 
erit! Nascatur ilia quantocius; tu vero, hujus Reipublic?e ornamen- 
tum et columen, esto perpetua. 



ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 265 



$a*s MUtvu. 

Licet tota in id incumbat Historia, viri gravissimi, ut humani gene- 
ris acta, sive mortua scripturae voce, sive viva populorum traditione, 
posteritati salva integraque servet, mille tamen de causis, quarum 
magna nobis pars adhuc est incognita, accidit, ut memoria de multis 
omnino deperierit, et alia non nisi fabulae cantu, nostras ad aures usque, 
pervenerint. Et multa quidem tenebris sic undequaque fusa sunt, ut 
nostros oculos fugiant, et quam ea prospicere, potius nobis suspicari, et 
vix id, liceat. Tempus invidum, naturaque haud semper sibi constans, 
fcedus inter se, ut quamplurima obliterata facerent, iniisse videntur. 
Non pauca ex iis philosophia,divinationis quodam,ut ita dicam, numine 
duce, inveniit: multa in pristinum, multis, eheu! laboribus, sudoribus- 
que restituit : multa tamen, a longe contemplabat, neque qua via lucem 
ad ea cognoscenda ducere posset, licet id multoties tentavit, adhuc 
detegere potuit. An non hujusmodi, generis humani emigrationes 
itineraque sunt? Quid enim nobis de hominibus Americam olim 
habitantibus, antequam noster hie orbis a nostris inveniretur patribus, 
philosophia hucusque notum fecit? nil, nisi aborigines illos, quos Indos 
vocamus, licet alio magna ex parte colore (cum alba cutis colore non 
desint Indianae tribus) eaderii ac nos natura homines fuisse. Qui, 
vero, illi homines? unde venerunt? qua iter fecere? Haec illam ex- 
cruciabant: ipsa vero haesitabat, nee quae ignorabat docere poterat. 
Ad historiam ilia tunc sese vertit; antiquas horum populorum tradi- 
tiones, confusas, obscuras, et ut sybillae oracula, vera falsis miscentes, 
quaesivit, et diligenter indagavit, ac Indorum mores, Vetera Anahua- 
censia monumenta, nunc simplicia et rustica, ut quae Abrahami Jaco- 
bique temporibus erigebantur, turn iEgyptiorum majestate pollentia, 
et non pauca Graeca suavitate et elegantia perpolita, Philosophiae His- 
toria indigitabat ; sed quid aliud, ilia ex Mistlae Palenqueque Templis, 
sepulchris, domibus, ubi non Zapotecae, non Tcholi, sed alii istis 
antiquiores populi nobis ignoti, falsas divinitates adorarunt, mortuos 
vol. v.~3 R 



266 ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 

sepeliebant, et vitam degere, nisi ilia nuda, solitaria, mutaque facta, 
philosophise apparuit? Nihil omnino. Nee ideo tamen philosophia 
desperavit ; sed novam sibi viam aperuit. " Populi illi," (sibi ipsi secum 
ilia cogitans, menteque revolvens), dixit : " muti non sunt ; illi loquuntur : 
bene se res habeat; ego eos adibo, auditura ero eorum linguas, aliis et 
inter se illas comparabo, et ad eos tandem coguoscendos perveniam. 
Linguae non mentiuntur."* 

En novum philosophise munus, et nova humani generi ex philoso- 
phia beneficia ! Quae non ex tunc ilia, philologiae sub nomine, per- 
fecit! Quot homines celebres non reddidit! Quas eo ex tempore, 
veritates in lucem prodidit! Nondum enim opus absolvit; illud pro- 
sequitur, et ad finem usque tandem aliquando deducet. De Unguis 
enim Anahuacensibus, aliisque illis vicinis, nonne philologiae judicium 
adhuc desideratur? Nobis opus, ut eas ilia audiat, comparetque, ut 
quid tandem de illis sentiendum proferat, decernat, praecipiat. Et 
quo, deus optime, nos ilia deducet! quas ipsa veritates omnino novas, 
incognitasque explanabit, ac docebit ! Quis enim unquam Peruvianos 
inter et Anahuacenses Indos commercium extitisse, ex historia audivit? 
Tamen, tantam inter Tarascam et Quichuam linguas affinitatem, imo 
potius et cognationem invenimus, quae casui ille solum attribuet, qui 
casualiter ipse cogitet. Quid de Mexicauae, Hebraicaeque linguarum 
similitudine dicam? Ilia, licet maxima inter eas sit, adhuc quam pro- 
bata, potius suspecta, aut odorata fuit. Itaque, Othomitorum linguae 
genere jam cognito, illius cum quibusdam aliis novi orbis,deinde veteris 
etiam linguis comparatio, turn ut ejus natura cognoscatur, cum ut 
illius origo investigetur, operae pretium est. Ilia, ut prima ex parte 
hujus dissertationis vidimus, Othomitorum lingua monosyllabica ha- 
benda est; nee cum Mexicana, Cora, Tarahumara, Huastecave aut 
Zapoteca quae per particularum ante et postpositionem, nee cum Qui- 
chua, Tarasca, et Matlatcinga quae per earum interpositionem, non 
mod 6 synthetical, sed polysyntheticae sunt vocandae, comparari potest. 
Unde igitur ejus origo? Est enimvero alia Anahuacensis Monosyl- 
labica, Mazahui nempe lingua, quae ita Othomiticae simillima, ut 
potius quae inter eas cognatio, quam comparatio quaerenda ; quod alio 

* Languages do not lie. — Home Tooke. 



ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 267 

et tempore et dissertatione, Deo favente, praestabo. Una alterius aut 
mater aut soror, wide ad alias oratio et mens vertenda sunt. 

Nihil, igitur, in novo hoc orbe, hujus modi invento, mens statim 
ad antiquam, venerabilemque Confucii linguam advolat, ac curiositate 
nimis affecta, earum comparationem instruere desiderat. Si enim 
Othomita illius roboris ramus avulsus fuit, Indos illos, qui talem ser- 
monem habent, loquunturque, aut sinensium filii, aut hospites fuisse 
credi, vel saltern suspicari possunt. En scopum philosophise dignum ! 
Utinam haec facta investigare et has linguas comparare mihi liceret! 
Sed, me miserum, qui linguam sinensem vix extremis labiis degustavi ! 
Auxilio, tamen, istius linguae grammatices, ab illustri viro Abel Re- 
musat compositae et in lucem editae, aliquam comparationem hanc lin- 
guam inter et Othomitam tentare audeo. Pro sinensi loquetur ipse 
Remusatius; ego de Othomita solum tractabo. Ultra petent alii; 
memorem esse me decet veteris sententiae: "ne sutor ultra crepidam." 
Operi manum admovere incipio. 

1. De lingua Sinensi ita Remusatius loquitur, in libro lucidissimo cui 
titulus: "Elemens de la Grammaire Chinoise" (Edit. Paris. 1822), p. 
35, sect. 60. "Les mots pris separement, sont tous invariables dans 
leur forme ; ils n'admettent aucune inflexion, aucun changement, ni dans 
la prononciation,ni dans l'ecriture." Othomiticae linguae omnia etiam 
verba, nulla inflectione mutantur, et ut plurimum, nee diversa effer- 
untur pronuntiatione, nisi quaedam, non multa quidem, quae uno modo, 
cum nomina, alio cum verba sonant, ut ma, amare, etnma, amor, quasi 
na ma, ille amor, Gallice, V amour. Vide supra quod dixi in prima 
parte hujus Dissertationis, de particula na, quae articuli vices gerit. 
Notanda tamen est hie differentia, sinensem linguam inter et Othomi- 
tam ; nempe quod prima articulo caret, in altera nunc saltern, si sic in 
veteri lingua non fuerit, multoties invenitur. 

2. Ibid. sect. 61. "Les rapports des noms Chinois, les modifica- 
tions de terns et de personnes des verbes, les relations de tems et de 
lieux, la nature des prepositions positives, optatives, conditionnelles, ou 
bien se deduisent de la position des mots, ou se marquent par des mots 
separes." Quae eadem omnia et evenire in Othomitiea lingua jam 
vidimus, ex prima parte hujus Dissertationis, et iterum ex annot. D. 
videbimus. 



268 ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 

3. Ibid. sect. 63. " Beauconp de mots Chinois peuvent etre pris 
successiveraent comme substantifs, comme adjectifs, comme verbes, 
quelquefois meme comme particules." Idem Othomiticam linguam 
praestare jam vidimus, ex prima parte hujus Dissertat. Num. 10, 12, 
21, et post ex Annot. F. videbimus. 

4. Ibid. sect. 70. " II y a des mots Chinois qui sont toujours ad- 
jectifs ou substantifs, d'autres qui sont tantot noms et tantot verbes." 
Quae conveniunt optime Othomiticse linguae. 

5. Ibid. sect. 70. " Le sens des verbes se deduit de la position 
respective des mots." Hoc vero in antiqua sinensium lingua, in re- 
centiori (Remusat, ibid. p. 133), particulas tempus verbis designant; 
quern quidem admodum, pristina aetate, ab Othomitis fieri utebatur; 
nunc vero et personas et verborum tempora particulis Indi isti dis- 
tinguunt. En secundam, utramque inter linguam distinctionem. 

6. Ibid. sect. 71. "II n'y a pas de signes pour les genres. Beau- 
coup de noms speciaux marquent les sexes dans les animaux. On 
determine le sens de ceux qui sont communs, quand cela est necesaire. 
par 1'addition de certains mots tels que fou (pater), mou (mater), jin 
(homo), niu (mulier)." Neque in Othomi ullum ad genus distingu- 
endum signum. Animalia aut diverso nomine, diverso esse genere 
cognoscuntur, propriumque illis pro genere nomen, aut verbis ta mas- 
culus, et niou femina, distinguuntur, ut ta yo canis masculus, niou yo 
canis femina. 

7. Ibid. sect. 72. "On n' ajoute ordinairement aucun signe pour 
distinguer le singulierdu pluriel; on dit indifferemmentjm homo, aut 
homines." Hoc de antiquo sinensium sermone. In novo quidem 
(ex sect. 297, p. 112): " Le pluriel se marque, soit par les particules 
preposees tchoung ou tchou, soit par les noms de nombre indefinis. 
soit enfin par les particules postposees, toil et hidi." Inter Othomitos. 
pluralis a singulari numero particula ye (pluvia) vcl ya, vel e discerni- 
tur. Singularis suam etiam particulam, na vel ma aut ra, habet, qua 
sinensis caret, unde hie, parvi momenti quidem, inter eas tertia tamen 
differentia oritur. 

8. Ibid. sect. 79. " Quand deux noms sont en construction, le 
terme antecedent se place apres le terme consequent, comme ho toung 



ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 269 

fluvii oriens." E contra vero in Othomitica lingua. Na me nsu, 
mater virginis. Quarta hie notanda differentia. 

9. Ibid. sect. 80. "La regie precedente s'applique a tous les 
noms composes ; ainsi 1' on dit thian tseu, cceli filius, hoc est impera- 
tor." Othomiti aliquando hoc oppositum faciunt. Meti Dominus 
divitiarum, id est, dives; Mate amoris factor, id est amans. 

10. Ibid. sect. 83. "Le substantif, sujet d'un verbe quelconque, 
ou complement d'un verbe actif, ne prend aucune marque particuliere. 
Le premier se place avant, et le second apres le verbe." Hoc etiam in 
lingua Othomitica accidit. Na da i ma na nhb, rex amat bonitatem, 
Indi, ut Sinenses dicunt. (Yide not. F.) 

11. Ibid. sect. 84. " Le terme d'une action se marque par des 
prepositions differentes, suivant les idees d' ablation, d' addition, de 
separation, ou de reunion qu'elle exprime ;" id tarn apud Othomitos 
quam apud Sinenses obtinet. (Vid. not. G.) 

12. Ibid. sect. 93. " II y a des mots qui par eux memes ont la 
signification adjective, tels que td, magnus; slab, parvus; had bonus; 
ngb mains : quod apud Othomitos idem est, ut da, magnus ; tsi, par- 
vus; nhb bonus; tsb, malus. 

13. Ibid. sect. 94. " D' autres sont des substantifs qui, joints a 
d' autres substantifs, expriment un attribut, comme thian ming, coeli 
mandatum :" et hoc Othomiti etiam proprium, ut si tha cortex patris, 
nempe avus. 

14. Ibid. sect. 95. "Les adjectifs sont soumis a la regie des noms 
attributifs et se placent presque toujours avant le substantif auquel ils 
se rapportent, comme ching jin, sanctus homo: Othomiti semper adjec- 
tivum ante substantivum ponunt, ut ka ye sanctus homo. 

15. Ibid. sect. 96. " Quelques adjectifs peuvent etre pris comme 
verbes, et alors il arrive souvent que l'accent change pour marquer 
cette nouvelle acception, comme hao bonus, had amare ; hoc etiam in 
Othomi, Hia lucescit, hia dictum. 

16. Ibid. sect. 98. "Tous les verbes forment des adjectifs par 
1' addition de tche, comme sse servire, tche sse serviens : quod addito te 
Othomi praestant. Pe, servire ; pe te serviens. 

17. Ibid. sect. 97. "Les adjectifs peuvent etre employes comme 
noms abstraits; td magnus, thian td, coeli magnitudo:" idem Otho- 

vol. v. — 3 s 



: 



270 ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 

miti, da magnus; na da hetsi, magnitudo extensionis in circum, nempe 
coeli. 

18. Ibid. sect. 100. " Le comparatif s' exprime par l'adjectif au 
positif, avec iu, hian iu, sapiens prse, sapientior." In Othomi idem 
cum nra habetur: nhb bonus, nra nhb melior. 

19. Ibid. sect. 103. " Le superlatif se forme en plaqant avant l'ad- 
jectif un des mots suivans, ki summum; chin, valde, tchi, summe; 
tsoui, multum:" apud Othomitos etiam superlativum nomen, ex tza, ise 
multum, summum, antepositione formatur: nhb, bonus; tza nhb, op- 
timus. 

20. Ibid. sect. 119. " Les trois pronoms de la premiere personne, 
les plus usites anciennement, sont Ngb, Ngoii, iu" Triplex etiam 
pro prima persona, Othomiticae linguae pronomen .• nga, nga-nga, ngwi. 
(Yide not. H.) 

21. Ibid. sect. 120, "Pour eviter le pronom de la premiere per- 
sonne, on se sert quelquefois de son petit nom ;" Othomitis etiam, pro- 
nominis loco, bumili utuntur nomine, si ad superiorem ; autoritatis, si 
ad inferiorem ; amicitiae et benevolentiae,si ad aequalem loquantur: ut, 
ni bete hi ye wi. Ni, tuus : bete, servitii factor, id est serviens ; hi, ille, 
ye, obediet; wi, tibi; quae omnia haec significant: ego obediam tibi. 
Ni tha i e ivi, tuus pater prascipit tibi; pro, ego praecipio tibi: Ni be 
i ma wi, tuus amicus amat te ; id est, ego amo te. (Vide not. I.) Quern 
loquendi modum et Mexicani aliique Indi.Mexicanas habitantes terras 
habuerunt servantque: nee mirum; antiquis mos ille populis, ut He- 
braeis, fuit. (Vide not. H.) 

22. Ibid. sect. 126 — 129. "Les pronoms de la seconde personne 
ne sont guere plus frequemment usites que ceux de la premiere. 
Ceux qu' on trouve ordinairement dans les livres sont eul,joii,jo, tseii ; 
dans la langue moderne ni (sect. 317, p. 119)." Ab Othomitis se- 
cundae personae pronomen hujusmodi exprimitur: hu, vel ivi, tu ; 
n-ivi, nui, wi, tu ; nee major apud Indos, cum ad superiores loquuntur, 
quam apud Sinenses usus. 

23. Ibid. sect. 132, " Le pronom de la troisieme personne s' ex- 
prime par khi, i, ou kionei, et tchi" Hoc in veteri sina ; in novo vero, 
(Sect. 321, p. 122.) "Le pronom de la troisieme personne est tha" 



ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 271 

Tertium Othomi pronomen est nu, ni, ivi, vel i. Bi et wi, ille, et 
illi et ilium significant. 

24. Ibid. sect. 321, page 122. " Le pluriel se marque en ajoutant, 
apres le pronom personnel ou 1' appellatif qui en tient lieu, 1' un de 
ces mots, men, mei, quilibet ; pei, ordo ; ngb ego ; ngb men nos :" quod 
de recenti Sinensi lingua intelligi oportet, nam in veteri, nil simile 
nobis apparet. Pluralis pronominum numerus ita apud Othomitos fit : 
prima? persona? additur he, ut nga, ego; nga he, nos: secunda? tertiae- 
que persona? pronomen, si bis repetatur, pronomina pluralia habebimus. 
N-we, tu ; N-wewe, vos ; hu, tu ; n-ivehu, vos ; wi tu ; nui tu, nuiwi 
vos; nu ille; ni ille; mini 'illi; wi ille; nuwi, illi. Aliquando vero, 
quod illis singulare, id plurale. 

25. Sinensis lingua possessiva pronomina non habet; Othomiti vero 
illis non carent : ma meus, ni, tuus, na suus. Quinta hie differentia 
inter illos habemus sermones. 

26. Ibid. sect. 145. " Le pronom conjonctif, sujet de la proposition 
incidente, se rend par la particule tche, placee a la fin de cette der- 
niere." In Othomi vero ta vel we, ante incidentem posita, relativa 
pronomina sunt. Hie sexta (minima quidem) notanda est differentia. 

27. Ibid. sect. 151. ' ; Les verbes que les Chinois nomment Kb tseu 
sont, comme les substantifs, de deux sortes; les uns toujours verbes par 
eux memes, et les autres alternativement verbes, noms abstraits, adjec- 
tifs, ou me me particules, suivant la place qu' ils occupent dans la phrase, 
et les marques de rapports, qui peuvent s' y trouver attachees." Etiam 
in lingua Othoniitica quaedam verba sua ex natura verba sunt, ut te, 
senire ; ma, amare ; alia vero et nomina substantiva et adjectiva, et verba 
et adverbia sunt : ut nhb bonus, nho bonitas, nhb bene, nhb bonus esse. 
(Vide not. E.) Sed, non ex positione, sed ex particulis, in Othomi 
distinctio facienda; na nhb, bonitas; sa nhb bonus; di ?ihb bonus sum; 
nhb, bene: etiam aliquando ex sensu vel positione, eorum natura cog- 
noscenda; ut manhb,mea. bonitas: nunhb ye ille bonus homo: di buy 
nhb, ego vivo bene. Unde neque hac via tarn longe a Sinensi, Otho- 
mitus sermo est. Minus enim erit, si animo illud advertimus, quod in 
recentiori Sinensi lingua: 

28. Ibid. sect. 302, page 113. "Les adjectifs (in nova lingua 
Sinensi) sont souvent accompagnes de la particule ti" Sic in Othomi 



272 ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 

particula sa, aliaque conjunguntur. Ac praeter dicta ilia, ut in novo 
Sina ait Remusat, page 136, 137, esse signa temporum, et sic est in 
lingua Othomitorum ; hoc tamen discrimine, quod haec in Sina tempus 
solum, in Othomi et tempus et personam indicant ; (Vide not. C.) ; 
quod cum Othomitae linguae, sua ex natura, minime convenit, sed ab 
aliena, ut jam vidimus, probabiliter ortum est. Septima haec inter 
utrosque sermones differentiam adnotari meretur. 

29. Ibid. 152, 153, "On a coutume de faire 1' ellipse du verbe 
substantif, toutes les fois qu'il s' agit seulement d' attribuer une qualite 
a un sujet. Quand il s' agit d' attribuer plus positivement a un sujet 
une qualite qui emporte l'idee d' une action, on se sert du mot wei qui 
peut se rendre par e tre" Haec in Sina ; in Othomi, duplici illo casu, 
tripliciter fit; aut ellipsi oratio afficitur, ut nga ?neti, ego dominus 
divitiarum ; id est, ego sum dives ; aut adjectivum particulis ad verbum 
transit, ut di vel ga mtti; aut we particula utitur; hoc raro, tamen, 
nga we meti. 

30. Ibid. sect. 169. " L' adjectif verbal actif se forme par l'addition 
de tche." Sic apud Sinas ; apud Othomitos per te additionem, ut non 
semel dictum est. 

31. Ibid. sect. 170. Particula khb verba sinica passiva facit; quod 
verborum genus Othomiti non habent. Octava et haec inter eas linguas 
enumeranda differentia. 

32. Ibid. sect. 174. "II y a des mots Chinois qui ont par eux 
m ernes le sens adverbial, soit qu' ils marquent des circoustances de 
temps ou de lieu." Et id Othomitica habet. (Vide not. K.) 

33. Ibid. sect. 176. " On forme a volonte des adverbes, en ajoutant 
aux adjectifs ou aux verbes la particule jaw, qui signifie ainsi." Omnia 
adjectiva apud Othomitos, adverbia sunt, cum loquenti placet : coguos- 
cunturque in oratione, sive eorum ex positione, sive ex tho, (omne) 
nominis additione. 

34. Ibid. sect. 177. "Comme les adjectifs et les autres noms attri- 
butifs se placent ordinairement avant le sujet auquel ils tiennent lieu de 
qualificatifs, de merae les verbes et les expressions simples ou compo- 
sees, modificatives ou circonstantielles, ont coutume de preceder le 
verbe dont ils specifient 1' action. Cette observation fait voir comment 
des substantifs ou des verbes peuvent etre pris adverbialement, d'apres 



ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 273 

la place qu' ils occupent dans une phrase, et sans qu' il soit besoin 
d' aucun signe particulier." Quid simile Othomi habet: homo bene 
loquitur; ita reddi potest hasc oratio: ye hia nho; ye, homo; hia, loqui- 
tur; nho, bene, aut bonum : ye nho hia; ye, homo; nho, bonus; hia, 
loquitur : homo bonus est (dum) loquitur. Sed frequentius adverbium, 
verbum modificans illi postponitur, ut primo viditur in exemplo. 

35. Ibid. sect. 179. " Les prepositions proprement dites veulent 
en general etre placees immediatement avant leur complement." 
Hoc ipsissimum in Othomi evenit. 

36. Utraque earum lingua conjunctivis eodem utitur modo. 

37. Ibid. sect. 371. "Les interjections les plus usitees sont au 
commencement de la phrase." Hoc in Sinico recentiore ; et illo etiam 
in loco in Othomi collocantur interjectiones, 

38. Ibid. sect. 284, page 107. De recentiore lingua iterum, Re- 
musatius dicit: "Pour obvier aux inconveniens qui resulteraient, dans 
la langue parlee, de la multiplicity des termes homophones, et des mots 
qui peuvent etre pris comme verbes ou comme substantifs, on y fait 
frequemment usage de mots composes, lesquels sont formes d'apres 
divers procedes. Les plus communs sont formes de la reunion de 
deux termes synonymes, dont 1' un n' ajoute rien au sens de l'autre, 
mais sert seulement a le determiner, parce que F equivoque, possible 
a 1' egard de chacun d' eux en particulier, ne 1' est pas a 1' egard du 
mot dissyllabique qui resulte de leur groupement." 

Hoc etiam apud Othomitos componendi artificium invenitur; ita 
tamen, ut non nisi cum dubii et aequivoci periculum est; itaque si 
dixero di ne de, impossible est ut quo ego indigeam intelligatur. De 
enim, et aquam, et ovum, et vestem significat. Di ne opto ; de, et 
aquam, et ova, et vestem ? Hac de causa, dicitur, dehe; he frigus, et 
frigidum significat; ye longus, deye vestis est; et ita fere omnia nomina: 
sed inter Othomitos secundum nomen, non nisi quando equivocum fieri 
potest pronuntiatur. Itaque non dicam di tsi dehe ego bibo aquam, 
sed solum di tsi de, quia nee ova, nee vestem bibere possum. 

En quidem totius hujus Indianae linguae inextricabilem labyrinthum, 
a quo vix sese liberare potuerunt qui de hujus linguae grammatica in- 
stituere. Hoc tamen intellecto, facillima ilia, et pulchra etiam apparet, 
vol. v.— 3 t 



274 ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 

lingua, et ab antiquis Mexicanis, et a novis, tamquam barbara despecta, 
ab exteris ignorata, aut incognita. 

39. Quem quidem ad modum nomina componuntur, ita etiam verba, 
utraque in linguacomposita sunt : Sic Remusatius de recentiori lingua 
Sinensium, sect. 343 p. 130, loquitur: " On reunit frequemment en- 
semble deux verbes synonymes ou tres analogues dans leur significa- 
tion, comme cela a lieu pour les substantifs, et par le meme motif." 
Ita apud Othomitos etiam fieri ex prima parte hujus operis vidimus; 
haec tamen cognoscenda differentia, quod a quibusdam Othomitis, hoc 
solum ad imperativum formandum praestatur, ab aliis omnibus id tem- 
poribus servatur. Quare, et ipsi scriptores eum sequuntur usum, quem 
apud di versos Indorum pagos invenerunt. Andreas Olmas,* qui reli- 
gionis elementa in Othomi, saeculo decimo sexto, explanavit, dissylla- 
bicis loquitur verbis ; Ludovicus de Neve et Molina,! unica ea syllaba 
conjugabat; Yepes,J priusque illo Ramirez,^ eos audierunt Indos, qui 
magistrum habuerunt, eumque Andreas Olmas. Itaque, quidam Indi 
dicunt, di rnddi, ego amo: alii vero di ma: met enim amare, et di 
exequi, est. Mirum quidem, tamen certum ; in Othomi et veteris et 
novi Sinensis vestigia inveniuntur. (Vide not. T.) 

40. Praeter ea, in novo Sinensi imperativo nulla particula est, et id 
etiam in Othomi. 

41. Ibid. sect. 358. "L'imperatif quand on parle a des inferieurs 
s' exprime en mettant le pronom de la deuxieme personne avant le 
verbe;" in Othomi tamen, licet eadem sit, haec verbi forma, pronomen 
aut antea aut postea ponitur. 

42. Ibid. sect. 359. " Par urbanite on fait ordinairement preceder 
1' imperatif du mot thsing qui signifie prier, inviter." Othomiti im- 
perativo verbum sa, placeat, vel da concede, anteponunt. 

* Oraciones y Doctrina Cristiana, en Lengua Otomi. Mexico 15 — . Hoc opus in Bib- 
liothecis civitatis Philadelphia non invenitur. 

t Reglas de Orthographia, Diccionario y Arte del Idioma Othomi ; breve instruccion para 
los principiantes, que dicto el L. D. Luis de Neve y Molina, Catedratico, &c. Mexico, 
1767. In Bibliotheca Societatis Philosophies Americans. 

J Catecismo y Declaracion de la Doctrina Cristiana en lengua Otomi, compuesto por el 
R. P. Fr. Joaquin Lopez Yepes, Predicador apostolico, &c, Megico, 1826. In Bibliotheca 
Dni Duponceau. 

§ Ramirezii opus Philadelphia non invenitur. 



ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 275 

43. Ibid. sect. 367, p. 141. " On fait frequement usage (in novo 
Sina), d'adverbes composes, soit de la repetition d' un merae mot, soit 
du groupement de deux verbes synonymes." Id ipsissimum apud 
Othomitos contingit. (Vide not. K.) 

Nil momenti hac de re omissum credo; fere quidem totum Re- 
musatii opus doctissimae societatis ob oculos posui. Octo solum ex 
capitibus hae duae linguae discordant; in aliis plerumque Concordes 
esse videntur. De numeris nil diximus, quia nulla inter utriusque 
linguae numeralia nomina existit affinitas in sonis (Vide not. L.) 
Quod evidenter probat Othomitos ilia nee a Mexicanis, nee a Huas- 
tecis accepisse. Quid hoc sibi vult ignoro ego, et ingenue fateor; 
fortasse cum alia dissertatione, de hujus linguae historia agam, con- 
jecturis investigare aliquid licebit. 

Sed fortasse quaerendum est, utrum nulla in utriusque linguae 
verbis, ut in grammaticae formis, et linguarum natura, cognatio ? De 
hoc judicent alii; praesertim quia linguae Sinensis vera pronuntia- 
tio nunquam meas pervenit ad aures; aliqua tamen verba vobis ofFero, 
ex Remusatii grammatica fideliter extracta, quae cum analogis verbis 
Othomiticis juxtapositis,comparare poteritis; quod difficillime fiet igno- 
tis vocalium sonis, qui litteris exprimi nequeunt; accentus, aliaque 
signa paulum adjuvant. Qui voces Sinarum Othomitorumque non 
audierunt, haud facile de similitudine inter sonos earum judicare pos- 
sunt. Ou Gallicum hie stat in Othomi pro u Hispanico. 

Latine. 



Sinice. 


Othomitice. 


L 


Cho 


To 


Qui. 


Y 


N-y 


Plaga. 


Teou 


Gou, Mou 


Caput. 


Siao 


Soui 


Nox. 


Tien 


Tsi 


Dens. 


Ye 


Yo 


Lucidum 


Ky 


Hy 


Felicitas. 


Kou 


Dou 


Mors. 


Po 


Yo 


Non, ne 


Na 


Ta 


Masculus 


Niu 


Nsou 


Femina. 



276 



ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 



Sinice. 


Othomitice. 


Latine. 


Tseu 


Tsi, Ti 


Filius. 


Tso 


Tsa 


Perficere. 


Touan 


Khouani 


Verus, vere. 


Siao 


Sa 


Irridere. 


Pa 


Da 


Dare. 


Tsoun 


Nsou 


Honor. 


Hou 


Hmou 


Dominus. 


Na 


Na 


Ille, a. 


Hu 


He 


Frigidus, frigus, 


Mian 


Hmi 


Vultus. 


Kouei 


Ekhoua, Koua 


Diabolus. 


Kou 


Ko 


Vetus. 


Si 


I 


Dolere. 


Y, Medicus 


I 


Medicina. 




Te i medicinae factor 


Medicus. 


Kian 


Hia 


Videre. 


Kou 


Mou 


Dominus. 


Ye 


He 


Et. 


Hoa 


Hia 


Sermo. 


Man 


Ma 


Plenus. 


Kho 


Nho 


Dignus. 


Khi 


Stsi 


Comedere. 


Tsoui 


Tsi 


Ebrietas. 


Jin 


Ye 


Homo. 


Ka 


Rsa 


Audere. 


Ngo 


Nga 


Ego. 


Ni 


Ni 


Tu. 


Tha 


Na 


Ille. 


Ti 


Te 


Quod, quid ? 


Ti 


Toa 


Qui, quae. 


Te 


Tsa 


Posse. 


Lou 


You 


Iter. 


Sie 


Tsi 


Paucus. 


Khiu, Lai 


Ehe, 3'ehe 


Venire. 


Hao 


Nho 


Bonus. 



ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 277 

Latine. 



Sinice. 


Othomitice. 


L 


I 




Moui 




Animus. 


Ta 




Da 




Magnus. 


Li 




Ti 




Lucrum. 


Pa 




Pa 




Capere. 


Pa 




Da, ma, 


na 


Dimidius 


Ho 




To 




Quis. 


Mai 




Ma 




Emere. 


Pa 




Pa 




Desinere. 


Mou, 


Mo 


Me 




Mater. 



Qualis ille Othomitorum populus, ex ejus lingua, alia dissertatione, 
Deo volente, una mecum judicabitis. Nunc vero, ut quanti philologia 
sit facienda magis ac magis cognoscatur, pauca de illo dicenda. Deum 
Optimum, Maximum, sublimi nomine appellabant. Okha nempe ; O, 
recordari, et kha, sanctus, divinus. O etiam apud eos, praesenti tempore, 
aliquid cognoscere significat. Si illud nomen non tarn magnificum ut 
quo Tarasci Deum cognoscebant, nempe Avunda (Ratio personificata), 
sine dubio tamen, et Mexicano Teotl (princeps, excelsus), et Quichu- 
ano Capac (dives) sublimius est. Licet cceli nomine, non felicitatis 
locum, ut llhuicac Mexicanorum, nee rationis domum, ut Avandaro 
Tarascarum,intelligant, tamen Mahetsi (\a.t\tudo,et extensio in circum), 
illud vocant; nam hominem immortalem credebant. Nullus enim, 
quod sciam ego, ex Indorum Mexicanas habitantibus terras, populus, 
qui hanc doctrinam, humanitatis solatium, virtutis adjutricem, crimin- 
isque extirpatricem et terrorem, pro religione non haberet. O! eum 
virum philosophise amantem beatum, cum generis humani traditionem 
hanc ille, hie et ubique terrarum diffusam invenit ! Othomi enim, 
mdi, nempe mortuorum umbras vel manes, religionibus, ut Huasteci 
elot suos, placabant. Nil tarn solemne Othomitis quam commercium 
inter ccelum et terram credere. Illi enim et incantatores venerabant, 
eosque Yekha, manus sacra (potestas superior) appellabant. Illis, idem 
sapiens qui Magus ; unde uno utrosque nomine Badi cognoscunt, quod 
et Huastecis commune, quibus Huitom et sapiens et Magus est. 
Cujus in memoriam non et eadem multorum Asiae populorum consue- 
vol. v. — 3 u 



27 S ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 

tudo venit, et cum extensionem coelum vocare audit, non sublimem 
illius canentis sententiam "extendit coelos sicut pellem" recordatur? 

Praeterea, Othomiti Diabolum, mali principium auctoremque habe- 
bant ; eum e, (maleficum) dicebant ; nescio adhuc tamen, utrum illi, 
ejus ministros, quive illi fuerint, ut Mexicani, qui Bubones (Tzcolotl). 
Bubonum duces, Hacalecolotl, i. e. Diaboli, hominum generi quod vo- 
luntatem pessimam, infensam, interpretes significare adjudicarunt, per- 
timerent. 

Nulla usque ad praesens, in Othomitorum lingua vestigia, ut cog- 
noscamus, utrum Indi isti ccelum terramque animatos, ut Mexicani. 
cogitabant; neque illud invenire possumus, an ut Tarasci Huastecique. 
Astra, Laresve, quod eorum ex Unguis, licet id historia ignoret scimus. 
adorarent. Othomiti enim Solem, Hiadi, (lucescere, lux), dicebant: 
.diem Hiaizi, (lux paulatim veniens); stellas vero tze (fulgentia cor- 
pora) et lunam rzana (corpus rotundum in dimidias partes divisibile), 
et istius cursu menses numeraLaat. 

Populus ille numerabilis, quia parvus erat; ut de alio Horatius ceci- 
nit, eorum ex paucis sunt, qui non sese matrimonii foedere cum aliis 
Indorum, Hispanorumve, vel Africanorum nationibus miscuerunt. 
Eorum paupertas, miseria et ignorantia, non minores quam abhinc tri- 
bus saeculis fuerunt; eorum lingua, sine dubio, ad multa de iis est illis 
in causa. Faxit D. O. M. ut illi meliora habeant ! 

Olim quidem, eos qui ad Deum e medio tollendum ad barbarorum 
testimonium appellabant, ad barbaros, irrisionis ergo, Ludovicus Racine, 
poeta Gallicus, relegabat. Viveret nunc, et philologia eum, miris de 
rebus quae inter barbaros invenire ac detegere potuit, docuisset, certe, 
barbarorum judicium iste non recusasset, illique ab eo damnati ex tunc 
non fuissent. Sapienter Verulamius, scientias omnes germanas sorores- 
que, et ab uno omnes illas arbore ramos pronuntiavit, et hoc philologia 
satis probat. 



ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 279 



UjijjeutriF. 



Licet ulterius et temporis et operis, de Othomiticae linguae scripto- 
rum historia instituere mihi sit in animo; quaedam, tamen, non multa 
quidem, nunc temporis consideranda sunt. 

Atque in primis, ut melius quod a me scriptum est, judicari, exami- 
narique possit, ea animadvertenda sunt. Verba quae duplicem syllabam 
habent, quibusdam Othomitis ab Indis, duplici syllaba conjugari, ut 
nunc fit in Tzecu, et videre est in Joachimi Yepes opere ; ab aliis vero, 
ut Xilotepec degentibus, una tantum syllaba, excepto imperativo, con- 
jugari, quod Ludovicus de Neve y Molina docet: deinde Lexica ilia 
ita multa nomina scripsisse, ut quae, cum monosyllabica sint, dissylla- 
bica appareant, quia ex nomine et particula unum nomen coalescunt 
et formant, ut ex sa, vel xa, adjectivi signum, et nhb adjectivum no- 
men, bonum significans, sanko vel xanhb effecerunt. Et hac de causa, 
dicunt illi scriptores, multa in verbis aut nominibus, aut elici aut sup- 
primi, per syncopen, aliasque figuras. 

Deinde, illud evenit, ut ita Othomitam Grammaticam explanarent, 
utqui vellent omnia per Nebricenses linguae Latinaeinstitutiones docere. 
Quid mirum? An non idem in sua de Sinensi lingua grammatica 
Pater Varo effecit? Sed, possibile ne est, ut monosyllabicam illam 
Othomitorum linguam esse, illos scriptores fugisse ? Ita fuit ut mul- 
tos de Sinensi scriptores, mandarinum inter et vulgarem sermonem 
distinguere fugit; primus enim qui distinctionem illam animadvertit, 
Pater Premare fuit. Non enim antiqua tempora nostris judicanda 
sunt. Quare, adhuc genuina veraque Othomiticae linguae grammatica 
desideratur. Faxit enim D. O. M. ut in alicujus Mexicani mentem 
voluntatemque veniat, ut opus illud aggrediatur! Facile, optimeque 
ille sese expediet, si Sinensis Remusatii grammatices vestigiis adhasreat. 
Multi enim, ex meis concivibus, ad id et ad alia etiam majora apti, 
capaces que sunt. Nee enim nobis desunt viri qui Confucium legunt, 
intelligunt que, neque ilia Mexicanorum ignorantia tanta est, ut qui- 
dam, qui Mexicum neque geographicis chartis viderunt, praetendere 
audent, et quidam Mexicani degeneres, (pudet id !) venditant. Quo 
id consilio, nescio, illi scient; fortasse, id volunt dicere quod Pharisaeus 



280 ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 

praedicabat: " Non sum sicut caeteri homines." Eheu! quanta meae 
miserrima? patriae infelicitas ! Tempus tamen erit, cum magna ilia 
natio vocabitur habebiturque. 

Cum enim ilia ita se habeant, mirum non est de Othomitica lingua 
scriptores, sapientes multos fefellisse. Quo enim modo isti viri recte 
de lingua judicare possent? Hac de causa et Abel Remusat illud 
statuit, omnes linguas scripturam non habentes, in mutationes, com- 
positiones, derivata que affluentes et abundantes esse ; Petrusque Du- 
ponceau, in hac Septentrionali Republica Americana, Indianae littera- 
turae pater, meusque magister, omnes Indianas linguas polysyntheticas 
pronuntiavit. Abel Remusat, Petrusque Duponceau ; qui illi viri, Deus 
optime ! Quis enim illos, nostrae aetatis ornamenta, litterarumque 
columina, ignorantiae accusare audeat? Illi quod scripserunt alii judi- 
carunt; quod illi scribere debuissent, divinare humanitus non potue- 
runt. 

Quod eo quidem tendit, ut nemo me, sex lustris natum, litterarum- 
que tyronem, impudentem audacemque habeat, illud agitans, me ut 
illis meis magistris, (utinam eos ita appellare non demerear!) contra- 
dicam,scripsisse. Hoc enim et mihi et meo Mexico debeo. Praeterea 
veritati, gratitudini, et illius debitor sum, ut animadvertam et Petrum 
Duponceau viam mihi ad hoc scribendum indigitasse, et librorum et 
magistraturae copiam fecisse, ac ipsum tandem, ipsissimum, Societati 
Philosophical Americanae meum utcunque opusculum, luci mandan- 
dum commendasse. Nescio enim, utrum senex ille, quinque supra 
septuaginta annos natus, sua scientia, aut sua hac bona fide major 
appareat. Hoc quidem illi solum faciunt qui veritatem quaerunt et 
amant. 

Ut melius intelligatur natura, structuraque istius linguae Othomiticae, 
Anacreontis Oden undecimam, in illam vertere ac scholiis illustrare 
tentavi ; quae versio invenietur in annotationibus, sub litera M, qua cum 
net conclusio hujus operis. 



ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 



281 



®nnotuvftu+ 

A. 

In Mc annotatione, qusedam homophona, vel fere homophona verba, exempli gratia 
adhibentur. 

Vocalium litterarum nasalem sonum hoc signo (-) designabimus; gutturalem illo 
( v ) : protractum, qui dicitur ovillum et solum ad litteram e pertinet, illo ( ' v ). Ion- 
gum aliquando signo d, vel Gallico modo litteris eau, (ut nheau vel nhd, bonus) nota- 
tur. Soni naturales signis non indigent. Cseteri vero nee litteris, nee signis, nee ullo 
quidem modo oculorum opera 1 , auribus eorum qui hanc linguam non audiere, prsestari 
possunt. 



A meta; scopum attingere. 

A (a) respirare; vigilare; asomnorevo- 

care. 
A (a) dormire; profundus; profunditas; 

fovea. 

B. 

Ba uti; usus; mamilla; uber; lac. 

Ba gignere ; genitus ; iilius ; cognatus 

(Gallice parent, Anglice relation) ; 

vendere. 
Ba scire. 

Bay stare ; morare; vivere; arbor. 
Be furari; fur; a via recta deflectere. 
Be tela. 

Be agnatio; cognatus. 
Bi timere; tremor. 
Bi sub; infrct. 
Bu insufflare. 
Buy habitare. 

D. 

Da magnus; decoctum; digerere. 

Da semen; maturari; maturus; robustus; 

apposilus. 
Da oculus; dux; unire. 
De ovum; aqua; vestis; operire. 
De ardere; senire; jugum; accensus. 
De facere. 

Do sine; carere; lapis. 
Du vel tu mori. 

VOL. Y 3 Y 



G. 

Gk ego, me, mihi. 

Go Dominus ; Domina ; go tha, Domine 
Pater. 

H. 

Haec littera semper gutturalis ut x et j 
Hispanum, et ch Germanorum ante a et o. 
Ha tollere; portare; debitum. 
Ha et; prohibere. 
Hay terra. 

He vestis; aqua; speculum. 
He glacies; gelidum; frigus; frigidus. 
He mons; fingere; fictor. 
Hey ludere ; excavare ; veneri operam 

dare. 
Hi sonare; ordiri; texere. 
HI aliquid. 

Hia inquirere; sermo; aspirare; lux. 
Hia cuniculus. 

Hiae turpis; spectare; pandiculari. 
Hie speculum. 
Hie ante; supra\ 
Hin non. 
Hing facilis. 

Hio latus; decipi; occidere. 
Hmi facies. 
Hmu Dominus. 
Ho blandire; occidere. 
Hog dulcis ; honestus ; probus ; nobilis 

actionibus (Anglice gentleman ; Gallice 

homme comme ilfaut). 



282 



ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 



Hu nomen; nominare; clibanus; fornax. 

HCi uti. 

Hua ala. 

Hua piscis. 

Huy stabilire; ponere; accedere. 

I. 

I venerabilis; dexter, a, urn. 
J (i) dolor. 

K. 

Ka sese inclinare; gignere; laborare; uti; 

exercere. 
Kay cubare; lectum petere. 
Ke, ki, khi venerabilis. Tha khy vel 

Tha-y, Pater (venerande Pater). 
Kha aecipere; adesse; in; apud; habere; 

evenire, accadere; arripere. 
Kho colligere; possidere. 
Kho abesse. 
Khu manu prehendere. 
Ki venerabilis; removere. 
Ke me; mihi; tollere; plumas evellere; 

excoriare. 
Ko strepitum facere ; sonare ; cadere ; 

imago. 
Koy repraesentare. 
Ku levis. 
Kuo (rnonos.) ira; irasci ; iratus ; via, 

(cujusque rei spatium quo alia induci 

potest.) 
Kuy (monos.) sapere ; sapor; aliquid 

facere; currere. 

M. 

Ma emere; vendere; die; portare, afferre, 
latus, a, um; excellens; multus, a, um; 
proeteritus; Ma he, mei, ae, a, in plurali 
numero; he significat nos; itaque sensus 
est mens nos; ut ma tha he, mi pater 
nos; i. e. pater noster. 

Ma idem ac na, articulus nomen substan- 
tivum designans. Quibusdam in locis 
ma; in aliis na dicitur. Ma vel na 
etiam signifieat medius, a, um. 

Ma displicere; fastidiri; repleri; plenus. 



Mai palmex; tradux. 

Me non coctus, a, um. 

Me durus, a, um. 

Me mater. 

Me spissare; densare; cujusque rei dorni- 
nus; me ngu, habitator domus. 

Mi facies ; sedere ; requiescere; proper; 

unus post alterum successive. 

Mi nasci ; summus, a, um ; cujusque rei 
extremum. 

Mia (monos.) lectus; grabatus. 

Mo curvus; flectus; flectere. 

Mu avunculus; levis. 

Muy (monos.) cor; anima ; animi in- 
doles; nudus, a, um. 

N. 
Na unus, a, um; ille, a, ud; articuli vices 

gerit. 
Na et ra unus, a, um. 
Na et ma medius, a, um. 
Nae (monos.) insulsus; inconditus. 
Nay (monos.) jacere. 
Nbo intus. 

Ndo os, ossis; grando, inis. 
Ndu ardere. 
Ne acies. 

Ne os, oris; ambulare; movere. 
Ne montis radix. 
Nea (monos. ) qualis, e. 
Ney (monos.) saltare; saltator. 
Nga* spica; spicos colligere. 
Nga suavis; remissus. 
Nga vel ngaga vel ngwi Ego 
Ngo festivus. 
Ngu spica; domus; mus; ut; secundum; 

juxtil. 
Ngwe vel simpliciter e caro. 
Nhag infra; post. 
Nhe cunabula. 
Nhey difficilis. 
Nhey profundus. 
Nhi lavare se ipsum ; balneum aecipere; 

vestiri. 
Nhie speculum, scilicet hie cum articulo 

na praefixo. 



Potius quam littera sonus hie ng putandum est intonatio, et sic scribi posset 'a, 'e, 'i 'o 'u. 



ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 



283 



Nhiu gravis. 

Nho bonus; pulcher; aptus; perfectus ; 
Justus ; urbanus, aliaque innumera, ut 
supra, dixi. Hoc verbum hie aliquando 
scribitur nheau, orthographiae Gallica? 
quarn in inceptu hujus operis eligebam, 
et maxime sequutus sum gratia. Obser- 
vandum est tamen quod u et eu, sonos 
linguae Gallicae in hac lingua non inve- 
niuntur. Ergo littera u semper Italico 
vel Hispanico more pronuntiari debet, 
ai et ay, semper duplici sono, at. 

Nkhu a mare. 

Npa calefacere. 

Nrsai assuescere; evenire; aptus, a, urn. 

Nsa ac Nia foetidus; corruptus. 

Nsu (monos. ) foemina; foemineum; nox 
esse. 

Nsu nutrix. 

Nsu, virgo; virginitas; honor; vereeundia. 

Nsuy (monos.) nox. 

Nto vagina; operire. 

Ntsay (monos.) platea. 

Ntso malus; turpis; foedus; deformis. 

Ntu os, oris. 

Nu videre. 

Nua (monos.) iste, a, ud. 

Nua (monos.) annuntiare;novitas;novus. 

Nuy (monos.) tu. 

N Hispanicum, quod sciibitur n, et ut 
gn Italicum et Gallicum sonat. 

Na (na) loqui; exaggerare. 

Na (na) crudelis; absconditus etiam par- 
ti cula negativa, quasi in apud Latinos, 
ut badi, sapiens ; fiabadi, ignorans, non 
sapiens. 

Na (na) caput. 

Ney (ney) medicus. 

Nu (nu) plenus; iter; via. 

0. 

inimicus; recordari; recordatio. 
O camera; cubiculum. 



Pa vendere; notare; sapor; dies; quod- 
cunque temporis spatium. 



Pa febris. 

Pe exerceri; texere. 

Pe pellucere. 

P'he furari, fur. 

P'he gubernare; gubernator. 

P'ho sordidus; scire; cognoscere. 

Pong curvus; arctus; angustus. 

R. 

Ra aequalis; similis. 

Re columna. 

Rsa asseverare; obtinere; sanare; assues- 
cere; periculum facere. 

Rsa lignum. 

Rse carere. 

Rse ardere; accendi; ignem facere; ado- 
rare. 

Rsi manducare. 

Ru dulcis. 

S. 

Sa unguis; mane; madefactus; humiditas; 
protegere; objurgare; extrahere; aquam 
haurire. 

Sa benevolus; benevolentia. 

Say terminare, finire. 

Se frustum. 

Se pars; frustum. 

Se deformis; non pulcher; auctus; impe- 
tus. Aliquando praepositio, quae ante 
illius nomen vel descriptionem, cui utili- 
tas vel damnum est, ponitur; Mahentsi 
se nho, coelum justis. 

Sey foramen; aperire; excavare. 

Si planus; color; crusta; folium; exten- 
dere ; cutis ; etiam particula interroga- 
tiva, ne, numquid ? 

Si clamare; clamor. 

So latus, extensus. 

Sta capillus. 



Ta albus; masculus. 

Tai emere. 

Tchi humerus. 

Te quis ? quid ? ut ? quomodo ? 

Te vivus; creare; facere. 



284 



ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 



Te crescere; altus; nobilis. 

Tes aliquis; aliquid. 

Tei pascua; palea. 

Tha. pater. 

Thai debere; pharetra. 

Ti ebrius, bibere usque ad ebrietatem ; 
offuscare; confundere. 

To herba; virga; tegmen. 

Too qui, quae, quod. Si relativum ra- 
tionalis rei nomen repraesentet, melius 
est uti pronomine we, quod vide. 

Tsa mere; proprie; sanare; salutem ha- 
bere ; cuspis ; intus ; interior ; acutus ; 
divisus. 

Tsa vel Tse multum. 

Tsa placere. 

Tse planta; multum. 

Tse frigus; frigidus. 

Tse redire. 

Tsi vel Ti parvus ; germen novum, sur- 
culus; dens; cujusque rei extrema pars ; 
concio ; in concionem vocare,edere. 

Tsi minuere aliquid; stridere. 

Tso parvi pendere ; sese praecipitem dare ; 
profundere. 

Tsu timere; timor; succum extrahere. 

Tu vel Du mori. 

Tu horreum. 



U sal; nunc. 



U. 



W. 



Wa piscis; hie (adv.) 



Wae perdere; amittere. 

Way descendere. 

We avunculus; viscus, eris. 

We, vvea aequalis. 

We tu. 

We qui, quae. 

Wey praeparare. 

Wi tu; simul. 



Ya hepar; plaga; ulcus; pus. 

Ya virga; aperire; viam in montibus fa- 
cere arbores secando. 

Yai irrigare; aquam profundere. 

Ye operam dare; pluvia. 

Ye viridere; homo; malitia; perversitas; 
exsiccari. 

Ye manus; admirare; stupefieri. 

Yo non, ne (vetantis); ut Yo ede, cave 
ne audias. 

Yo lumen; extendere; inferior; grex ; 
agnus; lana; tegere; ambulare. 

Yu rugire; radix; via; iter facere; res. 



Za rotundus; rotunditas; arcus; arcum 

aedificare. 
Za lignum; ligna secare. 
Ze parvus. 
Zo cadere. 
Ztsa posse. 
Ztsi seligere; bibere. 
Ztso vel Ztsa experiri. 



B. 



VERBORTJM COMPOSITIO. 

Dame Da, maturus Me, mater Vir, maritus. 

Dansu Da, maturus Nsu, fcemina Mulier, uxor. 

Tinsu, Yel Tzinsu Ti,vel. Tzi, surculus Nsu,faemina Filia. 

Batzi Ba, genitus Tzi, surculus Filius. 

Sitha Si, cortex Tha, pater Avus. 

Meti Me, dominus Ti, divitia Dives. 



ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 



285 



Tasi 


Ta, alba 


Si, superficies 


Argentum. 


Kasti 


Ka, flava 


Sti, superficies 


Aurum. 


Hetsi 


He, distensum 


Tsi, m circum 


Circumdans. 


Mahetsi 


Ma, latum 


Hetsi, circiim disten- 
sum 


Coelum. 


Sahi 


Sa, benevolens 


Hi, interior 


Amica (in maiam par 
tern). 


Hogkhai 


Hog, dulcis 


Khai, g-ens 


Homo bona? indolis. 


Sikei 


Si, pellis 


Kei, co?pus 


Cutis. 


Mohe 


Mo,terrsepr3eruptumHe, aqua 


Lacus. 


Dahe 


Da, multa 


He, aowa 


Flumen. 


Ehmi 


E (e), iratus 


Hm^/aaes 


Inurbanus homo. 


Yohmi 


Yo, duplex 


Hmi, fades 


Perfidus. 


Meti 


Me, carens 


Ti, bonum, divitias 


Mendicus. 


Etho 


E (e), perfectum 


Tho, omne 


Pulcherrimus. 


Sine 


Si, folium 


Ne, 0^ 


Labia. 


Kuane 


Kua, apud 


Ne, os 


Lingua. 


Yuhe 


Yu, via 


He, aowa 


Aquas ductus. 


Nehia 


Ne, os 


Hia, verbum 


Loquax. 


Pche 


Pe, scaturire 


He, cowa 


Fons. 


Datsu 


Da, fioridus 


Tsu, fcemina 


Puella. 


Heme 


He, fingere 


Me, mater 


Matertera. 


P'hoye 


P'ho, ornare 


Ye, manus 


Annulus. 


Thugu 


Thu, pendere 


Gu, #«ns 


Inauris. 


Dodo 


Do, pe^ra 


Do, petra 


Stultus. 


Dogua 


Do, petra 


Gua, _pes 


Claudus. 


Gawi, vel Wavvi 


Ga, strepitus 


Wi, simul 


Bellum. 


Goda 


Go, petra 


Da, oculus 


Ccecus. 


Hiadi 


Hia, lucere, lux 


Di, efficere 


Sol. 


Hiatsi 


Hia, lucere, lux 


Tsi, facere 


Dies. 


Thudo 


Thu, occendere 


Do, fopzs 


Cos. 


Wida 


Wi, succus 


Da, oculus 


Lacrymse. 


Ngetsi 


E (e), caro 


Tsi, tfe/is 


Gingiva. 


Ngede 


E (e), can? 


De, operire 


Muliebris cyclas us 
que ad talos. 


Zana 


Za, rotunda 


Na, dimidia 


Luna. 


Razana 


Ra, ?ma 


Zana, luna 


Mensis. 


Sitho 


Si, folium 


Tho, omne 


Vitrum. 



Hac via", omnia nomina composita distingui separarique possunt. Verbalia vero 
cum sint, ex imperativi secunda persona composita sunt, ut bddi, scito ; bddi, scientia ; 
bddi, sapiens; vel verbum cum ^e facere. De illis in annotatione quse immediate sequi- 
tur. Alia vero composita sunt, non quod sensum habendum quaeratur, sed ad vitanda 
aequivoca, ut ye homo, he gignere, yehe homo ; de aqua, he frigus, dehe aqua; tsi films, 
ba genitus, batsi filius, quod quidem alias explicabitur. 
VOL. V — 3 w 



286 



ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 



MODUS CONJUGANDI. 

Diversimode verborum imperativi persona secunda formatur ; aliquando te verbo, ut 
in sequentibus nunc conjugandis. 



Di te, egofacio, 

Gui he, tu corrumpis, 

Y kue, ille conglutinat, 

Di he, nos fingimus, 

Gui tza wi, vos inurmuratis, 

Gui we hu, vos apponitis, 



Tete, facere facere, id est, Fac. 

Hete, corrumpere facere, Corrumpe. 

Kuete, conglutinare facere, Conglutina. 

Hete, fingere facere, Finge. 

Tzate, murmurare facere, Murmura. 

Wete, apponere facere, Appone. 

Tete, lambere facere, Lambe. 



Y te yu, illi lambunt, 

En praesentis temporis artificium. Di, qui, y vel i, particular, tempus et personam 
una indicantes. Wi nos; qui* et wi vel hii vos, yu illi significant. Videtur ergo quo- 
modo hsec verba monosyllaba sunt. 

Quaedam verba cum verbis tza, tze imperativum formant. Frequentius tamen in 
tzi verbo illud desinit. Tza posse et evenire; tze efficere et virtutem habere; tzi ferre 



significant. 



EXEMPLA EX TEMPORE PR-STEUITO. 

Saitza, exirahere posse, id est, 
Hetze, coquere efficere, 
Etza, odisse evenire, 
Guetzi, prseire ferre, 
Hiutzi, po)iere ferre, 
Satzi, evellere ferre, 



Da sai, exlraxi, 

Ga he, coxisti, 

Bi e, odiit, 

Da gue he, prmmus, 

Ga hiu wi, posuistis, 

Ga sa hun, evulsistis, 

Bi te yu, ascenderunt, Tetze, ascendere virtutem habere, Ascende. 

Da, ga, bi vel etiam Xta, Xa, Sta, Sea, Sa, praeteriti perfecti particular sunt. 
Sic idea temporis idese personam jungitur. 

Alia verba imperativum cum verbis ni exigere ; ni germinare ; hi intus esse ; hi in- 
troire, componunt. 



Extrahe. 

Coque. 

Odi. 

Praei. 

Pone. 

Evelle. 



EXEMPLA EX PLTJSQtJAM PERFECTO. 



Sta hiu hmii, fragraveram, 
Sta ye lima, cur aver as, 
Sa me lima, merit us erat, 
Sta p'he hma, cogitaveramus, 
Sea e hma wi, mulefeceratis, 
Sea de hma hu, florueratis, 
Sa cu hma yu, gustaverant, 



Yuni. fragrare germinare, 
Yehi, curare introire, 
Meni, mereri exigere, 
P'heni, cogitare germinare, 
Ebi, malefacere intus esse, 
Deni, fiorere germinare, 
Cuhi, gustare intus esse, 



Fragra. 

Cura. 

Merere. 

Cogita. 

Malefac. 

Flore. 

Gusta. 



* Que, qui, semper pronuntiari debent ut ke, ki- 



ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 



287 



Sta, sea, sa, hma plus quam perfecti particulas sunt, tempus et personam indicantes. 
Aliquando vero, imperativi persona cum verbis ti vel di formatur, et hie est fre- 
quentior usus. Ti et di expedire, exequi, pervenire significant. 



EXEMPLA EX PR-ETERFTO IMPERFECTO. 

nati, promittere exequi, Promitte. 

hmadi, manifestare exequi, Manifesta. 

neti, calcare exequi, Calca. 

Adi, pet ere exequi, Pete. 

Madi, amare exequi, Ama. 

Tzudi, assequi expedire, Assequere. 

Hiadi, videre exequi, Vide. 

Gui, y, di, hmd, prseteriti imperfecti particular, nil per se significantes. 
Quamplurima verba, alio verbo, non multum dissimili significatione, imperativum 
componunt ; alia etiam nomine, alia adverbio, aliquando modum, aliquando effectum 
vel causam exprimentibus ; sed haec nomina et adverbia etiam verba sunt et ut verba 
reddi possunt. 



Di na ma, promitlebam, 
Gui hma lima, manifest abas, 

Y ne hma, calcabat, 

Di a nma he, petebamus, 
Gui ma hma \vi, amabatis, 
Gui tzu hma hu, assequebamini, 

Y hia hma yu, videbant, 



Ga sa, sudabo, 
Gui ze, visitabis, 
Da hie, dimittet, 
Ga ze he, ave dicemus, 
Gui ca vvi, sedificabitis, 
Gui za hu, volabitis, 
Ga ya. yu, erunt longe, 



EXEMPLA EX FUTTXRO. 

Sa he, sudare aqua, 
Za wa, visit are hie, 
Hie wi, dimittere simul, 
Ze gua, ave dicere pes,* 
Ca do, asdijicare petra, 
Za wi, volare simul, 
Ya bu, esse longe ibi, 



Alia verba in imperativo repetuntur. 



Guaxta ne, voluero, 

Guasca te, feceris, 

Guasa pe, texeril, 

Guasta he he, tussiverimus, 

Guasca hu wi, nominaveritis, 

Guasca tzu hn, lemueritis, 

Guasa te yu, tetigerunt, 



EXEMPLA EX FUTURO IMPERFECTO. 

Nee, velle velle, 

Tete, facer e facere, 

Pepe, texere texere, 

Hehe, tussire tussire, 

Hu hu, nominare nominare, 

Tzutzu, limere timere, 



Tete, tangere tangere, 



Suda. 

Visita. 

Domitte. 

Saluta. 

^difica. 

Volato. 

Longe esto. 



Volito. 

Fac. 

Texe. 

Tussi. 
Nomina. 
Time. 
Tange. 



Alia verba composita ex duobus syllabis sunt, quae cum aliquid simile significent, 
ut idea composita exprimatur, duse syllabse unum verbum constituunt ; ut huehia, res- 
pirare ; hue enim exhalare, et hia halitum, et hsec licet vidcantur non monosyllabica, 
sunt quidem, ut jam exposuimus. 



* Othomiti Indi, cum quemque salutant, pedem retro movent, corpusque inclinatum habent. 



288 



ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 



ANTIQUA OTHOMITORUM CONJUGANDI FORMA, CUJUS ET VESTIGIA NUNC IN EORUM 

LINGUA MANET. 

Praesens. Ni rza, evenire (nunc temporis). 

Prseteritum. Ma vel mi rza, evenisse (antea). 

Futurum. Na rza, eventurum (in futuro). 

Praesens. Ni e, senire (nunc temporis). 

Prseteritum. Ma vel mi e, senisse (antea). 

Futurum. Nd e, seniturus (in futuro). 

Imperat. Ee, senito. Plur. Ewi, vos senite. 
Hoc imperativi artificium usque nunc conservatur. 



QUODLIBET NOMEN ADJECTIVUM UT VERBUM CONJUGATUR : QUiEDAM HIC EXHIBENDA. 



Di ve/dna ye, Ego sum humanus. 

Na (na) vel gui nho, Tu es bonus. 

Na vel y hai, Ille est terreus. 

Di t'e/dna otho he, Nos sumus nihil. 

Na (na) vel gui meti wi, Vos estis divites. 

Na (na) vel gui dodo hu, Vos estis stulti. 

Na vel y hui yu, II li sunt tres. 

Dna vel do ra mha, Ego eram unicus. 

Na (na) vel gui nye mha, Tu vacuus eras. 

Na vel y na mha, Ille erat otiosus. 

Da vel sta ne, Egofui strenuus. 

Ga vel sea hmu, Tufuisti virgo. 

Di i'e/sa hmu*, Illefuit dominus. 

Sta te hma, Ego fueram aliquid. 

Ga o, Ego ero inimicus. 

Gasta entho, Ego fuero pulcherrimus. 



Ye we, Humanus esto. 

Nho we, Bonus esto. 

Hai we, Terreus esto. 

Otho we, Esto nihil. 

Meti we, Dives esto. 

Dodo we, Stultus esto. 

Hiu we, Triplex esto. 

Ra we, Unus esto. 

Nye we, Vacuus esto. 

Na we, Otiosus esto. 

Ne we, Strenuus esto. 

Hmu we, Virgo esto. 

Hmu we, Dominus esto. 

Te we, ^liquid esto. 

we, Inimicus esto. 

Entho we, Pulcherrimus esto. 



Ex supra dictis, non modo verba in Othomitorum lingua monosyllabica esse, sed et 
illos verbo substantivo carere omnino patet. Nam, qua i 11 1 de causa, quo nunquam 
uterentur verbum habuissent ? Tarasci enim verbo eni (esse) et Mexicani verbo ca, 
quod idem significat, licet non frequenter, tamen aliquandfi, et primi illi verbis ej^ 
substantivo eni compositis, multoties utuntur. Hoc mihi certum, Hispanos ex parti- 
eula we, verbum illud, quod solum in Hispanorum Othomite loquentium sonat, totum 
confecisse. Non tamen Indi illud inventum receperunt, sed poterimus ne illam divinam 
sententiam Ego sum qui sum Othomite reddere ? Possumus quidem, et ita, ni fallor 
ma hu nga, " meum nomen ego." Lingua ilia, sua ex natura, illud non repugnat 
sed intelligeretur vel ne ab Indis hasc sententia ? hoc nimirum nescio, et nemo, nisi 
prius experiatur, scire potest. 



Hmu, dominus, et hmu, rtrgo, sunt homonyma. sed vaiiis modis distingui possunt, addilione sylla 
rum significaatium, ut apud sinenses, vel usu synonymorum, quorum muita sunt in hac lingua. 



ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 



289 



D. 



ORATIO DOMINICA OTHOMITE VERSA CUM SCHOLIIS. 

Ut melius hujus linguae indoles cognoscatur, orationis Dominicse versionem ab An- 
drea Olmos scriptam, a. Ramirezio* deinde, et a Joachimo Yepes postremd correctam 
adducere placuit ; illamque, duobus aliis modis, quibus lingua ea facere posset, addam. 
Latina translatio lltteralis omnino est. 



1. Ma tha he ni buy mahetsi 

2. Da ne ansu ni huhu 

3. Da ehe ga he ni buy 

4. Da kha ni hnee 

5. Ngu wa na hay 

6. Te ngu mahetsi 

7. Ma hme he ta na pa 

8. Ra he na ra pa ya 

9. Ha puni he 

10. Ma dupate he 

11. Tengu di puni he 

12. U ma ndupate he 

13. Ha yo wi he he 

14. Ga he kha na tzo cadi 

15. Ma na pehe he hin nho. 

16. Da kha. 



1. Noster pater habitas coelum 

2. Vocabunt sanctum tuum nomen, 

3. Veniet erga nos tua habitatio, 

4. Facient tua voluntas 

5. Et ita hie terra 

6. Sicut coelum 

7. Noster panisqua3quedies(cujusquediei) 

8. Da nos unus dies nova (hodie) 

9. Et parce nos 

10. Nostra debita 

11. Sicut nos parcimus 

12. Nunc debitores nostri 

13. Et cave ne permittere nos 

14. Labemur in turpis actio 

15. Sed salva nos non bonum, (a non bono). 

16. Facient, (hoc est Amen). 



SCHOLIA. 

1. Ma tha he ni buy mahetsi. 
Ma, meus; tha, pater; he, nos (meus pater nos, i. e. noster pater); ni, tu, tua; buy, 
habitare, habitatio; ma, latus, latitudo; he, extensus, extensio; tsi, in circum, i. e. 
coelum. 

2. Da ne ansu ni huhu. 

Da, futuri indicativi tertise personam particula; ne, vocare; ansu, ab Hispano Santo; 
ni, tu, tuum; hit, nominare, nomen, hie bis repetitum cultus gratiS. 

3. Da ehe ga he ni buy. 

Da, futuri signum; e, venire; he, accedere; ga, erga; he, nos; ni buy, tua habitatio 
(regnum tuum, coelum). 

4. Da kha ni hnee. 

Da, (ut supra); Ma, facere; ni, tua; hnee, voluntas, (facient tuam voluntatem). 

5. Ngu wa na hay. 

Ngu, tanto, ita; wa, hie; na, ilia, (pronomen articuli vices gerens); hay, terra, (ita. 
hie in terrci). 



* Oraciones y Doctrina Cristiana en Othomi, aprobadas por el tercio Concilio Mexicano; Mexico 16- 
Hic in Bibliothecis hoc opus non invenitur. 

VOL. V. 3 X 



290 



ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 



6. Te ngu mahetsi. 
Te, quod; ngu, tantd, it&; mahetsi, vide suprai, No. 1., (quod sonat, sicut in lato 
spatio, i. e. coelo). 

7. Ma hme he ta ni pa. 
Ma, meus; hme, panis; he, nos; ta vel da, quseque; na, da, quseque; pa, dies, tem- 
pus, epocha, (panem nostrum omnium dierum, omnium temporum, i. e. quotidianum). 

8. Ra he na ra pa ya. 
Ra vel da, dato; he, nos; na, particula, vide supra, No. 5.; ra, una; pa, dies; ya, 
nova (da nobis in hac die nova, i. e. hodie). 

9. Ha puni he. 
Ha, et; pu, dimittere; ni, germinare; he, nos. Hie figura Othomiti utuntur; di- 
mitte germinare; non permittas crescere; dele, extingue, (dimitte nobis). 

10. Ma dupate he. 
Ma, meus; du, debere; pa, vendere; te, facere; sic formatur dupate, debere vendere 
facere, i. e. debita; he, nos, i. e. nostra. ' ] . - 

Haec sententialitteratim sonat : meus nos debere vendere facere (debita nostra). 

11. Tengu di puni he. 

Te, quod; ngu, ita; di, prsesentis indicativi prima? personas signum ; puni, vide 
supra, 9; he, nos. — Hoc litteratim: quod (sicut) dimittere vel parcere nos (dimittimus). 

12. U ma nd apache. 

U, nunc; ma, meus; ndupate, Vide supra, io.; he, nos. Litteratim : meus debitor 
venditor factor nos, i. e. debitoribus nostris. De modo loquendi " meus nos," vide 
supra, No. 1. 

. 13.1 Ha yo wi be he. 
Ha, et; yo, non, ne; wi, tu, et secundae persona? futuri particula; he, consentire; he, 
nos, (et nos non permitte). 

14. Ga he kha na tzo cadi. 
Ga, labi; he, nos; kha, in, apud; na, articulus; tzo, turpis; ca, perficere; di, exequi. 
Hoc litteratim sonat : labi perficere exequi in turpe, i. e. turpe agere. 

15. Ma na pehe he hin nh6. 
Ma, sed; na, potiue; pe, redimere, salvare; he, nos; hin, non; nhd, bonum. Sed 
salva nos a non bono, (libera nos a. malo). 



Posset etiam ilia Oratio sic verti. 



Go sna tha 

To wi buy 

He tsi 

Dama ka ni liu 

Dadi ni hne 

Hai he hetsi 

Ma hme ta pa 

Sa da he ni 

Ha puni ma thay he 

Ngu i pu ma thay ti he 

Ha yo ho he ga zo tzo di 



Domine meus pater 

Qui tu hub it as 

Extensionem incircum (ccelum) 

Dicent sanctum tuum nomen 

Exequatur tui voluntas 

Terra (in) et cozlo 

Meus panis queeque tempus 

Placeat (si) da nos nunc 

Et parcere germinare mea debita nos 

Sicut }iarci7nus meus debiti factor nos 

(nostros) 
Et cave ne consentire nos labi provocare 

exequi. 



ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 291 

Tertia versio, particulis expressis facta. 

Ma tha hi* he Meus pater venerabilis nos 

We wibuyt kha hetsi Qui moras apud ccelum 

Kha ni hu Divinum tuum nomen 

Dadi ni hne Exequatur tui (tua) voluntas 

Bi kho na hay Infra in illet terra 

Ra na kha hetsi iEqualiter (ac) supra in coelo 

Dada se% he ma hme he Da, concede ad nos (nobis) meus panis nos 

(panem nostrum) 
Yo gazo sec§ tzodi Cave ne cademus (cadamus) propter tenta- 

tionem. 



E. 

Omnia adjectiva, abstractaque nomina, verba et adverbia; omniaque verba et abstracta 
nomina, adjectiva, substantivaque esse possunt. 

EXEMPLA. 

1. Na nho nho ye i nho he nho. 

Na nho, bonitas; nho, boni; ye, viri; i, verbalis particula; nho, bona (est); he vel 
ha, et; nho, bene. 

Bonitas boni viri bona est et bene. 

2. Hiatzi i hiatzi hia 

Lux lucescit luc 

3. Da sa na tso 
Arridebo impietas 

Arridebo impietatem impii. 

4. Madi na badi : 
Ama sapientiam : 

5. Madi Okha : na madi 
Ama Deum : amator 



tzi hiatzi tho. 






ins 


lucide. 






tso. 






" 


impius. 








na badi 


mehi. 






sapiens 


felix (est). 






Okha: 


na madi Okha 


hi he 


buy. 


Dei: 


amor Dei 


felicitas et 


vita. 



* Ta ki, pater venerabilis; sed ke, ki, i, nihil adjuncto, ad asquales, cultus gratia, applicatur ; tamen 
Sandoval, et hoc in loco, eo usus est. Rectius ma kha ta, vel ha ta, vel sam mi, Divine Pater, Sancte 
Pater. Vide not. 1. 

t Dissyllaba dividenda sunt, particulae hie solum adjunguntur ut verborum numerus in textu et versione 
sequalis sit. Idem est ordo verborum in ambobus. 

t Particula se, utilitatem damnum habenti designans, personam adhaerere potest; unde aaquivalens ilia 
Hispano para, Anglo to vel for, Gallico pour vel ct, et Sinensi particula? iu. Fere ea nunquam, nee alia 
Indi utuntur. 

§ Sec, propter ; utitur etiam pro a vel ab inter Latinos, ut yeou apud Sinas. 



292 ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 



F. 

" Le substantif, lorsqu'il est sujet d'un verbe quelconque, se place avant, et quand 
il est complement d'un verbe actif, apres le verbe." Remusat, Sect. 83. Hoc etiam 
in lingua" Othomitica accidit. 

EXEMPLA. 

1. Do snu he na ca di 
Petra caput et absconditum sapere exequi 

Hoc est : Caput petreum (stultus, vel dative, stulto) et absconditum, i. e. il li abscon- 
ditum est, nequit; sapere exequi. i. e. sapere; di, facere vel exequi, particula verbalis 
est. Stultus non est sapiens. 

2. To i ma ya* tza ya Okha do snu 
Qui culpat consilia Deorum stultus (est) 

Qui Deorum consilia culpet, stultus, inscitusque est. — Plant, in Mil. Glor. Act. 
III. Sc. 1. 

3. Na tzu i so ya du kir muy. 

Timor arguit degeneres viles animos, {muy, cor). 

Degeneres animos timor arguit. — Virg. iEn. 1. 6. 



G. 



VARI.2E PR-EPOSITIONES. 



Ga, ex; bi, sub; se, ad; wi, simul; se, supra; kha, in, apud; aliaque hujusmodi. 
Ngu ga do, Domus ex petra. Nga he ni wi, Ego et tu simul. 

Ngu bi ngu, Domus sub domo. Ngu se ngu, Domus supra domum. 

Nguse he, Domus ad nos (nobis). Kha ngu, Apud domum, in domo. 



H. 

Nee solum inter Anahuacenses nationes, Othomiti fuere, qui triplex pro prima per- 
sona pronomen habuerint, habent et Mexicani; en illorum lingua cum Othomitica com- 
parata. Sic Ego exprimitur : 

Mexic. Nehuatl, nehua, ne. 

Othom. nga, nga-nga, ngwi. 



Ya vel ye, signum pluralis. 



ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 



293 



J. 



F0RM.2E AD CULTTTM VEL REVERENTIAM PERTINENTES 

Apud sequales dicitur 
Ni ho 

Tua dignatio 



vel 



i ma 
amat 



, . 1 1. e. lu vivis. 
hicj 



wi ma 
amas 
Ni ki i buy 

Tua veneratio vivit 
Ad superiores senesque, sic Othomiti loquuntur : 
Rzu ki i a 

Altitudo venerabilis dormit 

Ad nobilem feminam, et etiam ad aequalis qualitatis mulieres : 



na bily. 
vitam. 



i e. Tu dormis. 



, m f Ji.e. Tudic. 
dicito 3 



Ti nsu 

Divitise femininse 

Ad inferiores vero : 

Tsi nsu 

Surculus femineus 

Tsi vel Tu ma ? . „.,. . j. 

^ i. e. Fih mi, die 
nlius dicitoj 



ma 7 . 

dicito 5 



e. Tu die. 



K. 

NONNULLA ADVERBIA. 

Buy, ita; nkha, sicut; nkha buy, ita; nu, iste, hie; wa, hie; nuwa, hie; ni, illuc; 
nuni, illiic. 



COMPARATIO NUMERALIUM IN LINGUA SINICA ET VARUS LINGTJIS ANAHTTACENSIBTTS. 



Sinice. Othomitice. Mexicane. 

1. I na, ra ce 

2. Eul yo, ho ome 

3. SSn hiu yey 

4. Sse go naui 

5. Ou ku-tto macuilli 

6. Lou ratd (unus et quinque) chiquace 

7. Thsi yoto (duo et quinque) chicome 

8. Pa hiat6 (tres et quinque) chicuey 

9. Kieou got6 (quatuor et quinque) chicunaui 
10. Chi reta mactlactli 

VOL. V. — 3 Y 



Huastece. 

hun 

tzab 

ox 

tze 

bo 

acac 

buc 

huaxic 

belleuh 

lahu. 



294 



ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 



M. 



'ANAKPEONT02— .OM IA'. 

E»j o-tui/rot. 
Aryxa-n ad yuvctlm; 
" 'Avcuc^iuiv, y'tgmv ti • 
" Aafav io-OGrrptv, a.6gn 
" Ko/xslc [till OUK £T ovo-ns 
"YlKOV Si UVJ fiiT^UTTOV.'' 

Eyte efe Tas x.i/ua.s M fv > 
E«t' sicrh, sit' ajriJ^floy, 
Ouk. oiSa. TSTi Folia., 
Cll Tin yigotri ( ua\^o^ 

HgiTTit TO, TipiarVtt, <QrsLlgttV, 

Oo-tf wlxac Tet Mei'g*;. 

BARNESII LATINA VERSIO. 
anacreontis. — Ode xi. 

De se ipso. 

Dicunt mihi fceminae, 
"0 Anacreon, senex es : 
" Accepto speculo, contemplare 
"Comas quidem non amplius existentes, 
" Glabramque tuam frontem." 

Ego sane, quod ad comas attinet 
Utrum sint, an abierint, 



Haud novi, hoc autem novi, 
Quod seni tantb magis 
Convenit jucunde ludere, 
Quanto propior ei mors sit. 

VERSIO OTHOMITICA. 
Na dusu reta n-ra. 

NA NACREO. 
Ga bice. 

1. Ye nsu tsi di ma-i 

2. Go Nacred, a nde : 

3. Sa kuti na hie nuti 

4. Y khso na sta 

5. Ha na ni de 

6. Khuani di him pho 

7. Maz ye sta sa kha 

8. Gua nuj r spi ma 

9. Haa i pa nua 

10. Yho gu manra na d& skhoo 

11. Da buy ha da kho hia 

12. Ngu, da cu na du. 



Scholia. 

Na dusu reta n-ra na Nacred : Anacreontis Ode undecima. 

Na, pronomen ille, a, nd, articuli vices gerens; dusu, canere we/cantus; reta de- 
cern, decimus; n-ra, unus; na Nacred, ille Anacreon, sensu genitivo audiendus, ut 
in veteri lingua Gallica ususfuit, et adhuc V Hotel-Dieu pro P Hotel de Dieu, dicitur. 

Ille cantus undecimus Anacreontis. 

Ga bi ce : De se ipso. 

Ga, praepositio, quasi ex apud Latinos; hi, accusativum et dativum nana pronominis 
personalis: ce, pronomini unitum, demonstrativum facit. 

Ode. — Linea prima. 
Ye nsu tsi di mu-i : Juvenes fccminse dicunt mihi. 
Ye, signum pluralis, pluviam* significat; nsu, genus fcemininum designat; tsi, sur- 



Character Sinensium tit. pluviam significans, qui inter radicales 173 numeratur, quatuor aqua: gutta- 



ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 295 

cuius, metaphorice, aliquid tenerum; ye nu tsi, juvenes fceminae; di, particula verbum 
designans; ma, dicere; i, signum pluralis, yerepetitum et abbreviatum. 

Pluvia (multitudo) surculorum tenellorum (juvenes foeminae) dicere illae, (id est, 
dicunt): mihi subauditur. 

Linea secunda. 
Go Nacred, a nde: Domine Anacreon, senex es. 

Go, particula reverentialis, quae nominibus propriis affigitur; Nacred, Anacreon, 
quod sonat Domine Anacreon ; a ex gua abbreviatum, est pronomen personale secun- 
dse personas, tu ; nde, senex; (es subauditur, quia hsec lingua verbo substantivo caret). 
Domine Anacreon, tu (es) senex. 

Linea tertia. 
Sa kutti na hie nuti. Sa, verbum reverentiale, si vis, placeat tibi; kutti, kut, 
sumere, accipere; ti, facere, exequi; na, articulus; hie, speculum; nuti, contemplare 
facere, forma imperativi. 

Placeat tibi, vel si tibi placeat, accipe speculum, et conternpla. 

Linea quarta. 
Y khoo na std. Na std, capillus, capillamentum; khoo, abesse; y, particula prae- 
fixa, signum tertiae personae singularis praesenlis indicativi. 
Abest ille capillus, vel illud capillamentum. 

Linea quinta. 
Ha na ni de. Ha, et; de, frons; ni, tua; iia, nuda. 
Et nuda frons tua (est). 

Linea sexta. 
Khuani di him phd. Khuani, verum, vere, a kha, Veritas, realitas, quod existit ; 
di, particula verbis praefixa, primam personam prsesentis modi indicativi, in numero 
singclari indicans ; him, particula negativa, non;/?Ao, scire; di phd, scio; di him phd, 
nescio. 

Vere, ego nescio. 

Linea septima. 
Maz ye std sa kha. Maz, utrum; ye std, capilli, (ye, pluvia, signum pluralis) ; 
kha, adesse, opponitur kha vel khou, abesse; vide lineam 4. Sa, particula praefixa, 
prseteritum indicans. 
Utrum capilli adfuere. 

Linea octava. 
Gua nit-i spi ma. Gua, adverbium, aut, vel; nii-i, pronomen demonstrativum 
et relativum, ille, a, ud; i, affixum, signum pluralis, a ye, vide lin. I.; ma, volare, 
fugire; spi, verbalis particula, tertiam personam prseteriti indicans. 
Aut si i 11 i volarunt vel fugerunt. 

Linea nona. 
Ha-a ipa niia. Haa, particula affirmativa, si Hispanicum, et yes Anglicum, hie 
vero pro sed, vel autem utitur ; ipa vel di pa vel di phd, scio, vide lin. 6.; niia, 
hoc, illud, quod; (vide lin. 8). 
Hoc autem novi. 

rum imaginem continet ; quatuor etiam guttas, sed diverse positas, habet character chu, omnes. signum 
pluralis. Quae hie similitudo idearum Sinenses inter et Othomitos ! 



296 ON THE OTHOMI LANGUAGE. 

Linea decima. 

Y ho gu ma nra na daskoo.. Y ho, decet; ho, convenire, y signum personae, 
vide lin. 4.; gu, contractio ab angu, tantum, tanto; nra, contractio a manra, magis; 
na, articulus indefinitus, unus, a, um, Anglice a, an ; da skhoo, a da, florens, flori- 
dus, et khoo, abesse, absens, (vide lin. 4.), homo qui florescere desinit, senex. 

Florem absentem (senem) tanto magis decet. 

Linea undecima. 

Da buy ha kho hia. Da buy, (u nasale) buy, vivere; da, particula prsefixa, tertiam 
personam futuri temporis indicans, quod hie infinitivi vices gerit, et sic dicitur ut 
vivet, pro ut vivat, hsec lingua etiam modo subjunctivo carens. Ha, (conj.) et, vide 
lin. 5, 9; khohia, esse vel stare in luce, metaphorice, jucunde vivere; da, signum 
futuri, ut supra dictum. 

In luce stare (jucunde vivere). 

Linea duodecima. 

Ngu da eu na du. Ngu, contractio ab hangu, minus, quod hie pro magis utitur. 
In bac lingua, magis nunquam sibi opponitur. Tanto magis ilium amas, tanto mi?ius 
(magis) te odit. Minus hie distantiam denotat, et tanto minus ejus odium distat a tuo 
amore, haec sententia significat. Ergo in hoc versu, tanto minus mors a te distat, 
Othomitus dicere vult, quamvis verbum appropinquare mox sequatur. Na du: du, 
nomen substantivum, mors; na, articulus praefixus, ut supra saspe dictum. Da cu : 
cu, contractio a cuattu, appropinquare; da, signum futuri, vide lin. 11. 

Quanta hie subauditur, ut tanto in Grseco. 

Minus (quanto magis) mors appropinquat, i. e. quanto minus mors ab illo distet : 
quanto a minori distantia mors illi appropinquet. 



ERRATA. 

P. 252, 1. 7 d capite, alium lege aliam. 

P. 255, 1. 17 a capite, dele 10. 

P. 256, I. 8' a calce, eadem lege eadem. 

P. 263, I. 11 a capite, Hebreei lege Hebreea. 

P. 263, I. 11 c\ capite, Graeci lege Graeca. 

P. 264, I. 14 a calce, quos lege qui. 

P. 266, I. 13 a calce, alba, lege albo. 



ARTICLE XIII. 



Practical Rule for Calculating, from the Elements in the Nautical 
Almanac, the Circumstances of an Eclipse of the Sun, for a Particular 
Place. By John Gummere, Teacher of Natural Philosophy and Ma- 
thematics in the Friends' School at Haverford, Pennsylvania. Bead 
March Qth, 1835. 

The following rule, deduced from a known formula, gives, with 
little labour, the different circumstances of an eclipse of the sun, very 
nearly ; the greatest error in time seldom exceeding half a minute. 
It also furnishes certain data that facilitate the exact calculation, when 
this is required. The multiplication of quantities by the sine, or co- 
sine of an arc or angle, is performed by a Traverse Table, as in Hen- 
derson's method of Predicting Occultations, given in the fourth vo- 
lume of the Memoirs of the Astronomical Society of London. The 
rule is adapted to the use of the traverse tables usually contained in 
treatises on Surveying. In these tables, the difference of latitude and 
the departure are given for every quarter of a degree, of course, from 
0° to 90° ; and but little error results, if the required quantity is 
taken in the column corresponding to the course which is nearest to 
the given angle, without correction for the difference between the 
two. It is, however, easy to estimate and apply the proportional part, 
corresponding to this difference ; and it is better to do so. When the 
VOL,, v.— 3 z 



298 PRACTICAL. RULE FOR CALCULATING 

given angle exceeds 90°, it must be subtracted from 180°, and the 
remainder taken as the course. 

In calculating the parallaxes, the products of ten times the distance 
of the given place from the earth's centre, by the cosine and sine of 
its reduced latitude, are used. These products being constant for a 
given place, serve, when once obtained, for all calculations of eclipses 
of the sun, or of occultations for that place. Let them be denoted, 
respectively, by X and Y. Then, to obtain them, add respectively, to 
the logarithmic cosine and sine of the latitude of the place, the loga- 
rithms x and y, taken from Table I. of the annexed tables, with the 
latitude of the place as the argument, and reject 10 from the index of 
each sum. The results will be the logarithms of X and Y. These 
logarithms are used in the exact calculation of the parallaxes. The 
natural numbers corresponding to them, taken out to two decimal 
places, are the values of X and Y,that are used in the approximate cal- 
culation. These values are given in Table II. for each degree of lati- 
tude. 

In the addition and subtraction of quantities, except those which are 
in time, the algebraic rules for performing these operations are to be 
observed. Wherever the rule directs the root of a quantity to be taken, 
it is the positive square root that is implied. 

The quantities, denominated in the rule, parallaxes in right ascen- 
sion and declination, are not strictly those quantities : they, however, 
differ but little from them, and are the quantities required in this 
method of calculation. 



RULE. 

1. Consider north declinations and north horary motions as -f-, and 
south ones as — . Find the difference of the sun's and moon's decli- 
nations, by subtracting the declination of the sun, as given in the ele- 
ments, from that of the moon. In like manner find the difference of 
the horary motions of the sun and moon, in right ascension, the differ- 
ence of their horary motions in declination, and the difference of their 
equatorial horizontal parallaxes. 

2. Multiply the difference of the sun's and moon's declinations, re- 



THE CIRCUMSTANCES OF AN ECLIPSE OF THE SUN. 299 

duced to seconds, by 10, and divide the product by the difference of 
the parallaxes, also reduced to seconds, extending the quotient to two 
decimal places, and denote it by q. Do the same with the difference 
of the horary motions in right ascension, denoting the quotient by P'; 
with the difference of the horary motions in declination, denoting the 
quotient by q ; and with the sun's semidiameter, denoting the quo- 
tient by r. With the moon's declination, as a course, and P' as a dis- 
tance, enter the traverse table, and faking the corresponding difference 
of latitude, mark it -j-, and denote it by p'. Then will q, p\ q and r, 
respectively express the difference of the declinations, the difference 
of the horary motions in right ascension, the difference of the horary 
motions in declination, and the sun's semidiameter, in such parts as 
the difference of the parallaxes contains 10; the difference of the 
horary motions in right ascension being reduced to the parallel of 
declination passing through the moon's centre. Letp denote the dif- 
ference of the sun's and moon's right ascensions, expressed in similar 
parts, and reduced to the same parallel. At the time of conjunction 
in right ascension p = 0. 

3. Denote the Greenwich mean time of conjunction in right ascen- 
sion by T. Find from the Nautical Almanac the corresponding equa- 
tion of time, and apply it to T, so as to obtain the apparent time. To 
the apparent time apply the longitude of the given place from Green- 
wich, in time, by adding when the longitude is east, but subtracting 
when it is west, and convert the sum or remainder into degrees. If 
the result is less than 180°, it will be the hour angle at the time T, 
and will be -|-. If it exceeds 180°, subtract it from 360°, and the 
remainder will be the hour angle, and will be — . Denote the hour 
angle by H, 

With the sun's declination as a course, and the value of Y for the 
given place as a distance, enter the traverse table, and take the cor- 
responding difference of latitude, marking it -j- when the latitude of 
the place is north, but — when it is south, and denote it by h. Take 
also the departure, marking it with the same sign as the declination 
when the latitude is north, but with a contrary sign when it is south, 
and denote it hyf. 

4. The values of p', q\ r, b, and /, may be regarded as constant 



300 PRACTICAL RULE FOR CALCULATING 

during the continuance of the eclipse. But the value p == 0, and the 
values of q and H, found as above, appertain only to the time T. To 
find them for another time T', proceed thus. As 60 minutes : diff. 
of T and T : : p' : p. If T' is later than T, the value of p is -f-, but 
if earlier, it is — . Again, as 60 minutes : diff. of T and T::q:a. 
quantity with the same sign as q', which, added to the value of </, at 
the time T, when T' is later than T, but subtracted from it when 
T' is earlier, will give the required value of q. Also, as 60 minutes : 
diff. of T and T' : : 15° : a quantity, which added to the value of H, 
at the time T, when T' is later than T, but subtracted when it is 
earlier, will give the required value of H. 

5. With the value of H, at the time T, as a course, and the value 
of X, for the given place, as a distance, enter the traverse table, and 
take the corresponding departure, marking it with the same sign as H, 
and denoting it by u. Take also the difference of latitude, marking 
it -j-, when H is less than 90°, but — , when H exceeds 90°, and de- 
note it by C. With the sun's declination as a course, and C as a dis- 
tance, find the departure, marking with the same sign as C when the 
declination is -|-, but with a contrary sign when it is — , and denote 
it by c. Subtract c from b, and denote the result by v. Then will 
u and v be the parallaxes in right ascension and declination, at the 
time T. 

Using Table IV., add together the squares of (p — u) and (q — «), 
denoting the root of the sum, which need not however be taken out, 
by M. Then will M denote the apparent distance of the centres of 
the sun and moon, at the time T. 

6. Take a time T', an hour earlier or later lhan T, according as 
the value of (p — u) at the time T, is -J- or — , and find for this time, 
by the preceding articles, the values of p, q, H, u, C, c, and v : and 
thence the square of the apparent distance of the centres, denoting the 
root by M'. 

Subtract, respectively, the values of (p — u) and (q — v) at the earlier 
of the times T and T', from their values at the later time, and denote 
the results by (p — w') and {q — v'). Add together the squares of 
(p — u) and (q — «'), and taking from the table the corresponding 
root, denote it by n. Then will n express the horary motion of the 



THE CIRCUMSTANCES OP AN ECLIPSE OF THE SUN. 301 

moon from the sun on the apparent relative orbit. To the square of 
n add the square of M, and from the sum subtract the square of M', 
denoting the remainder by N 2 . Multiply N 2 by 30, and divide the 
product by the square of n, extending the quotient to one decimal 
figure. This quotient will be an interval in minutes of time, which, 
being added to the time T, or subtracted from it, according as T' is 
later or earlier than T, will give the time of greatest obscuration. 

7. Taking now T', to represent the time of greatest obscuration, 
find for this time the values of p, q, H, u, C, c, and v. Also, when 
taking c from the traverse table, take the corresponding difference of 
latitude, and marking it with the same sign as C, denote it by g. 
With (/-J- g) as the argument, take from Table IX., to two figures, 
the correction of r. Subtract this correction from r, and denote the 
remainder by r'. To r add 2.73, the moon's reduced semidiameter, 
and denote the sum by k. Now adding together the squares of 
(p — u ) and (q — v), take the root of the sum, and denote it by m. 
Then will m express the least distance of the centres. Multiply 
(k — m) by 6, and divide the product by r'. The quotient will ex- 
press the digits eclipsed ; on the northern limb if (q — v) is -{-, but 
on the southern if it is — . If m is equal to, or greater than k, the 
eclipse will not be visible at the given place. 

From the square of k subtract the square of m, and taking the root 
of the remainder, denote it by h. Then, as n : h : : 60 minutes : an 
interval of time, which being subtracted from the time of greatest ob- 
scuration, and added to it, will give approximate times of the beginning 
and end of the eclipse. 

8. Taking T' equal the approximate time of beginning, find as before, 
for this time, the values of jj, q, H, n, C, c, g, i>, r\ and k. Also w 7 ith 
the sun's declination as a course, and u as a distance, find the corres- 
ponding departure, marking it with the same sign as u, when the de- 
clination is -f-, but with a contrary sign when the declination is — , 
and denote it by E. Then with C and E, respectively as arguments, 
take the corresponding quantities from Table III., marking each with 
the same sign as its argument, and denote them by u' and v. Then 
will u' and v' express the horary changes of the parallaxes in right as- 
cension and declination, at the time T'. 

VOL. V. 4 A 



302 PRACTICAL RULE FOR CALCULATING 

From the square of k, subtract the square of m, and taking the root, 
denote it by h. Add together the squares of (p — u) and (q — v), 
and from the sum subtract the square of m. Take the root of the 
remainder, and denote it by h '. Add together the squares of (p' ■ — u) 
and (q' — v'), and taking the root of the sum, it will be the value of 
n, at the time T'. Then as n : diff. of h and li : : 60 minutes : a cor- 
rection, in minutes, which being added to T', or subtracted from it, ' 
according as ti is greater or less than h, will give the corrected time 
of beginning. 

9. The corrected time of end is found in exactly the same manner, 
except that the correction is to be subtracted from T', the approximate 
time of end, when h' is greater than /*, but added to it when h is less 
than h. 

10. From the values of (p — u), (q — v), u and v, at the approxi- 
mate time of beginning, find, by means of their horary changes (j/ — w'), 
(q' — v') : u and v', their values at the corrected time of beginning. 
Then taking the values of (p — u) and (q — v), divide the less by the 
greater, extending the quotient to three decimal places, and marking it 
-(- when the signs of (p — u) and (q — v) are alike, but — when 
the}' are different. Then with the quotient as the argument, take the 
corresponding arc from the proper column of Table V., as denoted by 
the remarks at the head of the table. If (p — u) is -f-, denote this 
arc by P, but if it is — , add 180° to the arc, and denote the sum by P. 
With the values of u and v, proceed in the same manner to find another 
arc, denoting it by Q, if u is -{-, but adding 180° to it if u is — , and 
denoting the sum by Q. Subtract P from Q, increasing the latter by 
360° when it is less than the former, and denote the remainder by V. 
Then will V express the distance from the sun's vertex to the point of 
the disc at which the eclipse commences, measured on the circumfe- 
rence of the disc, from the vertex to the right hand. 

11. The times of beginning, greatest obscuration, and end, found as 
above, are expressed in Greenwich mean time, and may be changed 
to mean time of the given place, by adding or subtracting the difference 
of meridians in time, according as the place is east or west from Green- 
wich. 

Note 1. The calculation will be facilitated by having two small 



THE CIRCUMSTANCES OF AN ECLIPSE OF THE SUN. 303 

tables, containing the values of u and C, for each degree of the 
hour angle, and b and/ for each degree of declination, calculated for 
the place, from the expressions u = X sin. H, C = X cos. H, & == Y 
cos. Decl., &ndf = Y sin. Decl. These tables will also be equally 
convenient in the calculation of occultations. Tables VI. and VII. 
contain those values, calculated for the latitude of Philadelphia. 

2. If only a near approximation to the circumstances of the eclipse 
is required, the value of r may be used instead of r', and the values of 
h and n at the time of greatest obscuration may be taken, in finding 
the corrected times of beginning and end. Also in finding the point 
of the sun's disc at which the eclipse commences, the values of (p — w), 
(q — v), u and v, at the approximate time of beginning, may be used 
without correction; consequently, in this case/*, g and E need not be 
found. The error thus produced in the time of beginning or end will 
seldom exceed a minute; and the error in the magnitude of the eclipse 
cannot amount to a tenth of a digit. 

As an example, let it be required to calculate for Philadelphia, lat. 
39° 57' N. long., 5 h. m. 44 sec. W., the circumstances of the eclipse 
of November 30th, 1834. 

For Philadelphia X == 7-68 and Y = 6-39. 

In the following calculation, the values of b, f, u and C are taken 
from Tables VI. and VII. ; the same values will, however, be easily 
obtained from the traverse table, with perhaps occasionally a difference 
of a unit in the last decimal figure. 

From the elements in the Nautical Almanac we obtain : 

Greenwich mean time of conjunc. in R. A., Nov. 30d. 6h. 32'9m. 
Moon's declination, . . . . — 20° 48' 13" 

Sun's declination, . . . . . — 21 41 05 

Sun's semidiameter, . . . . . 16 15 

Diff. of sun's and moon's declinations, = -j- 52' 52" = -j- 3172" 
Diff.of their hor. motions in R. A., = -\-35 40 = -j- 2140 
Difif. of their hor. motions in declin., = — 8 48 == — 528 
DifF. of their eq. horizontal parallaxes, = 60 14 = 3614 



304 PRACTICAL RULE FOR CALCULATING 

3172 X 10 „ „, 2140 X 10 

P " °>* = + 3614 - + 8 ' 78 ' P = + 3614 = + 5 ' 92 ' 

528 X 10 975 X 10 

P ' - + 5 ' 54 ' «' = 36li- = ~ X ' 46 ' r " 3614 = 2 ' 70 - 

h. m. 
T. = . . 6 32-9 

Eq. of time, . + 1M b = + 5-93 

6 44-0 
Long. W. . —5 0-7 /= — 2-36 



6 
5 


44-0 
0-7 


1 


43-3 



H. . + 25°.8 

u = + 3-34, C = + 6-91, c = — 2-55, v = + 8-48. 

p — u = — 3-34 sq. 11-16 
q — v = + 0-30 sq. 0-09 



M. sq. 11-25 

h. m. 

T' = 7 32-9 

p = + 5-54, $r = -f 7-32, H == + 40°-8 

u =+5-02, C= + 5-81, c = — 2-15, v = + 8-08 

/} — « = + 0-52 sq. 0.27 ^' — «' = -f 3-86 sq. 14-90 

gr_ v = — 0-76 sq. 0-58 q' — v' = + 1-06 sq. 1-12 



M' 


• • • 


sq. 0.85 


n = 4-00 


sq. 


16-02 








M 


. sq. 


11-25 






m. 









30 N* 


26-42 X 30 
16-02 


= 49-5 


M' 


. sq. 


27-27 
0-85 




- 




N 


. sq. 


26-42 



h. m. ra. h. m. 

6 32-9 + 49-5 = 7 22-4 = time of greatest obscuration. 

h. m. 
T' = 7 22-4 
p = + 4-57, q = 7-58, H = + 38°-2 

«= + 4-75, C = + 6-03, c — — 2-23, g — + 5-54, v = + 8-16 
/+g = + 3-18, r' = 2-69, k = 5-42 

p — u — — 0-18 sq. 0-03 
q — v — — 0-58 sq. 0-34 

m = 0-61 sq. 0-37 

6 (k — m) 4-81 X 6 , «.,.'■, , . 

—2 — - — *■ s — jTTgg — = 10-7 = digits eclipsed on southern limb. 



THE CIRCUMSTANCES OF AN ECLIPSE OF THE SUN. ' 305 



k = -f 5-42 


sq. 


29-38 


to . 


sq. 
sq. 


0-37 


h = 5-39 


29-01 




m. 


h. m. 


: 5-39 : : 


60 


: 1 20- 


h. m. 







4-00 
h. m. h. m. 
7 224 — 1 20-8 = 6 1-6 = approx. time of beginning, 
7 22-4 + 1 20-8 = 8 43-2 = approx. time of end. 

h. m. 
T' = 6 1-6 

p = —2-89. q = + 9-54, H = 18°-0, u . — + 237, C = + 7-30 

c = — 2-70, g=* + 6-78,v = + 8-63, /+ g= 4-42, r' = 2-68 

k = 5-41, E = — 0-88, u' = + 1-91, v' = — 24, 

k = 5-41, sq. 29-27 p — u=— 5-26 sq. 27'67 

to . . sq. 0-37 g__„ = -f 0-91 sq. 0-83 



h = 5-38 sq. 28-90 28-50 

h'.= 5-30 to . . . . . sq. 0-37 



Diff. = 0-08 h' . =zy 5-30. sq. 28-13 



p' —u' = + 3-63 
q' — v ' = — 1-22 


sq. 
sq. 

sq. 

m. 
60 : 


13-18 
1-49 


n . = 3-83 
3-83 : 0-08 :: 


14-67 

m. 
1-3 



h. m. m. h. m. 

6 1-6 — 1-3 = 6 0-3 = corrected time of beginning. 

h. m. 
T' = 8 43-2 
p = + 12-03, q = -\- 5-61, H = 58°-4, u = + 6-54, C = + 4-02 
c = — 1-49, g = + 3-74, v = + 7-42, f+g = 1-38, v' = 2-69 
k = 5-42, E = — 2-42, u' = + 1-05, v' = —0-63, 

k = 5 42, sq. 29-38, p — u = + 5-49, sq. 30-14 

to sq. 0.37, q — v = —1-81, sq. 3-28 



h = 5-39, 


sq. 


29-01, 


TO 




sq 


p' — u' = + 4-49, 


sq. 


20-16, 


h' = . 


5-75, 


sq 


q'~v' = — 0-83, 


sq. 


0-69, 


h = 


. 5-39, 





33-42 
0-37 

3305 



n = 4-57, sq. 20-85, Diff. = . 0-36. 

m. m. 

4-57 : 0-36 :: 60 : 47 
h. m. m. h. m. 

8 43-2 — 4-7 = 8 38-5 = corrected time of end. 
VOL. V. 4 B 



306 PRACTICAL RULE FOR CALCULATING 

h. m. 
At. 6 0-3 
p — w= — 5-34, q — v = + 0-94, u = + 2-33, v = + 8-64 

q — v + 0-94 

y = - K * A = — -176 P = 280°-0 

p — u — 5-34 

« + 2 ' 33 

— = , a ft/< = + "269 Q = 15°-1 

V = Q — P= 95°-l 

Changing the Greenwich mean times into Philadelphia mean times, 
we have, 

h. m. 
Beginning, 59-6 

Greatest obscuration, 2 21-7 
End, 3 37-8 

The first part of the calculation, by note 2d to the rule, is the same 
as the preceding, except that /"need not be found. The subsequent 
part, after the time of greatest obscuration is obtained, is as follows : — 

h. m. 
T'= 7 22-4 

p = + 4-57, q= + 7-58, H = + 38°-2 

u =» 4- 4-75, C =» + 6-03, c = — 2-23, v— + 8-16 
;; — u = — 0-18 sq. 0-03 

q — v = — 0-58 sq. 0-34 



m = 0.61 sq. 0.37 

6(k — m) 4-82 + 6 ~ nm . . ,. , 

~~ '• — == — 2^70 — = = digits eclipsed. 

k = 5-43 sq. 29-48 

m sq. 0-37 



h = 5-40 sq. 29-11 

m. h. m. 
4-00 : 5-40 : : 60 : 1 21-0 
h. m. h. m. h. m. 

7 22-4 — 1 21-0 = 6 1-4 = approx. time of begin. 
7 22-4 + 1 21-0 »= 8 43-4 = approx. time of end. 

h. m. 
T' = 6 1-4 
p = — 2-91, 7 = + 9-55, H = 17°-9 
u = + 2-36, C = 4- 7-30, c = — 2-70, v — + 8-63 






THE CIRCUMSTANCES OF AN ECLIPSE OF THE SUN. 307 



p — u = — 5-27 
q — v = + 0-92 


sq. 27-77 
sq. 0-85 


m 


28-62 
sq. 0-37 





h'= 5-31 




sq. 28-25 




h = 5-40 








Diff.= 09 










m. m. 




4-00 


: 0-09 : 


: 60 : 1-3 


h. 


m. m. h. 


m. 




6 


1-4 _ 1-3 = 6 


0-1 = 


near approx. time of begin, 



h. m. 
T'= 8 43-4 
p = + 12-05, q = + 5-60, H = 58°-4 
u = + 6-54, C = + 4-02, c = — 1-49, v = + 7-42 
p — u = + 5-51 sq. 30-36 

q — v — — 1-82 sq. 3-31 



m 


33-67 
sq. 0-37 


h'= 5-77 
h = 5-40 

Diff. = 0-37 


sq. 33-30 



m. m. 
400 : 0-37 : : 60 : 5-5 
h. m. m. h. m. 

8 43-4 — 5-5 = 8 37-9 = near approx. time of end. 
h. m. 
At 6 1-4 
q — v + 0-92 

^ = ^5^7 --•"*. P- 2790-8 
u 2-36 

V= + 8^3 = + - 273 ' Q = 15 ' 2 
V = Q — P = 95°-4 

If it is required to find the times of beginning and end with greater 
precision than by the foregoing rule, let T" represent the corrected 
Greenwich mean time of beginning, taken to the nearest minute, and 
find from the Nautical Almanac the corresponding sidereal time, ex- 
pressing it in arc. To the sidereal time thus expressed apply the lon- 
gitude of the place, also in arc, by adding, if the longitude is east, but 



308 PRACTICAL RULE FOR CALCULATING 

subtracting if it is west, and denote the result by Z. Find also, for 
the time T', the sun's right ascension in arc, denoting it by A ; the 
sun's declination, denoting it by D ; the moon's right ascension, in arc, 
denoting it by a ; the moon's declination, denoting it by d ; and the 
moon's equatorial horizontal parallax. Take the difference of the sun's 
and moon's parallaxes, and denote it by G. Also denote the sun's 
semidiameter by R. Then find the values of p, q, r, u, and 0, to four 
decimal places, by the following formulas. 

10 sin. (a — A) cos. d 
p = smTG 

10 sin. Id — D) 
q ~ smTG + * P sin> D sin> ( a ~~ A ) 

10 tang. R cos. (d — D) cos. (a — A) 
sin. G 
u = X sin (Z — A) 
v = Y cos. D — X sin. D cos. (Z — A) 

Find the value of g, for the time T, as directed in the preceding 
rule, and with the argument (f -f- g) take the correction of r from 
Table IX., and subtracting it from r, obtain r'. Take the moon's semi- 
diameter from Table VIII., with the equatorial parallax as the argu- 
ment, and adding it to r\ the sum will be the value of k. The square 
of m, and the value of n, at the approximate time of beginning, found 
in the preceding calculation, although extending only to two decimal 
places, will be sufficiently accurate for the present calculation. 

Using a common table of squares, and proportioning for the last two 
figures of the roots, find the values of h and h\ as directed in article 
8 of the foregoing rule, and thence a second correction ; which 
being applied to T', as there directed, will give the true time of be- 
ginning. 

A similar calculation for the corrected time of end, will give the 
true time of end. 

The corrected time of beginning of the eclipse just calculated, has 
been found to be 6 h. 0-3 m. Take therefore T'= 6 h. m. The 
sidereal time corresponding to this time is 339° 7' 22". 2, expressed in 
arc. Hence for Philadelphia, long. 75° 10' 59" W., we have,Z = 263° 
56' 23".2, at the time T'. We also find A = 246° 21' 7".8, D = 



THE CIRCUMSTANCES OF AN ECLIPSE OF THE SUN. 309 

— 21° 40' 51".5, a = 246° 1' 33". 1, d = — 20° 43' 8".l, moon's 
parallax = 60' 23".3, and R = 16 14".8. 

Hence Z — A =: 17° 35' 15", a — A = — 19' 34 ".7, d — D = 
-f- 57' 43".4, and G = 60' 14". 6. 

With these values we obtain, p = — 3-0398, q = -f- 9-5787, 
r = 2-6965, u = -f 2-3195, and v = -4- 8-6398. 

The value of g-, for the time T', is -f- 6-80, and consequently (/-}- 
g) = -f- 4-44. This gives 0-0210 for the correction of r. Hence 
r'= 2-6755. The moon's semidiameter taken from Table VIII is 
2-7315; consequently k = 5-4070. Then, 

k = 5-4070 sq. 29-2357 p — u = — 5-3593 sq. 28-7221 
m sq. 0-3700 q — v = 0-9389 sq. 0-8815 



h = 5-3727 sq. 28-8657 29-6036 

h' =5-4068 m sq. 0-3700 



Diff. = 0-0341 h' =5-4068 sq. 29-2336 

m. in. sec. 
3-83 : 0-0341 : : 60 : 0-53 = 32 

Hence the true time of beginning is 6 h. m. 32 sec, in Greenwich 
mean time. 

For the end take T'= 8 h. 38 m. Then we shall find Z = 303° 
32' 52".6, A = 246° 28' 13".3, D = — 21° 41' 55".3, a = 247° 
42' 41".8, d = — 21° 7' 4"-3, moon's parallax == 60' 21 ".6, and as be- 
fore R = 16' 14".8. We also find g = 3-88, and consequently / + 
g=l-52. 

Hence^ = -|- 11-5373, # = -|- 5-7414, r = 2-6975,r' = 2-6903, 
k = 5-4218, u = -4- 6-4435 and v = + 7-4782. 

k = 5-4218 sq. 29-3959 p — u = + 5-0938 sq. 25-9468 
m sq. 0-3700 q — v = — • 1-7368 sq. 3-0165 



h = 5-3876 sq. 29-0259 
h'= 5-3473 


m 

h'=z 5-3473 
m. sec. 
: 0-53 =- 32 


28-9633 
sq. 0-3700 


Diff. = 0-0403 

m. 
4-57 : 0-0403 : : 60 : 


sq. 28-5933 



Hence the true time of end is 8 h. 38 m. 32 sec. in Greenwich 
vol. v. — 4 c 



310 PRACTICAL, RULE FOR CALCULATING 

mean time. The true times of beginning and end, expressed in Phi- 
ladelphia mean time, will be 

h. m. sec. 

Beginning. 59 48 

End, 3 37 48 

It thus appears that in the present example the time of beginning, 
as found in the foregoing rule, differs only 12 seconds from the true 
time, and that the time of end exactly corresponds with that obtained 
by the exact calculation. 

In these calculations no allowance has been made for irradiation and 
inflexion. To make this allowance we must diminish k, by subtract- 
ing from it the quotient of ten times the assumed value of these quan- 
tities, divided by the difference of the parallaxes in seconds. If we 
assume an irradiation and inflexion, amounting to 5", its effect in the 
present eclipse will be to make the time of beginning, at Philadelphia. 
13 seconds later, and the time of end 11 seconds earlier than as above 
obtained. Thus we should have 

h. m. sec. 
Beginning at 10 1 

End at 3 37 37. 



THE CIRCUMSTANCES OF AN ECLIPSE OF THE SUN. 



311 



TABLE I. 


Logarithms x and y. 
Arg. Latitude of Place. 


Arg. 


Log. x. 


Log. y. 


0° 
2 
4 
6 

8 


1-00000 
1-00000 
1-00001 
100002 
1-00003 


0-99718 
0-99719 
0-99719 
0-99720 
0-99721 


10 
12 
14 
16 

18 


1-00004 
1-00006 
1-00008 
1-00011 
100013 


0-99723 

0-99725 
0-99727 
99729 
0-99732 


20 
22 
24 

26 

28 


100016 
1-00020 
1-00023 
1-00027 
100031 


0-99735 
0-99738 
0-99742 
0-99745 
0-99749 


30 
32 
34 
36 

38 


1-00035 
1-00039 
1-00044 
1-00048 
1-00053 


0-99754 
0-99758 
0-99762 
0-99767 
0-99772 


40 
42 
44 
46 

48 


1-00058 
1-00063 
1-00068 
1-00073 
1-00078 


0-99777 
0-99781 
0-99786 
0-99791 
0-99796 


50 
52 
54 
56 

58 


1-00082 
1-00087 
1-00092 
1-00097 
1-00101 


0-99801 
0-99806 
0-99810 
0-99815 
0-99820 


60 
62 
64 
66 

68 


1-00105 
100110 
100114 
100117 
100121 


0-99824 
0-99828 
0-99832 
0-99836 
0-99839 


70 
72 

74 
76 

78 


100124 
100127 
100130 
100133 
100135 


0-99843 
0-99846 
0-99848 
0-99851 
0-99853 


80 
82 
84 
86 
88 
90 


] 00137 
100138 
100139 
1-00140 
100141 
1 00141 


0-99855 
0-99856 
0-99858 
0-99859 
0-99859 
0-99859 


Note. — In the calcula- 
tion of the above Table, 
the earth's compression 


was assumed to be - — 
309- 





TABLE II. 


Values of X and Y for each Degree of 




Latitude. 


Lat. 


X. 


Y. 


Lat. 


X. 


Y. 


0° 


10-00 


0-00 


45° 


7-08 


704 


1 


1000 


0-17 


46 


6-96 


7-16 


2 


9-99 


0-35 


47 


6-83 


7-28 


3 


9-99 


0-52 


48 


6-70 


7-40 


4 


9-98 


0-69 


49 


6-57 


7-51 


5 


9-96 


0-87 


50 


6-44 


7-63 


6 


9-95 


1-04 


51 


6-31 


7-74 


7 


9-93 


1-21 


52 


617 


7-84 


8 


9-90 


1-38 


53 


603 


7-95 


9 


9-88 


1-55 


54 


5-89 


8-06 


10 


9-85 


1-73 


55 


5-75 


8-16 


11 


9-82 


1-90 


56 


5-60 


8-25 


12 


9-73 


2-07 


57 


5-46 


8-35 


13 


9-74 


2-24 


58 


5-31 


8-45 


14 


9-70 


2-40 


59 


516 


S-54 


15 


9-66 


2-57 


60 


501 


8-63 


16 


9-62 


2-74 


61 


4-86 


8-71 


17 


9-57 


2-91 


62 


4-71 


8-79 


18 


9-51 


3-07 


63 


4.55 


8-87 


19 


9-46 


3-24 


64 


4-40 


8-95 


20 


9-40 


3-40 


65 


4-24 


9-03 


21 


9-34 


3-56 


66 


4-08 


9-10 


22 


9 28 


3-72 


67 


3-92 


9-17 


23 


921 


3-88 


68 


3-76 


9-24 


24 


9-14 


4-04 


69 


3-59 


9-30 


25 


9-07 


4-20 


70 


3-43 


9-36 


26 


8 99 


4-36 


71 


3-27 


9-42 


27 


8-92 


4-51 


72 


3-10 


9-48 


28 


8-84 


4-67 


73 


2-93 


9-53 


29 


8-75 


4-82 


74 


2-76 


9-58 


30 


8-67 


4-97 


75 


2-60 


9-63 


31 


8-58 


5 12 


76 


2-43 


9-67 


32 


8-49 


5-27 


77 


2-26 


9-71 


33 


8-39 


5-42 


78 


2-09 


9-75 


34 


8-30 


5-56 


79 


1-91 


9-78 


35 


8-20 


5-70 


80 


1-74 


9-81 


36 


8-10 


5-85 


81 


1-57 


9-84 


37 


8-00 


5-99 


82 


1-40 


9-87 


38 


7-89 


612 


83 


1-22 


9-89 


39 


7-78 


6-26 


84 


105 


9-91 


40 


7-67 


6-39 


85 


0-87 


9-93 


41 


7-56 


6-53 


86 


0-70 


9-94 


42 


7-44 


6-66 


87 


0-53 


9-95 


43 


7-32 


6-79 


88 


0-35 


9-96 


44 


7-20 


6-91 


89 


0-18 


9-97 


45 


7-08 


704 


90 


0-00 


9-97 



TABLE III. 


Values of 


u' and V. 


Arg. C 


for u'. 


Arg. E/or v'. 


Arg. 


u'orv' 


Arg. u'orv' 


0-0 


0-00 


50 


1-31 


0-1 


0-03 


51 


1-34 


0-2 


0-05 


5-2 


1-36 


0-3 


0-08 


5-3 


1-39 


0-4 


0-10 


5-4 


1-41 


0-5 


0-13 


5-5 


1-44 


0-6 


015 


5-6 


1-47 


0-7 


0-18 


5-7 


1-49 


0-8 


0-21 


5-8 


1-52 


0-9 


0-24 


5-9 


1-54 


1-0 


0-26 


60 


1-57 


11 


0-29 


61 


1-60 


1*2 


0-31 


6-2 


1-62 


1-3 


0-34 


6-3 


1-65 


1-4 


0-37 


6-4 


1-68 


1-5 


0-39 


6-5 


1-70 


1-6 


0-42 


6-6 


1-73 


1-7 


0-45 


6-7 


1-75 


1-8 


0-47 


6-8 


1-78 


1-9 


0-50 


6-9 


1-81 


20 


0-52 


7.0 


1-83 


21 


0-55 


71 


1-86 


2-2 


0-58 


7-2 


1-88 


2-3 


0-60 


7-3 


1-91 


2-4 


0-63 


7-4 


1-94 


2-5 


0-65 


7-5 


1-96 


2-6 


0-68 


7-6 


1-99 


2-7 


0-71 


7-7 


2-02 


2-8 


0-73 


7-8 


204 


2-9 


0-76 


7-9 


207 


30 


0-79 


8-0 


209 


31 


0-81 


8-1 


212 


3-2 


0-84 


8-2 


215 


3-3 


0-86 


8-3 


2-17 


3-4 


0-89 


8-4 


2-20 


3-5 


0-92 


8-5 


2-23 


3-6 


0-94 


8-6 


2-25 


3-7 


0-97 


8-7 


2-28 


3-8 


0-99 


8-8 


2-30 


3-9 


102 


8-9 


2-33 


4-0 


1-05 


9-0 


2-36 


4-1 


1-07 


91 


2-38 


4-2 


1-10 


9-2 


2-41 


4-3 


113 


9-3 


2-43 


4-4 


115 


9-4 


2-46 


4-5 


118 


9-5 


2-49 


4-6 


1-20 


9-6 


2-51 


4-7 


1-23 


9-7 


2-54 


4-8 


1-26 


9-8 


2.57 


4-9 


1-28 


9-9 


2-59 


50 


1-31 


100 


2-62 



312 



PRACTICAL RULE FOR CALCULATING 













TABLE IV. 


















Squares of Numbers to two Decimal Places. 








Root. 


Square. 


Root. 


Square. 


Root. 


Square. 


Root. 


Square. 


Root. 


Square. 


Root. 


Square. 


000 


000 


0-60 


0-36 


1-20 


1-44 


1-80 


324 


2-40 


5-76 


300 


9.00 


001 


o-oo 


0-61 


0-37 


1-21 


1-46 


1-81 


3-28 


2 41 


5-81 


301 


•9 06 


002 


000 


0-62 


0-38 


1-22 


1-49 


1-82 


3-31 


2-42 


5-86 


3-02 


912 


003 


000 


0-63 


0-40 


1-23 


1-51 


1-83 


3-35 


2-43 


5-90 


303 


918 


004 


0-00 


0-64 


0-41 


1-24 


1-54 


1-84 


3-39 


2-44 


5-95 


304 


9-24 


005 


0-00 


0-05 


0-42 


1-25 


1-56 


1-85 


3-42 


2-45 


6-00 


305 


9-30 


006 


000 


0-66 


0-44 


1-26 


1-59 


1-86 


3-46 


2 46 


605 


306 


9-36 


007 


000 


0-67 


0-45 


1-27 


1-61 


1-87 


3-50 


2-47 


610 


307 


9-42 


0-08 


001 


0-68 


0-46 


1-23 


1-64 


1-88 


3-53 


2*48 


615 


3-08 


9-49 


009 


001 


0-69 


0-43 


1-29 


1-66 


1-89 


3-57 


2-49 


6-20 


309 


9-55 


010 


001 


0-70 


0-49 


1-30 


1-69 


1-90 


3-61 


2-50 


6-25 


310 


9-61 


Oil 


001 


0-71 


0-50 


1-31 


1-72 


1-91 


3-65 


2-51 


6-30 


311 


9-67 


012 


001 


0-72 


0-52 


1-32 


1-74 


1-92 


3-69 


252 


6-35 


312 


9-73 


013 


0-02 


0-73 


0-53 


1-33 


1-77 


1-93 


3-72 


2-53 


6-40 


313 


9-80 


014 


0-02 


0-74 


0-55 


1-34 


1-80 


1-94 


3-76 


2-54 


6-45 


314 


9-86 


015 


0-02 


0-75 


0-56 


1-35 


1-82 


1-95 


3-80 


2-55 


6-50 


315 


9-92 


016 


0-03 


0-76 


0-53 


1-36 


1-85 


1-96 


3-84 


2-56 


6-55 


316 


9-99 


017 


003 


0-77 


0-59 


1-37 


1-88 


1-97 


3-88 


2-57 


6-60 


317 


1005 


018 


003 


0-78 


0-61 


1-38 


1-90 


1-93 


3-92 


2-58 


6-66 


318 


1011 


019 


004 


0-79 


0-62 


1-39 


1-93 


1-99 


3-96 


2-59 


6-71 


319 


1018 


0-20 


0-04 


0-80 


0-64 


1-40 


1-96 


200 


4-00 


2-60 


6-76 


3-20 


10-24 


0-21 


0-04 


0-81 


0-66 


1-41 


]-99 


2-01 


4-04 


2-61 


6-81 


3-21 


10-30 


0-22 


0-05 


0-82 


0-67 


1-42 


202 


2-02 


4-08 


2-62 


6-86 


3-22 


10-37 


0-23 


0-05 


0-83 


0-69 


1-43 


204 


203 


412 


2-63 


6-92 


3-23 


10-43 


0-24 


006 


0-84 


0-71 


1-44 


2-07 


2-04 


416 


2-64 


6-97 


3-24 


10-50 


0-25 


0-06 


0-85 


0-72 


1-45 


210 


205 


4-20 


2-65 


7-02 


3-25 


10 56 


0-26 


0-07 


0-86 


0-74 


1-46 


213 


2.06 


4-24 


2-66 


7-08 


3-26 


10-63 


0-27 


0-07 


0-87 


0-76 


1-47 


216 


207 


4-28 


2-67 


713 


3-27 


10-69 


0-28 


0-08 


0-88 


0-77 


1-48 


219 


2-03 


4-33 


2-68 


7-18 


3-28 


10-76 


0-29 


0-08 


0-89 


0-79 


1-49 


2-22 


209 


4-37 


2-69 


7-24 


3-29 


10-82 


0-30 


0-09 


0-90 


081 


1-50 


2-25 


210 


4-41 


2-70 


7-29 


3-30 


10-89 


0-31 


010 


0-91 


0-83 


151 


2-28 


211 


4-45 


271 


7-34 


3-31 


10-96 


0-32 


010 


092 


0-85 


152 


2-31 


212 


4-49 


272 


7-40 


3-32 


1102 


0-33 


Oil 


093 


0-86 


153 


2-34 


213 


4-54 


2-73 


7-45 


3-33 


1109 


0-34 


012 


094 


0-83 


154 


2-37 


214 


4-58 


274 


7-51 


3-34 


1116 


0-35 


012 


0-95 


0-90 


1'55 


2-40 


215 


4-62 


2-75 


7-56 


3-35 


1122 


0-36 


013 


0-96 


0-92 


156 


2-43 


216 


4-67 


276 


7-62 


3-36 


11-29 


0-37 


0-14 


0-97 


0-94 


1:57 


2-46 


217 


4-71 


2-77 


7-67 


3-37 


11-36 


0-38 


014 


0-93 


0-96 


1-58 


2-50 


218 


4-75 


2-78 


7-73 


3-38 


11-42 


0-39 


015 


0-99 


0-93 


1-59 


2-53 


219 


4-80 


2-79 


7-78 


3-39 


11-49 


0-40 


016 


100 


100 


1-60 


2-56 


2-20 


4-84 


2-80 


7-84 


3-40 


11-56 


0-41 


017 


101 


102 


1-61 


2-59 


2-21 


4-88 


2-81 


7-90 


3-41 


11-63 


0-42 


0-18 


102 


1-04 


1-62 


2-62 


2-22 


4-93 


2-82 


7-95 


3-42 


11-70 


0-43 


0-18 


103 


106 


1-63 


2-66 


223 


4-97 


2.83 


8-01 


3-43 


11-76 


0-44 


019 


104 


1-08 


1-64 


2-69 


2-24 


502 


2-84 


8-07 


3-44 


11-83 


0-45 


0-20 


105 


110 


1-65 


2-72 


2-25 


5-06 


2-85 


812 


3-45 


11-90 


0-46 


021 


106 


112 


1-66 


2-76 


220 


5.11 


2-86 


8-18 


3-46 


11-97 


0-47 


0-22 


107 


114 


1-67 


2-79 


2-27 


515 


2-87 


8-24 


3-47 


1204 


0-48 


0-23 


108 


117 


168 


2-82 


2-28- 


5-20 


2-83 


8-29 


3-43 


1211 


0-49 


0-24 


109 


119 


1-69 


2-86 


2-29 


5-24 


2-89 


8-35 


3-49 


1218 


0-50 


0-25 


110 


121 


1-70 


2-89 


2-30 


5-29 


2-90 


8-41 


3-50 


12-25 


0-51 


0-20 


111 


1-23 


1-71 


2-92 


2-31 


5-34 


2-91 


8-47 


3-51 


12-32 


0-52 


0-27 


112 


1-25 


172 


2-96 


2-32 


5-33 


2-92 


8-53 


3-52 


12-39 


0-53 


0-23 


113 


1-23 


1-73 


2-99 


2-33 


5-43 


2-93 


8-58 


3-53 


12-46 


0-54 


029 


114 


1-30 


1-74 


303 


2-34 


5-48 


2-94 


8-64 


3-54 


12 53 


055 


0-30 


115 


1-32 


1-75 


306 


2-35 


5-52 


2-95 


8-70 


3-55 


12-60 


0-56 


0-31 


116 


1-35 


1-76 


310 


2-36 


5-57 


2-96 


8-76 


3-56 


12-67 


0-57 


0-32 


117 


1-37 


1-77 


313 


2-37 


5-62 


2-97 


8-82 


3o~ 


12-74 


0-58 


034 


118 


1-39 


1-73 


317 


2-38 


5-66 


2-98 


8-88 


3-53 


12-82 


0-59 


0-35 


119 


1-42 


1-79 


3-20 


2-39 


5-71 


2-99 


8-94 


3-59 


12-89 


0-60 


0-36 


1-20 


1-44 


1-80 


3-24 


2-40 


5-76 


300 


900 


3-60 


12-96 



THE CIRCUMSTANCES OF AN ECLIPSE OF THE SUN. 



313 









TABLE IV. 


CONTINUED. 












Sq 


uares of Numbers to two Decimal Places. 






Root. 


Square. 


Root. 


Square. 


Root. 


Square. 


Root. 


Square. 


Root. 


Square. 


3-60 


12-96 


4-20 


17-64 


4-80 


23-04 


5-40 


29-16 


600 


36-00 


3-61 


1303 


4-21 


17-72 


4-81 


2314 


5-41 


29-27 


601 


36-12 


3-62 


1310 


4-22 


17-81 


4-82 


23-23 


5-42 


29-38 


6-02 


36-24 


3-63 


1318 


4-23 


17-89 


4-83 


23-33 


5-43 


29-48 


603 


36-36 


3-64 


13-25 


4-24 


17-98 


4-84 


23-43 


5-44 


29-59 


6-04 


36-48 


3-65 


13-32 


4-25 


18-06 


4-85 


23-52 


5-45 


29-70 


6-05 


36-60 


3.66 


13-40 


4-26 


1815 


4-86 


23-62 


5-46 


29-81 


606 


36-72 


3-67 


13-47 


4-27 


18-23 


4-87 


23-72 


5 47 


29-92 


6 07 


36 84 


3-68 


13-54 


4-28 


18-32 


4-88 


23-81 


5-48 


30-03 


6-08 


36-97 


3-69 


13-62 


4-29 


18-40 


4-89 


23-91 


5-49 


3014 


609 


37-09 


3-70 


13-69 


4-30 


18-49 


4-90 


24-01 


5-50 


30-25 


610 


37-21 


3-71 


13-76 


4-31 


18-58 


4-91 


24-11 


5-51 


30-36 


611 


37-33 


3-72 


13-84 


4-32 


18-66 


4-92 


24-21 


5-52 


30-47 


612 


37-45 


3-73 


13-91 


4-33 


18-75 


4-93 


24-30 


5-53 


30-58 


613 


37-58 


3-74 


13-99 


4-34 


18-84 


4-94 


24-40 


5-54 


30-69 


'6-14 


37-70 


375 


14-06 


4-35 


18-92 


4-95 


24-50 


5-55 


30-80 


6-15 


37-82 


3-76 


1414 


4-36 


1901 


4-96 


24-60 


5-56 


30-91 


616 


37-95 


3-77 


14-21 


4-37 


1910 


4-97 


24-70 


5-57 


31-02 


617 


38-07 


3 '78 


14-29 


4-38 


1918 


4-98 


24-80 


5-58 


31-14 


6-18 


38-19 


3-79 


14-36 


4-39 


19-27 


4-99 


24-90 


5-59 


31-25 


619 


38-32 


3-80 


14-44 


4-40 


19-36 


500 


25-00 


5-60 


31-36 


6-20 


38-44 


381 


14-52 


4-41 


19.45 


501 


25-10 


5-61 


31-47 


6-21 


38-56 


382 


14-59 


4-42 


19-54 


5-02 


25-20 


5-62 


31-58 


6-22 


38-69 


3-83 


14-67 


4-43 


19-62 


503 


25-30 


5-63 


31-70 


6-23 


38-81 


3-84 


14-75 


4-44 


19-71 


504 


25-40 


5-64 


31-81 


6-24 


38-94 


3-85 


14-82 


4-45 


19-80 


5-05 


25-50 


5-65 


31-92 


6-25 


39-06 


386 


14.90 


4-46 


19-89 


5-06 


25-60 


5-66 


3204 


6-26 


3919 


3-87 


14-98 


4-47 


19-98 


5-07 


25-70 


5-67 


32-15 


6-27 


39-31 


3.88 


1505 


4-48 


20-07 


5-08 


25-81 


5-68 


32-26 


6-28 


39-44 


3-89 


1513 


4-49 


20-16 


509 


25-91 


5.69 


32-38 


6-29 


39-56 


3-90 


15-21 


4-50 


20-25 


510 


26-01 


5-70 


32-49 


6-30 


39-69 


391 


15-29 


4-5] 


20-34 


511 


2611 


5-71 


32-60 


6-31 


39-82 


3-92 


15-37 


4-52 


20-43 


512 


26-21 


5-72 


32-72 


6-32 


39-94 


393 


15-44 


4-53 


20-52 


513 


26-32 


5-73 


32-83 


6-33 


4007 


394 


15-52 


4-54 


20-61 


514 


26-42 


5-74 


32-95 


6-34 


40-20 


3-95 


15-60 


455 


20-70 


515 


26-52 


5-75 


33-06 


6-35 


40-32 


396 


15-68 


4-56 


20-79 


516 


26-63 


5-76 


33-18 


6-36 


40-45 


3-97 


15-76 


4-57 


20-88 


517 


26-73 


5-77 


33-29 


6-37 


40-58 


3-98 


15-84 


4-58 


20-98 


518 


26-83 


5-78 


33-41 


6-38 


40-70 


3-99 


15-92 


4-59 


21-07 


5-19 


26-94 


5-79 


33-52 


6-39 


40-83 


4-00 


1600 


4-60 


2116 


5-20 


27-04 


5-80 


33-64 


6-40 


40-96 


401 


16-08 


4-61 


21-25 


5-21 


27-14 


5-81 


33-76 


6-41 


4109 


402 


1616 


4-62 


21-34 


5-22 


27-25 


5-82 


33-87 


6-42 


41-22 


403 


,16-24 


4-63 


21-44 


5-23 


27-35 


5-83 


33-99 


6-43 


41-34 


404 


16-32 


4-64 


21-53 


5-24 


27-46 


5-84 


3411 


6-44 


41-47 


405 


16-40 


4-65 


21-62 


5-25 


. 27-56 


5-85 


34 22 


6-45 


41-60 


4-06 


16-48 


4-66 


21-72 


5-26 


27-67 


5-86 


34-34 


6-46 


41-73 


407 


16-56 


4-67 


21-81 


5-27 


27-77 


5-87 


34-46 


6-47 


41-86 


4-08 


16-65 


4-68 


21-90 


5-28 


27-88 


5-88 


34-57 


6-48 


41-99 


4-09 


16-73 


4-69 


22-00 


5-29 


27-98 


5 89 


34-69 


6-49 


4212 


410 


16-81 


4-70 


22.09 


5-30 


2809 


5-90 


34-81 


6-50 


42-25 


411 


16-89 


4-71 


2218 


5-31 


28-20 


5-91 


34-93 


6-51 


42-38 


412 


16-97 


4-72 


22 28 


5-32 


28-30 


5-92 


35-05 


6-52 


42-51 


413 


1706 


4-73 


22-37 


5-33 


28-41 


5-93 


3516 


6-53 


42-64 


414 


1714 


4-74 


22-47 


5-34 


28-52 


5-94 


35-28 


6-54 


42-77 


415 


17-22 


4-75 


22-56 


5-35 


28-62 


5-95 


35-40 


6-55 


42-90 


416 


17-31 


4-76 


22-66 


5-36 


28-73 


5-96 


35-52 


6-56 


43-03 


417 


17-39 


4-77 


22-75 


5-37 


28-84 


5-97 


35-64 


6-57 


4316 


418 


17-47 


4-78 


22-85 


5-38 


28-94 


5-98 


35-76 


6-58 


43-30 


419 


17-56 


4-79 


22-94 


5-39 


2905 


5-99 


35-88 


6-59 


43 43 


420 


17-64 


4-80 


2304 


5-40 


2916 


600 


36-00 


6-60 


43-56 



VOL. V. 4 D 



314 



PRACTICAL. RULE FOR CALCULATING 







TABLE IV. CONTINUED. 










Squares of Numbers to two Decimal Places. 






Root. 


Square. 


Root. 


Square. 


Root. 


Square. 


Root. 


Square. 


6-60 


43-56 


7-20 


51-84 


7-80 


60-84 


8-40 


70-56 


6-61 


43-69 


7-21 


51-98 


7-81 


6100 


8-41 


70-73 


6-62 


43-82 


7-22 


5213 


7-82 


6115 


8-42 


70-90 


6-63 


43-96 


7-23 


52-27 


7-83 


61-31 


8-43 


7106 


6-64 


4409 


7-24 


52-42 


7-84 


61-47 


8-44 


71-23 


6-65 


44-22 


7-25 


52-56 


7-85 


61-62 


8-45 


71-40 


6-66 


44-36 


7-26 


52-71 


7-86 


61-78 


8-46 


71-57 


6-67 


44-49 


7-27 


52-85 


7-87 


61-94 


8-47 


71-74 


6-68 


44-62 


7-28 


5300 


7-88 


6209 


8-48 


71-91 


6-69 


44-76 


7-29 


5314 


7-89 


62-25 


8-49 


72-08 


6-70 


44-89 


7-30 


53-29 


7-90 


G241 


8-50 


72-25 


6-71 


45-02 


7-31 


53 44 


7-91 


62-57 


8-51 


72-42 


6-72 


4516 


7-32 


53-58 


7-92 


62-73 


8-52 


72-59 


6-73 


45-29 


7-33 


53-73 


7 93 


62-88 


8-53 


72-76 


6-74 


45-43 


7-34 


53-88 


7-94 


63 04 


8-54 


72-93 


0-75 


45-56 


7-35 


54-02 


7-95 


63-20 


8-55 


7310 


G-76 


45-70 


7-36 


5417 


7-96 


63-36 


8-56 


73-27 


0-77 


45-83 


7-37 


54-32 


7-97 


63-52 


8-57 


73-44 


6-78 


45-97 


7-38 


54-46 


7-98 


63-68 


8-58 


73-62 


G-79 


4610 


7-39 


54-61 


7.99 


63-84 


8-59 


73-79 


6-80 


40-24 


7.40 


54-76 


800 


6400 


8-60 


73-96 


6-81 


46-38 


7-41 


54-91 


801 


6416 


8-61 


7413 


0-82 


46-51 


7-42 


5506 


8-02 


64-32 


8-62 


74-30 


0-83 


46-65 


7-43 


55-20 


803 


64-48 


8-63 


74-48 


G-84 


46-79 


7-44 


55-35 


8-04 


G4-64 


8-64 


74-65 


G-85 


46-92 


7-45 


55-50 


8-05 


64-80 


8-65 


74-82 


6-86 


47-06 


7-46 


55-65 


8-06 


64-96 


8-66 


7500 


G-87 


47-20 


7-47 


55-80 


807 


6512 


8-67 


7517 


0-88 


47-33 


7-48 


55-95 


8-08 


65-29 


8-68 


75-34 


0-89 


47-47 


7-49 


5610 


809 


05-45 


8-69 


75-52 


0-90 


47-61 


7-50 


56-25 


8-10 


65-61 


8-70 


75-69 


0-91 


47-75 


7-51 


56-40 


811 


65-77 


8-71 


75-86 


0-92 


47-S9 


7-52 


56-55 


812 


65-93 


8-72 


7604 


0-93 


48-02 


7-53 


56-70 


8-13 


6610 


8-73 


76-21 


0-94 


48-16 


7-54 


56-85 


814 


66 26 


8-74 


76-39 


G-95 


4S-30 


7-55 


5700 


815 


66-42 


8-75 


70-56 


6-96 


48-44 


7-56 


5715 


8-16 


66-59 


8-76 


76-74 


0-97 


48-58 


7-57 


57-30 


8-17 


66-75 


8-77 


70-91 


6-98 


. 48-72 


7-58 


57-46 


8-18 


6691 


8-78 


7709 


6-99 


48-86 


7-59 


57-61 


819 


67-08 


8-79 


77-26 


7-00 


49-00 


7-60 


57-76 


8-20 


67-24 


8-80 


77-44 


7-01 


49-14 


7-61 


57-91 


8-21 


67-40 


8-81 


77-G2 


7-02 


49-28 


7-62 


58-06 


8-22 


67-57 


8-82 


77-79 


703 


49-42 


7-63 


58-22 


823 


67-73 


8-83 


77-97 


704 


49-5G 


7-64 


58 37 


8-24 


67-90 


8-84 


7815 


7 05 


49-70 


7-65 


58-52 


8-25 


68-06 


8-85 


78-32 


7-OG 


49-84 


7-66 


58-68 


8-26 


68-23 


8-86 


78-50 


707 


49-98 


7-67 


58-83 


8-27 


68-39 


8-87 


7868 


7-08 


50-13 


7-63 


58-98 


8-28 


68-56 


8-88 


78-85 


7-09 


50-27 


7-69 


59-14 


8-29 


68-72 


8-89 


7903 


710 


50-41 


7-70 


59-29 


830 


08-89 


8-90 


79-21 


711 


50-55 


7-71 


59-44 


8-31 


09-06 


8-91 


79-39 


712 


50-69 


7-72 


59-00 


832 


69-22 


8-92 


79-57 


713 


50-84 


7-73 


59-75 


8-33 


09-39 


8-93 


79-74 


714 


50-98 


7-74 


59-91 


8-34 


09-56 


8-94 


79-92 


7 15 


51-12 


7-75 


60-06 


8-35 


69-72 


8-95 


8010 


716 


51-27 


7-76 


60-22 


S-36 


69-89 


8-96 


80-28 


717 


51-41 


7-77 


60-37 


8-37 


7006 


8-97 


80-46 


7-18 


51-55 


7-78 


60-53 


8-38 


70-22 


8-98 


80-64 


7-19 


51-70 


7-79 


60-68 


8-39 


70-39 


8-99 


80-82 


7-20 


51-84 


7-80 


60-84 


8-40 


70-56 


900 


81-00 



THE CIKCUMSTANCES OF AN ECLIPSE OF THE SUN. 



315 











TABLE V. 








■ 




P - 


— u u 


q 


— V V 




P - 


— u u 


Q - 


— V V 




A 'g-V- 


or 

— V V 


Arg. p 


— — or — 
— it u 




A *S- g. 


-v 0I v 


Arg. — 
& p . 


or — 

— u u 


Arg. 


Arg. + | 


Arg.— 


Arg.+ 


Arg. — 


Arg. 


Arg -f 


Arg. — 


Arg. + 


Arg. — 


■00 


0°0 


180°-0 


90°-0 


90° -0 


•50 


26°-6 


153°-4 


63<M 


116°-6 


■01 


-6 


179 4 


89 -4 


90 -6 


•51 


27 -0 


153 


63 


117 


■02 


1 1 


178 -9 


88 -9 


91 1 


•52 


27 -5 


152 -5 


62 -5 


117 -5 


•03 


1 -7 


178 -3 


88 -3 


91 -7 


•53 


27 -9 


152 1 


62 -1 


117 -9 


•04 


2 -3 


177 -7 


87 -7 


92 -3 


•54 


28 -4 


151 -6 


61 -6 


118 -4 


■05 


2 -9 


177 1 


87 -1 


92 -9 


•55 


28 -8 


151 -2 


61 -2 


118 -8 


•06 


3 -4 


176 -6 


86 -6 


93 -4 


•56 


29 -2 


150 -8 


60 -8 


119 -2 


•07 


4 


176 -0 


86 -0 


94 -0 


•57 


29 -7 


150 -3 


60 -3 


119 -7 


•08 


4 -6 


175 -4 


85 -4 


94 -6 


■58 


30 -1 


149 -9 


59 -9 


120 -1 


•09 


5 1 


174 -9 


84 -9 


95 1 


•59 


30 5 


149 -5 


59 -5 


120 -5 


■10 


5 -7 


174 -3 


84 -3 


95 -7 


•60 


31 


149 -0 


59 -0 


121 -0 


■11 


6 -3 


173 -7 


83 -7 


96 -3 


•61 


31 -4 


148 -6 


58 -6 


121 -4 


•12 . 


• 6 -8 


173 -2 


83 -2 


96 -8 


62 


31 -8 


148 -2 


58 -2 


121 -8 


•13 ' 


7 -4 


172 -6 


82 -6 


97 -4 


■63 


32 -2 


147 -8 


57 -8 


122 -2 


•14 


8 -0 


172 


82 -0 


98 -0 


•64 


32 -6 


147 -4 


57 -4 


122 -6 


•15 


8 -5 


171 -5 


81 -5 


98 -5 


•65 


33 -0 


147 -0 


57 -0 


123 -0 


16 


9 1 


170 -9 


80 -9 


99 -1 


•66 


33 -4 


146 -6 


56 -6 


123 -4 


17 


9 -6 


170 -4 


80 -4 


99 -6 


•67 


33 -8 


146 -2 


56 -2 


123 -8 


•18 


10 -2 


169 -8 


79 -8 


100 -2 


•68 


34 -2 


145 -8 


55 -8 


124 -2 


19 


10 -8 


169 -2 


79 -2 


100 -8 


•69 


34 -6 


145 -4 


55 -4 


124 -6 


•20 


11 -3 


168 -7 


78 -7 


101 -3 


•70 


35 -0 


145 


55 


125 


•21 


11 -9 


168 1 


78 -1 


101 -9 


•71 


35 -4 


144 -6 


54 -6 


125 -4 


•22 


12 -4 


167 -6 


77 -6 


102 -4 


■72 


35 -8 


144 -2 


54 2 


125 -8 


•23 


13 


167 -0 


77 -0 


103 


•73 


36 -1 


143 -9 


53 -9 


126 -1 


•24 


13 -5 


166 -5 


76 -5 


103 -5 


•74 


36 -5 


143 -5 


53 5 


126 -5 


•25 


14 


166 


76 -0 


104 -0 


•75 


36 -9 


143 1 


53 1 


126 -9 


■26 


14 -6 


165 -4 


75 -4 


104 -6 


•76 


37 -2 


142 -8 


52 -8 


127 -2 


•27 


15 1 


164 -9 


74 -9 


105 -1 


•77 


37 -6 


142 -4 


52 -4 


127 -6 


•28 


15 -6 


164 -4 


74 -4 


105 6 


•78 


38 -0 


142 


52 


128 -0 


•29 


16 -2 


163 -8 


73 -8 


106 -2 


•79 


38 -3 


141 -7 


51 -7 


128 -3 


•30 


16 -7 


163 -3 


73 -3 


106 -7 


•80 


38 -7 


141 -3 


51 -3 


128 -7 


•31 


17 -2 


162 -8 


72 -8 


107 2 


■81 


39 -0 


141 


51 


129 -0 


•32 


17 -7 


162 -3 


72 -3 


107 -7 


•82 


39 -4 


140 -6 


50 -6 


129 -4 


•33 


18 3 


161 -7 


71 -7 


108 -3 


•83 


39 -7 


140 -3 


50 -3 


129 -7 


■34 


18 -8 


161 2 


71 -2 


108 -8 


.84 


40 -0 


140 


50 -0 


130 


•35 


19 -3 


160 -7 


70 -7 


109 3 


•85 


40 -4 


139 -6 


49 -6 


130 -4 


•36 


19 -8 


160 -2 


70 -2 


109 -8 


•86 


40 -7 


139 -3 


49 -3 


130 -7 


•37 


20 -3 


159 -7 


69 -7 


110 3 


•87 


41 


139 


49 -0 


131 


•38 


20 -8 


159 -2 


69 -2 


110 -8 


•88 


41 -3 


138 -7 


48 -7 


131 -3 


•39 


21 -3 


158 -7 


68 -7 


111 3 


•89 


41 -7 


138 -3 


48 -3 


131 -7 


•40 


21 -8 


158 -2 


68 -2 


111 8 


•90 


42 


138 


48 -0 


132 


•41 


22 -3 


157 -7 


67 -7 


J12 3 


•91 


42 -3 


137 -7 


47 -7 


132 -3 


•42 


22 -8 


157 -2 


67 -2 


112 -8 


•92 


42 -6 


137 -4 


47 -4 


132 -6 


■43 


23 -3 


156 -7 


66 -7 


113 3 


■93 


42 -9 


137 1 


47 1 


132 -9 


•44 


23 -7 


156 -3 


66 -3 


113 7 


•94 


43 -2 


136 -8 


46 -8 


133 -2 


■45 


24 -2 


155 -8 


65 -8 


114 -2 


•95 


43 -5 


136 -5 


46 -5 


133 -5 


•46 


24 -7 


155 -3 


65 -3 


114 -7 


•96 


43 -8 


136 -2 


46 -2 


133 -8 


•47 


25 -2 


154 -8 


64 -8 


115 -2 


•97 


44 1 


135 -9 


45 -9 


134 1 


•48 


25 -6 


154 -4 


64 -4 


115 -6 


•98 


44 4 


135 -6 


45 -6 


134 -4 


•49 


26 1 


153 -9 


63 -9 


116 1 


•99 


44 -7 


135 -3 


45 -3 


134 -7 


•50 


26 -6 


153 -4 


63 -4 


116 -6 


100 


45 


135 


45 -0 


135 



316 



PRACTICAL RULE FOR CALCULATING 



TABLE VI. 

Values of u and C for Latitude of Philadelphia. 
Arg. The Hour Angle H. 



Arg. 


Arg. 


u. 


C. 


Arg. 


Arg. 


180° 


0° 


000 


7-68 


90° 


90° 


179 


1 


013 


7-68 


89 


91 


178 


2 


0-27 


7-67 


88 


92 


177 


3 


0-40 


7-67 


87 


93 


176 


4 


0-54 


7-66 


86 


94 


175 


5 


0-67 


7-65 


85 


95 


174 


6 


0-80 


7-63 


84 


96 


173 


7 


0-93 


7-62 


83 


97 


172 


8 


107 


7-60 


82 


98 


171 


9 


1-20 


7-58 


81 


99 


170 


10 


1-33 


7-56 


80 


100 


169 


11 


1-46 


7-54 


79 


101 


168 


12 


1-60 


751 


78 


102 


167 


13 


1-73 


7-48 


77 


103 


166 


14 


1-86 


7-45 


76 


104 


165 


15 


1-99 


7-41 


75 


105 


164 


16 


212 


7-38 


74 


106 


163 


17 


224 


7-34 


73 


107 


162 


18 


2-37 


7-30 


72 


108 


161 


19 


2-50 


7-26 


71 


109 


160 


20 


2-63 


7-21 


70 


110 


159 


21 


2-75 


717 


69 


111 


158 


22 


2-88 


712 


68 


112 


157 


23 


300 


7-07 


67 


113 


156 


24 


312 


7-01 


66 


114 


155 


25 


3-24 


6-96 


65 


115 


154 


26 


3-36 


6-90 


64 


116 


153 


27 


3-48 


6-84 


63 


117 


152 


28 


3-60 


6-78 


62 


118 


151 


29 


3-72 


6-71 


61 


119 


150 


30 


3-84 


6-65 


60 


120 


149 


31 


3-95 


6-58 


59 


121 


148 


32 


407 


6-51 


58 


122 


147 


33 


'4-18 


6-44 


57 


123 


146 


34 


4-29 


6-36 


56 


124 


145 


35 


4-40 


6-29 


55 


125 


144 


36 


4-51 


6-21 


54 


126 


143 


37 


4-62 


613 


53 


127 


142 


38 


4-73 


6-05 


52 


128 


141 


39 


4-83 


5-97 


51 


129 


140 


40 


4-93 


5-88 


50 


130 


139 


41 


504 


5-79 


49 


131 


138 


42 


514 


5-70 


48 


132 


137 


43 


5-24 


5-61 


47 


133 


136 


44 


5-33 


5-52 


46 


134 


135 


45 


5-43 


5-43 


45 


135 






C. 


w. 







TABLE VII. 

Values of h and f for Lati 

tude of Philadelphia. 
Arg. Sun's or Star's Declin. 



Arg. 



0° 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 

14 

15 
16 
17 

18 
19 

20 
21 
22 
23 
24 

25 

26 
27 
28 
29 
30 



6-39 
6-39 
6-38 
6-38 
6-37 

6-36 
6-35 
6-34 
6-33 
6-31 

629 
6-27 
6-25 
6-22 
6-20 

6-17 
614 
611 

6-08 
604 

6-00 
5-96 
5-92 

5-88 
5-84 

5-79 
5-74 
5-69 
5-64 
5-59 
5-53 



f- 



0-00 
Oil 
0-22 
0-33 
0-45 

0-56 
0-67 
0-78 
0-89 
1-00 

111 

1-22 
1-33 
1-44 
1-55 

1-65 

1-76 
1-87 
1-97 
2-08 

218 
2-29 
2-39 
2-50 
2-60 

2-70 
2-80 
2-90 
300 
310 
319 



TABLE VIII. 


Moon's reduced Semidiame- 


ter. 


Arg. Moon's Horizontal Pa- 


rallax. 


Arg. 


Semidiam. 


53' 


2-7324 


54 


2-7323 


55 


2-7321 


56 


2-7320 


57 


2-7319 


58 


2-7318 


59 


2-7316 


60 


2-7315 


61 


2-7314 


62 


2-7313 



THE CIRCUMSTANCES OF AN ECLIPSE OP THE SUN. 



317 







TABLE IX. 




* 






Correction of r, the Sun's Reduced Semidiameter. 










Arguments, (/ -(- g) at the Top, and Sun's Semidiameter at the Side. 








1 


2 


3 


4 


5 6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


15' 46" 


•0046 


•0092 


•0138 


•0184 


•0230 


•0276 


■0322 


•0368 


•0414 


■0460 


48 


46 


92 


38 


84 


30 


76 


23 


69 


15 


61 


15 50 


0046 


•0092 


0139 


•0185 


•0231 


•0277 


•0323 


•0369 


0416 


•0462 


52 


46 


93 


39 


85 


31 


78 


24 


70 


16 


63 


54 


46 


93 


39 


85 


32 


78 


25 


71 


17 


64 


56 


46 


93 


39 


86 


32 


79 


25 


72 


18 


65 


58 


47 


93 


40 


86 


33 


79 


26 


72 


19 


66 


16 


0047 


•0093 


0140 


•0187 


•0233 


•0280 


0327 


0373 


•0420 


•0467 


2 


47 


94 


40 


87 


34 


81 


27 


74 


21 


68 


4 


47 


94 


41 


87 


34 


81 


28 


75 


22 


68 


6 


47 


94 


41 


88 


35 


82 


29 


76 


23 


69 


8 


47 


94 


41 


88 


35 


82 


29 


76 


23 


70 


16 10 


•0047 


•0094 


0141 


•0189 


■0236 


•0283 


•0330 


•0377 


•0424 


•0471 


12 


47 


94 


42 


89 


36 


83 


31 


78 


25 


72 


14 


47 


95 


42 


89 


37 


84 


31 


79 


26 


73 


16 


47 


95 


42 


90 


37 


85 


32 


80 


27 


74 


18 


48 


95 


43 


90 


38 


85 


33 


80 


28 


76 



VOL. V. 4 E 



ARTICLE XIV. 



Contributions to the Geology of the Tertiary Formations of Virgi- 
nia. By William B. Rogers, Professor of Natural Philosophy in the 
University of Virginia, and Henry D. Rogers, Professor of Geology in 
the University of Pennsylvania. Read May 5th, 1835. 

I. GEOLOGY OF A PORTION OF THE PENINSULA BETWEEN THE 

JAMES AND YORK RIVERS. 

1. The region of which we are about to treat, comprises the coun- 
ties of Elizabeth City, Warwick, York and James City, and the lower 
extremities of New Kent and Charles City counties. Its length in a 
north west direction is about fifty, and its mean breadth about fourteen 
miles. In Elizabeth City and Warwick counties, and the eastern 
portion of York county, the general level of the surface is but little 
elevated above tide. The country is a uniform flat, in some places 
subject to be occasionally overflowed. The rest of the region in ques- 
tion has an elevation above tide, varying from twenty to eighty feet. 
But few points, however, in the district have a level corresponding to 
either of these extremes, and by far the larger portion of the surface 
preserves a height of from forty to fifty feet. 

2. The surface of this more elevated portion, though preserving a 
general level of remarkable uniformity, is deeply channelled by in- 
numerable ravines. The smaller of these connect themselves with 
large ones, and these with the wider and deeper excavations forming 



320 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE GEOLOGY OF 

the beds of the creeks flowing into the James and York rivers. The 
system of ravines connected with one river, are separated by a narrow 
central tract from those connected with the other, and in a general 
view of the district, the two systems present the appearance of mere 
creeks or inlets, subordinate to the two great rivers bounding the 
peninsula. 

3. The superficial stratum of the region we are describing is an 
argillaceous and ferruginous sand, of a yellow, and sometimes of a red- 
dish colour, in which are occasionally found, at or near the surface, 
pebbles and small boulders of sandstone, rarely as much as six inches 
in diameter. The nature of these boulders would indicate that they 
were most probably derived from the sandstone formation which 
ranges along the eastern boundary of the primary ridge. In some 
places this stratum consists of little else than a white silicious sand ; 
in others, the admixture of ochreous clay is so considerable, as to fur- 
nish a suitable material for the manufacture of bricks. 

4. Beneath this superficial layer, beds of a very argillaceous clay 
occasionally occur, sometimes of considerable depth and extent, and of 
a texture to be useful in puddling. Its colour is various, being in some 
places a dark blue or green, in others a bright red or dingy yellow. 
Wherever found, its upper boundary is remarkably even and horizon- 
tal ; but where it rests upon beds of fossil shells, its lower limit con- 
forms to all the irregularities of surface which those beds usually 
present. Its appearance, in some places, is that of a steep, almost per- 
pendicular wall of smooth surface, and divided by very narrow lines 
running horizontally. These narrow lines, at a distance of from five 
inches to a foot asunder, are formed by a more ferruginous and silicious 
clay. At Bellefield, on the York river, seven miles from Williams- 
burg, this deposit may be seen overlying the stratum containing shells, 
in some places having a thickness of from twelve to fifteen feet, and 
then gradually fining out and passing into a light coloured and coarser 
mass. The upper surface is horizontal, and the lines of division above 
alluded to are perfectly parallel and regular. The lower surface of 
the clay conforms to that of the shell stratum upon which it rests. 
In many places these argillaceous beds consist of a yellowish clay, beau- 
tifully variegated by streaks of red and blue. 



THE TERTIARY FORMATIONS OF VIRGINIA. 321 

5. A thin stratum of red ferruginous stone, containing a large pro- 
portion of oxide of iron, is found in this region, running horizontally 
below the beds of clay before described, and generally separated by 
only a few feet from the underlying masses of shells. This stratum, 
which is very generally present, varies in thickness from an inch to a 
foot. Its texture is sometimes cellular, sometimes compact and fibrous, 
like that of certain varieties of hematite. 

6. The matter, which, in most cases, rests immediately upon the 
shells, is a yellowish brown sand, frequently containing a large pro- 
portion of clay. Throughout this mass, and often extending to the 
distance of five or six feet from the shells, particles of green sand, or 
the silicate of iron and potash, are more or less abundantly dissemi- 
nated, and in the immediate vicinity of the shells these particles are 
generally condensed into narrow stripes, conforming in flexure to the 
irregularities of the bed beneath. Even where a deep hole exists in the 
layer of shells, the stripes of green sand are seen still following the 
depression and rise of the surface, and preserving a uniform distance 
from it. Sometimes these thin layers are so much indurated as to 
have almost the appearance of stone. In none of the strata above de- 
scribed have fossils of any description ever been discovered. 

7. The materials with which the shells are intermixed, or in which 
they are embedded, have various characters. In some cases they 
consist principally of a nearly white sand ; in others the argillaceous 
matter greatly predominates, and the mass is a somewhat tenacious 
clay. Frequently much oxide of iron is mingled with the earthy 
matter, giving it more or less of a yellow or brown appearance, and 
this is the aspect which the upper beds containing shells most usually 
present. Very generally the lowest visible fossiliferous stratum is 
composed of a green silicious sand, and a bluish clay, which being 
always very moist, is soft and tenacious, and presents a dark blue or 
black colour. At the base of the cliffs on the James and York rivers, 
this stratum may be traced continuously for considerable distances, 
rarely rising more than two or three feet above the level of the water, 
and presenting an even horizontal outline. In the deep ravines, and 
low down in the banks of shells, generally, throughout this region, a 

vol. v. — 4 F 



322 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE GEOLOGY OF 

similar dark bluish-green argillaceous sand is observed, enclosing fre- 
quently a great number and variety of shells. 

The very general existence of the lower stratum, here described, 
forms an interesting and prominent feature in the geology of the Mio- 
cene Tertiary districts, as well of eastern Virginia as of Maryland. 
Throughout all the upper fossiliferous strata, as well as in the argilla- 
ceous beds just mentioned, will be found disseminated, greenish-black 
grains of silicate of iron and potash, identical with those already de- 
scribed as existing in the stratum immediately overlying the shells, 
and having the same form and composition with the granules contained 
very abundantly in an older Formation, both in this country and Eu- 
rope. In some beds of the marl, or shells, these particles so abound as 
to give a very decided colour to the whole mass. In specimens from 
James City and York counties, as much as thirty-five per cent of the 
green sand has been found, and occasionally shells are seen filled with 
this substance almost alone. 

7. The surface of the strata containing shells is usually irregular. 
Sometimes it rises abruptly, in the form of a hillock ; then it is scooped 
out into depressions of a few feet in depth. These irregularities, how- 
ever, are apparently of two kinds ; the one the original form of the deposit, 
the other produced by denuding action upon the surface. Thus in many 
places the same stratum may be remarked rising with more or less 
abruptness ; then again descending, and perhaps preserving a nearly 
horizontal line for some distance, marked at its upper surface by a 
clear and unbroken outline, and presenting no indication of violent 
abrasion from above. In other places, and this is a very frequent oc- 
currence, deep and irregular furrows and cavities are seen, such as 
would naturally arise from the action of the currents and eddies of a 
large mass of water in rapid movement. 

8. Having thus given an account of the nature and arrangement of 
the strata overlying the shells, as well as those in which they are im- 
bedded, we will now describe the general condition and disposition in 
which the shells occur. 

9. Condition of the shells in the tertiary deposits. 

In general, the state of the shells, and their arrangement in the earth, 
are such as to indicate their tranquil deposition at the spots in which 



THE TERTIARY FORMATIONS OF YIRGINIA. 323 

they are found. Thus the corresponding valves are very often found 
together and closely shut. Many of the smaller shells, such as Area 
centenaria. Area incile, Nuculae, Venericardia alticosta, and Chama 
congregata, which are most usually thus found, are often either en- 
tirely empty, or contain a small quantity of clay that is quite impal- 
pable ; indicating plainly that they have been exposed to no violence, 
and that only such solid matter as could pass between the edges of the 
closed valves had obtained access to the interior. Whenever such 
shells, however, have been previously drilled, as is very frequently the 
case even with the largest and thickest shells, the interior is found 
entirely filled with sand, clay, green sand, and small fragments of shell. 
In most cases the larger species of shells, even when their valves appear 
to be in accurate juxtaposition, is thus filled, and in this case it cannot 
be supposed that the contained matter has entered through the holes 
thus drilled, since in many instances shells of considerable magnitude 
are found imprisoned within. Such shells, no doubt, after the death 
of the animal, remained open, or at least partially so, and received the 
sand, clay and other materials which they contain by the gentle action 
of the waves. The ligament at the hinge in the mean time would 
decay, until at length yielding to the pressure of the accumulating 
matter above the shell, in favourable circumstances would collapse into 
its natural closed condition. 

The very common occurrence of the valves in juxtaposition, is a 
striking proof that during or subsequent to their deposition they 
have not been exposed to violent agencies. This becomes even more 
remarkable in the case of such shells as the Panopea reflexa, which 
almost in every instance is found with the valves properly united. 
The connection between the two valves in this shell is the slightest 
imaginable after the destruction of the natural organic bond, and an 
inconsiderable force would have sufficed to separate and break the 
valves. 

10. The admirable preservation of the shells in many cases is also 
an interesting fact, and affords another evidence of the absence of all 
violent agencies at this period. The most fragile species of Natica, 
delicate Tellinae, Mactra tellinoides, the shell and processes of the 
Crepidula, the minute and sharp angles of the Fusus tetricus, the thin 



324 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE GEOLOGY OF 

and hollow Fissurella are found in perfect preservation in many places. 
The state of the shells seems to depend chiefly upon the mechanical 
texture and chemical character of the materials with which they are 
mixed, and of which the overlying stratum is composed. In the moist 
blue clay the shells are generally found in a very soft condition. In 
a highly ferruginous clayey bed they are found either partially or en^ 
tirely dissolved, and beautiful casts remain in their stead. 

11. In many places entire banks occur, composed of casts of Chama 
and other shells, sometimes separate, sometimes cemented together so 
as to form a species of rock. These appearances occur chiefly near 
the surface, and when the soil is porous and ferruginous. The casts 
thus formed often consist chiefly of carbonate of lime, and in many 
specimens as much as eighty per cent of this substance is found. 
Casts of this kind belong mostly to the smaller shells, and by far the 
most common are of the Chama congregata. These, as already stated, 
are often found nearly or quite empty, and we may, therefore, con- 
ceive, that as the matter of the shell in an extensive bank of Chamas 
is gradually dissolved, the water charged with carbonate of lime enters 
the cavities, and slowly deposits the carbonate mixed with fine parti- 
cles of clay and sand. Thus by degrees the cavities are filled. In 
the mean time the shell disappears, frequently leaving on the surface 
of the cast a chalky covering, like the decomposed inner film of shelly 
matter. In support of this explanation it may be added, that in many 
casts beautiful crystals of carbonate of lime are found, forming a por- 
tion of the cast, and having the appearance of Dog-tooth Spar. In 
some cases the shelly matter appears to have been dissolved, and its 
place supplied by the crystallized carbonate, encrusting the earth for- 
merly contained within the shell. Sometimes, too, a thin film of 
oxide of iron surrounds the cast, showing very distinctly all the mark- 
ings of the inner surface of the shell. In many localities, presenting a 
series of beds differing in composition, the shells will be found perfect 
in some of them, while in others immediately above or below only 
casts remain. Thus at the College Mill, about one mile from Wil- 
liamsburg, the upper fossiliferous layer is a yellow silicious sand, con- 
taining perfect shells. Below this is a brown ferruginous clay, filled 
with the most beautiful casts of Chama, Pectunculus, Turritella, &c. 



THE TERTIARY FORMATIONS OP VIRGINIA. 325 

The shelly matter has entirely disappeared, and the casts lie loosely in 
the cavities produced by the removal of the shells, entirely distinct 
from each other, and covered by a film of oxide of iron. The layer 
beneath, consisting of bluish-green silicious clay, is full of well pre- 
served Pectens, Pernas, and a variety of other shells. 

12. In general, the various species of shells are found associated in 
colonies or groups, but as in the case of banks of recent shells, these 
colonies contain many scattered specimens, differing from the general 
contents of the group. The two species of Chama, the C. congregata 
and C. corticosa, which are found in almost every deposit of shells in 
this region, in many cases form extensive beds, with a very small ad- 
mixture of other genera. The best agricultural marl, of a purely cal- 
careous nature, which is used in lower Virginia, is derived from these 
beds of Chama, the friable texture of the shell upon exposure to the air 
rendering this species of marl more easy of application to land, and 
more prompt in its ameliorating effects. Crassatellos often form an 
extensive deposit, and the large Pectens occur in continuous layers of 
considerable depth and extent. The different species of Area, Arte- 
mis, Crepidula, &c, present a similar arrangement. Even those shells 
which are of comparatively rare occurrence, are usually found in little 
groups. Thus the Isocardia fraterna is found, to the extent of a dozen 
or twenty, closely packed together. This gregarious assemblage of 
shells of the same species is what would naturally be anticipated in 
the absence of violent agencies during or after their deposition, and 
furnishes another very striking proof of the comparatively tranquil 
condition of the sea or estuary in which they were allowed to accu- 
mulate. 

13. Disposition of the fossils. 

In nearly all the vertical sections of the deposit we are now describ- 
ing, a series of beds or strata may be observed, each distinguished by 
the predominance of one or more species, and the order of superposi- 
tion of these beds frequently continues without interruption for some 
distance. It does not appear, however, that in localities remote from 
each other the arrangement of the shells is always alike, although in 
many instances there appears to be a striking correspondence. In a 
majority of cases in the neighbourhood of Williamsburg the upper layer 

VOL. V. 4 G 



326 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE GEOLOGY OF 

is composed principally of Chama congregata. In many localities also, 
the large Pectens mingled with Ostrea Virginica occupy the highest place. 
But generally, the same shell reappears as a predominant constituent 
of one or more of the subjacent beds ; and such is the diversity of ar- 
rangement, even in places but a few miles distant, that it is obvious 
that no general order of succession exists. Thus in a range of three 
miles we fiud Perna maxillata in some localities in the lowest stratum 
of dark blue argillaceous sand ; in others, forming an upper or even the 
highest layer of the series. At Waller's Mill, three miles from Wil- 
liamsburg, this fossil overlies the other shells ; whereas at the College 
Mill, as already stated, it forms a part of the lowest visible stratum. 
So far, therefore, as relates to the tertiary beds of the district of which we 
are now treating, and indeed of Virginia generally, there is no such 
constancy in the position of this fossil in the series, as to warrant the 
theoretical inference of its belonging to a different tertiary period, de- 
duced by Mr Conrad from its relation to the other tertiary fossils in 
certain districts in Maryland. 

14. With the view of conveying more, precise ideas of the disposi- 
tion of the fossils in this region, as well as describing some interesting 
facts peculiar to certain districts which have been investigated, we an- 
nex the following details in relation to some of the more important 
localities. 

1 5. King's Mill, one of the most interesting fossil localities in the 
neighbourhood of Williamsburg, is situated on the north bank of the 
James river, about twenty-five miles from its mouth. The cliff in which 
the shells appear is abrupt, and has a height varying from twenty to 
forty-five feet above the water. The strata of shells extend along the 
river with slight interruptions, when the cliff sinks nearly to the level 
of the water, for a distance of between two and three miles, and they 
are found in a somewhat similar order of superposition for some dis- 
tance inland. Their general direction is horizontal," but the outline of 
any one stratum is frequently very irregular, the surface rising and 
falling with a steep inclination. This irregular outline is particularly 
remarkable with the beds of Chama, which are very thick at some 
points, and then fine out rapidly and again expand. 

16. This deposit of shells is covered to the depth of from four to 



THE TERTIARY FORMATIONS OF VIRGINIA. 327 

six feet by a brownish yellow sand, intermixed with stripes of clay. 
Beneath this is a thin layer of about one foot, of very argillaceous and 
ferruginous clay of a red colour. This rests upon a few inches 
thickness of gravel, consisting of water-worn quartz, rarely larger than 
a pea. Beneath this is a layer, from one to two feet thick, consisting 
of yellow sand, containing a great deal of the green or chloritic sand? 
arranged in narrow r stripes. Next follows a layer of the same sand, con- 
taining principally Chama and Venus deformis. This is from two to three 
feet in thickness. Immediately below is a stratum consisting almost ex- 
clusively of Chama, with a few 7 Area centenaria, &c. This stratum, vary- 
ing from three to four feet in thickness, is a mass of compacted shells, with 
but little earthy matter intervening. The earthy matter contains a very 
large proportion of the chloritic sand. The next stratum is composed 
chiefly of large Pectens, and has a thickness of from one to two feet. 
Below this is another dense stratum of Chama, together with Area cen- 
tenaria, Panopea reflexa, &c, and also very rich in the green sand. Thick- 
ness, from four to six feet. Then follows a second layer containing 
Pectens with Ostrea compressirostra, one foot in thickness. A third 
stratum, in which Chama predominates, follows next, in thickness from 
two to three feet, and at the base of the cliff is a layer containing Pec- 
tens, Ostrea compressirostra, &c, four to five feet in thickness. 

17. Thus through a height of more than twenty feet in some 
places, the cliff consists principally of shells, of which there are a great 
many species, besides those mentioned as predominating in the several 
beds. On the extensive contiguous estates of King's Mill and Little- 
town, these shells are largely used as a manure : and for this pur- 
pose the first and second beds of Chama are preferred on account of 
the immense amount of calcareous matter, and the large proportion of 
green sand which they contain. Judging from the occasional appear- 
ance of bluish green-clay on the line of the beach, and in some places 
immediately at the base of the cliff just described, it is highly probable 
that a continuous stratum of this substance lies beneath the other beds 
throughout the whole extent observed. A horizontal bed of yellow- 
ish clay extends for some distance along a lower portion of the cliff, in 
which there are no fossils, running within a few feet of its upper edge, 
and beneath this bed, and parallel to it, is a thin layer of the iron ore 



328 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE GEOLOGY OF 

- 

formerly described. At the foot of this cliff appears the underlying 
stratum of clay. 

18. Description of the cliffs at Yorktown, on the York river. 

The elevation, abrupt form, and peculiar structure of the cliffs at 
this point, and for some distance both above and below, render it an 
interesting spot to the geologist. A dry and ample beach, uninter- 
rupted by creeks or inlets for several miles, affords a ready access to 
the banks ; while the river's edge, strewed with fossils which have 
fallen from the cliff, exposes a considerable variety of interesting spe- 
cimens. Immediately at York, the river is only three-eighths of a 
mile in width, but both above and below, it expands to a breadth six or 
seven times as great. 

At Wormley's creek, about two miles below the town, the cliff 
about to be described begins ; but from this point down to the extre- 
mity of the peninsula, the banks are uniformly flat and low. The 
cliff here consists at bottom of a bluish sandy clay, containing immense 
numbers of Turritella alticosta, Cytherea Sayana, and many small uni- 
valves, over which lies a layer of brownish yellow sand, with very few 
shells, and those chiefly Nucula limatula and a few other species. To 
this succeeds a stratum composed almost entirely of Crepidula costata, 
so closely packed together as to leave little space for sand or other earthy 
matter. The whole is covered to a variable depth by a stratum of coarse 
sand of various strong tints, and evidently highly ferruginous. The ele- 
vation of the cliff increases, and the nature of its contents gradually 
changes, in approaching York. The lower stratum disappears entirely 
after continuing for something less than half a mile, previous to 
which, however, its fossil contents are changed ; the layer of the 
Turritellae being replaced by Crepidula closely packed together. Cre- 
pidula still runs on horizontally above, and the intermediate stratum is 
now densely filled with Pectens, Venus deformis, Ostrea, and a great 
variety of small shells frequently connected together so as to form 
hard masses of considerable size. Still higher up the river the deposit 
assumes the character of successive layers composed of comminuted 
shells, connected together so as to form a porous rock. These frag- 
ments are generally so small and so much rubbed and water-worn, as 
to render it impossible to ascertain the species of shell of which they 



THE TERTIARY FORMATIONS OF VIRGINIA. 329 

once were portions. Many small shells, and occasionally large ones, 
particularly Pectens, are found mingled with the other constituents of 
the rocks ; and in some places thin layers of shells, such as Venus and 
Crepidula, intervene between the adjacent strata. The height of this 
fragmentary rock amounts in some places to forty feet, In most places 
it has a highly ferruginous aspect, though this is not invariably the 
case. Frequently shells of considerable size, such as Lucina anodonta, 
are seen coated with, or entirely changed into, crystalline carbonate 
of lime, firmly cemented in the mass. The texture of the rock is vari- 
ous, at some points admitting of being readily excavated by the pick 
and spade, so as to form caves which have been occasionally used by 
the inhabitants ; in other places exhibiting a hard and semi-crystalline 
structure, and having the compactness of some forms of secondary 
limestone. The lower portion of the cliff, having less cohesion than 
the rest, has been scooped out by the action of water so as to give it, 
occasionally, an impending attitude. 

Above the town the stratum of fragmentary rock becomes much 
thinner, being now reduced to about ten or twelve feet. A stratum 
of yellowish argillaceous clay, abounding in Artemis acetabulum, 
Mactras and other large shells, lies immediately beneath the rock : and 
lower still, appears the stratum of bluish clay, filled with Nucula li- 
matula, several species of Fusus, and various other fossils. 

A narrow layer of iron ore extends along the cliff, with occasional 
interruptions, at a small distance above the fossiliferous strata. 

19. This fragmentary rock continues in a narrow band, with some 
interruptions, for about a mile and a half above York. Beyond this 
point it is met with chiefly in detached masses. Extensive beds of 
shells, similar to those which appear at York, come to view in the 
vicinity of Bellefield, and line the shore for a distance of about three 
miles. These beds rest on the usual stratum of sandy clay, and are in 
some places, as already described, covered by a stratum of the same 
substance. At a still remoter point, about six miles above York, on 
Jones's plantation, a porous rocky mass occurs, overlying the stratum 
of shells in a thin and interrupted layer. Though very similar in ap- 
pearance to the fragmentary mass before described, and evidently at 
one time composed of portions of shells, it is almost devoid of any trace 

VOL. V. 4 H 



330 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE GEOLOGY OF 

of carbonate of lime. It appears to consist of silex, slightly tinged 
with oxide of iron ; approaching in its porous character and harsh gritty 
texture to the nature of the burr-stone of France. Associated with 
this is a more compact rock, containing some carbonate of lime, 
with much silex, and exhibiting very perfect casts and impressions of 
Pectens, Cardium, &c. Over these strata is the usual layer of iron- 
stone, and the general aspect of the upper beds is somewhat ferrugi- 
nous. 

20. It is interesting to remark that, with some interruptions, a frag- 
mentary deposit similar to that observed at York extends to the lower 
extremity of the peninsula. At Pocosin, a flat swampy country, which 
is often inundated by the tides, this deposit is uniformly met with by 
digging a few feet below the surface. Pectunculus, Pecten, Ostrea, as 
well as numerous small shells, occur mingled with it, as at York ; the 
fragments, however, are not cemented together, but form a loose fria- 
ble mass. 

21. A very interesting feature in the structure of the cliff at York 
remains to be described. Though the general direction of the fossil 
beds is nearly horizontal, several of the strata of rock are composed of 
transverse layers parallel to each other, generally dipping towards the 
north, and making an angle of fifteen or twenty degrees with the hori- 
zon. The course of these laminae sometimes differs in adjoining strata, 
and in some places the obliquity diminishes gradually until the laminae 
become horizontal; thus presenting a remarkable resemblance to the 
appearances described by Lyell and others as existing in the Crag of 
England. The phenomenon here described, viewed in connexion with 
the fragmentary structure of the rock, and the general distribution of 
broken shells over the lower extremity of the peninsula, would seem to 
indicate the former agency in this district of coast currents and an 
ocean surf. 

22. At Burwell's Mill, and other localities in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of Williamsburg, nearly the same fossils occur as at King's 
Mill and Yorktown. Besides shells and Zoophytes, in these and other 
places in the peninsula, the bones of cetaceous animals and the teeth 
of sharks are of very frequent occurrence in the fossiliferous beds, but 
no remains of fresh water or land animals have as yet been discovered. 



THE TERTIARY FORMATIONS OF VIRGINIA. 331 

The total number of species of shells from these points which have 
yet been identified is about ninety-six, to which we will now add the 
following new species, recently discovered by ourselves. To this list 
others believed to be new, and at present under examination, will here- 
after be added. 

• 

II. DESCRIPTION OF SOME NEW MIOCENE FOSSIL SHELLS. 

Turritella ter-striata. C 

23. Whorls strongly angulated by three principal revolving elevated 
spiral ridges ; the lowest, being about one-third from the base, is the 
most prominent ; the second, which closely adjoins and almost coal- 
esces with the first, is much feebler ; the third, which is nearly one- 
third the height of the whorl from the summit, is more distinct and is 
separated from the second by a deep and wide channel ; next the base 
of each whorl are three fine spiral striae ; others, to the number of four 
or five, occupy the space between the principal ridge and the summit ; 
crossing these are very fine indistinct transverse arcuated wrinkles. 

This shell is obviously distinct from the variabilis in the great ine- 
quality of the three principal ridges, the depth of the central channel, 
and the greater delicacy of the transverse wrinkles. 

Locality, vicinity of Williamsburg ; in the Miocene shell marl. 
Length, about two inches. 

Turritella quadri-striata. 

24. Shell turrited, regularly conical : whorls flattened, with four 
principal revolving equidistant spiral striae ; a fifth, less conspicuous, 
bounds the base of the whorl ; the whole of these are alternated with 
five much smaller interposed striae ; near the summit of the whorls are 
traces of others yet more delicate : five transverse arcuated wrinkles, 
not very distinct. 

Locality, Williamsburg, as before ; length, one inch. This shell 
diners from the variabilis in the flatness of the whorls, and the number 
and relative proportion of the principal striae ; it is also a much more 
delicate and smaller shell. 



332 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE GEOLOGY OP 

Natica perspectives 

25. Shell subglobose, smooth ; substance of the shell rather thin ; 
umbilicus open, with a rather prominent revolving rib, considerably 
above the middle of each volution, terminating at the labrum in a 
scarcely%listinct callus ; spire somewhat elevated and acute ; aperture 
semicircular, five-eighths the length of the shell. Length, eight-tenths 
of an inch. 

Locality, Williamsburg. Miocene. This shell resembles somewhat 
the N. interna, but it is obviously different in being less depressed, and 
in the form and proportions of the aperture ; the general contour of the 
shftll is also different. 

Fissurella catilliformis. 

26. Shell nearly elliptical, slightly subovate, depressed, conic, with 
approximate very regular longitudinal costae, alternated with inter- 
vening striae often very minute, the transverse concentric striae giv- 
ing a very uniform granulation to the costae; foramen, oval, scarcely 
inclined ; inner margin of aperture entire. Length, half an inch. 

Locality, Shell banks, Prince George county. Miocene. This shell 
has some resemblance in its inner surface to the cavity of a dish. 

Area protracta. 

27. Shell rather thick, very oblong transversely ; ribs about forty, 
not very prominent, and hardly wider than the intercostal spaces, and 
longitudinally furrowed by three narrow grooves, the central one much 
the widest; a very indistinct granulation on the ribs, arising from 
the numerous minute transverse lines of growth crossing the longitu- 
dinal ridges of the ribs; beaks prominent and distant, opposite a point 
less than one-third the length of the hinge margin from the posterior 
extremity; area wide, with numerous distinct undulated grooves, 
parallel to the hinge margin ; hinge margin rectilinear, with nume- 
rous minute straight teeth, those in the anterior half directed a little 
obliquely towards the anterior margin; posterior margin rounded 
slightly outwards, extending a little further backward than the angle ; 
anterior margin much elongated, extending in an oval curve far in 



THE TERTIARY FORMATIONS OP VIRGINIA. 333 

advance of the end of the hinge ; basal margin contracted opposite the 
middle of the hinge, and deeply crenate. Length, three and a half 
inches. 

Locality, Shell banks, Prince George county. Miocene. 

' r : . Lucina speciosa. 

28: Shell sub-elliptical, inequilateral, inflated, rather thin, with 
equal close-set rather elevated longitudinal ribs, and regular very close 
concentric striae ; lunule small, very distinct, and ovate-lanceolate ; 
beaks small, pointed, and slightly prominent beyond the general curve 
of the margin, placed about one-third the transverse length of the shell 
from the anterior end ; cardinal teeth small, diverging ; lateral teeth 
equal, distinct, and nearly equidistant from the anterior cardinal ; hinge 
margin regularly arcuated, the rest of the margin, especially the poste- 
rior side, crenate within ; posterior muscular impression elongated and 
slightly curved. Diameter, three-tenths; length, eleven-twentieths; 
height, nine-twentieths of an inch. 

This very beautiful shell occurs in nearly all the localities of the 
Miocene in the James river region. 

Venus cortinaria. 

29. Shell sub-cordate, inflated, with very regular concentric, closely 
approximate, and very prominent imbricated ridges, which incline to- 
wards the beak, except the portion opposite the anterior, basal, and 
posterior margins, where they decline outwards towards the margin ; 
beaks moderately prominent, about twice as far from the anterior as 
t4JLe posterior end; two anterior cardinal teeth, closely approximate 
above, second one of the left valve thick and sub-bifid ; lunule wide, 
cordate ; basal margin crenate within ; posterior margin short, straight, 
and especially at the lunule finely crenate. Length, one inch ; height, 
nine-tenths of an inch. 

Locality, Williamsburg. Miocene. This beautiful shell rarely 
shows the concentric ridges perfect, from their prominence and thin- 
ness. 

vol. v. — 4 I 



334 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE GEOLOGY OF 



III. OP THE PLACE IN THE GEOLOGICAL SERIES TO WHICH THESE 

DEPOSITS BELONG. 

80. That the strata here described, and the deposits identical and con- 
tinuous with them, stretching extensively to the north and south into 
the adjoining states, are referable to the Miocene period of the Ameri- 
can Tertiary, will be readily admitted on adverting to the well marked 
relations of their organic remains. 

81. A careful summary of the fossils derived from the several local- 
ities hitherto examined within the peninsula, establishes the total num- 
ber of those at present known to be very nearly one hundred. Of 
these not more than eighteen are ascertained to belong to species now 
living ; showing a remarkable, though no doubt accidental coincidence 
with the average proportion of recent species found in deposits of the 
Miocene period in Europe. 

Lest it may seem objectionable to institute the comparison between 
the recent and the extinct shells of several localities taken in the aggre- 
gate, the ratio has been examined as it exists in some of the localities 
separately. Thus in the cliffs at King's Mill on the James river, the 
whole number of species whose analogies are at present satisfactorily 
established, is about seventy-four, of which but fourteen are of the pre- 
sent day, or recent. The per-centage here disclosed is therefore about 
nineteen, being nearly the same with that above, and still almost 
identical with the proportions in several of the Miocene localities of 
Europe. 

32. Making every possible allowance for future discoveries bringing 
to light as recent, some of the now supposed extinct species, it is still 
difficult to imagine, with such a ratio as we have at present, that the 
proportions can ever so far change as to make the living species of the 
deposit to equal or exceed the number of the extinct ; a condition ne- 
cessary of course to entitle it to the name of Older Pliocene, which it 
has received. 

33. The circumstance that in Prince George county the Miocene 
is superimposed directly upon Eocene, from which it seems not to be 
separated by any features which would mark a long interval attended 



THE TERTIARY FORMATIONS OF VIRGINIA. 335 

by abrupt or violent actions, furnishes another, though not a deci- 
sive argument against its belonging to a period so late as the Older 
Pliocene. It seems reasonable to infer, that the two would hardly be 
seen resting together in exact conformability, as they do, had they been 
separated in time by the whole interval between the Eocene and the 
Older Pliocene, during which the surface of the former would be in a 
condition to undergo changes and irregularities nowhere perceived 
where they are seen in contact.* 

IV. OF THE ORIGIN OF THE DEPOSIT OVERLYING THE MIOCENE 

SHELL MARL. 

34. It is not easy, in the present state of our information, to approx- 
imate to the precise era when this overlying deposit was produced, 
though it appears to have had a date perhaps long anterior to the latest 
superficial diluvium with which it is often confounded. We infer this 
from the very general absence of all those signs wnich mark a trans- 

* In a recent publication (Silliman's Journal, vol. 28, p. 106), Mr Conrad has attributed 
to a portion of the formation here under discussion, namely, the localities of Yorktown 
and the James river, near Smithfield, a date still more recent than the period of the Older 
Pliocene. He ranks those deposits, together with another at Suffolk, Virginia, and one on 
the St Mary's river, Maryland, under a new division, Medial Pliocene ; it is stated at the same 
time that the recent species at those places compose about thirty per cent. A subdivision of 
the formation as it occurs in Maryland, characterized by Perna maxillata and a less propor- 
tion of recent species, is referred to the Older Pliocene, while the opinion is advanced that the 
Miocene is probably altogether wanting. Now to those familiar with the principles of the 
new nomenclature of the Tertiary, it is obvious that the betis^ so styled, the Older as well as 
the Medial Pliocene, are entitled, in strictness, to the appellation of Miocene only. 

To confer on a formation the name Medial Pliocene, its shells should contain about thirty 
per cent extinct, and seventy per cent recent, and not the converse. We believe, moreover, 
that the per-centage of recent species at Yorktown is even materially less than thirty. 

In No. 3, of his work on American tertiary shells, issued a little earlier than the other arti- 
cle, Mr Conrad adopts a somewhat different classification, calling the several localities in 
Virginia and Maryland, Older Pliocene, as before, except that stratum low down in the 
Maryland formation which is distinguished by the Perna maxillata, and this he denominates 
Miocene. For reasons before stated, namely, the small per-centage of recent species through- 
out them all, we believe the whole together to have been produced in the Miocene epoch, and 
to belong to one formation ; and we have been led into this note in the sincere wish to settle 
the question of the age of this division of our Atlantic Tertiary formations, lest the student of 
American geology be disheartened by the perplexity which grows out of a shifting and incon- 
sistent nomenclature. 



336 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE GEOLOGY OF 

portation by violent causes from a distance, its materials being finely 
comminuted clays and sands usually arranged in a manner denoting a 
somewhat quiet deposition. On the other hand, its containing no fos- 
sils, its distinct separation from the fossiliferous marl stratum beneath 
it, the surface of which is furrowed and deeply channelled, as if an in- 
terval of erosive action had preceded it, are facts which may possibly 
displace it from the Miocene era altogether, and which, for the present 
at least, throw entire uncertainty upon the inquiry as to the position 
which it should occupy in the Tertiary series. 

35. It is not unlikely, all things considered, that the origin of this 
deposit is to be traced in the rise from beneath the sea of some of the 
more western portions of the tide water plain ; in other words, with the 
appearance above water of the Eocene tract in that quarter. This is 
rendered probable from the circumstance that this superficial bed often 
abounds near the bottom with grains of the green sand mineral so 
abundant in the Eocene of Virginia. It is corroborated, likewise, by 
the fact that the shelly Miocene stratum reposing upon the Eocene, 
sometimes shows tokens of considerable violence over its surface, the 
shells being, throughout a depth of several feet near the top, in a frag- 
mentary state, and much disturbed, as may be seen in Prince George 
county, and on the Chickahominy river. 

If we conceive that tracts in the Eocene district, or above it, were 
upheaved to near the water's level, or entirely out of it, while the 
country to the east was still submerged, we may not only explain the 
facts here mentioned, but by adverting to the nature of the actions 
which would supervene, we may account, by the sudden draining off of 
the uplifted water, for the eroded surface of the Miocene marl, and the 
sudden and total extinction of animal life which took place. To this 
would naturally succeed the introduction of nearly the same kind of 
matter under more tranquil circumstances, brought down from the 
newly exposed tract by river action, the probable source, we may 
conjecture, of some of the sands and clays of finer texture which occur 
so regularly and quietly stratified every where in the upper parts of 
the deposit. 

Later than all these operations must have been the diluvial action, 
more or less extensive, which grooved the surface of this deposit 



THE TERTIARY FORMATIONS OP VIRGINIA. 337 

throughout the Tertiary region with its innumerable ravines and shal- 
low valleys of excavation. Whether this last change was impressed 
upon the surface by the final emergence of the whole territory from 
the sea to its present level, or by some more universal denuding flood 
which has swept the continent generally, we venture not to decide ; 
though the comparatively small amount of transported superficial peb- 
bles and boulders, and the absence of any which can be traced beyond 
the nearest rocks at the head of tide, incline us to attribute the denud- 
ation in question to the supposed local action rather than to the other. 

V. EOCENE FORMATION OF VIRGINIA. 

36. Though some attention has been devoted by Mr Conrad, and 
other American naturalists, to the Tertiary fossils of several localities 
in Virginia, as yet their researches have been limited to such as apper- 
tain to the subordinate divisions of the Tertiary group, arranged by 
Mr Lyell under the head of Pliocene and Miocene ; and though the 
existence of an Eocene deposit might naturally have been inferred, no 
locality of this character appears to have been known to them. The 
existence of an extensive Eocene formation in eastern Virginia is now 
for the first time announced, as furnishing an interesting step in the 
progress of the geological inquiries which are now on foot by legisla- 
tive authoritv in that state. 

37. This formation appears to have a general meridional direction, 
traversing; the state from the Potomac to the Roanoke. It is inter- 
sected and exposed by the principal rivers, first making its appearance 
at from twenty to thirty miles below the primary ridge. The most 
interesting locality which has as yet been visited, and that from which 
the fossils have been most abundantly obtained, is on the James river, 
beginning a little above City Point, and extending nearly in a conti- 
nuous manner to Coggins Point, a distance, following the flexures of 
the shore, of about eleven miles. At Coggins Point, Torbay and 
Evergreen, the cliffs have a height varying from thirty to forty feet. 
At the base, a stratum of what appears at first to be a blackish clay 
extends nearly horizontally throughout the whole distance, rising a 
little as it ascends the river. Its height above the water at Coggins 

VOL. V. 4 K 



338 CONTRIBUTIONS TO TIIE GEOLOGY OP 

Point is about three feet, at Evergreen upwards of ten, measured to the 
upper edge of the stratum. It continues downwards to a depth of six or 
eight feet, and terminates in an argillaceous clay of a bluish-gray co- 
lour. This dark stratum consists largely of particles of green sand, or 
silicate of iron and potash. It contains a great number of Eocene fos- 
sils, among which are Cardita planicosta, Fusus longaevis, &c. &c. al- 
ready known as existing either in the Eocene of Paris or Alabama, or 
in both. But besides these it also contains a variety of beautiful and 
new species, some of which will be described in the present paper. 
These shells are, at some points, almost entirely dissolved, and very 
perfect casts alone can be procured ; but at other points, though in a 
soft condition, they can, by using great care, be obtained in an entire 
state. 

38. Above this stratum is a layer of what Mr Edmund Ruffin, the 
able editor of the Farmer's Register of Virginia, calls gypseous earth. 
This stratum appears once to have abounded in fossils, but at present 
only casts, and those in a very soft condition, can be found. They are, 
however, identical with the fossils of the lower stratum. The earth 
of this layer, besides a considerable proportion of green sand, contains 
a large amount of sulphate of lime, disseminated in minute grains, and 
grouped in large and massive crystals. Immediately above occurs a 
thin stratum of white clay, at the junction of which with the former 
layer the crystallized gypsum is found in great abundance, and almost 
perfectly pure. Above the clay is a stratum of shells in a very disin- 
tegrated condition, but consisting of Ostrea sellaeformis and other Eocene 
fossils, and immediately above is a stratum of the shells of our middle 
Tertiary. A few scattered pebbles of a brown hue, hardly numerous 
enough to form a stratum, separate these two very distinct formations. 
In this uppermost layer are found the common Pecten and Pectunculus 
of our middle Tertiary.* The whole thickness of the Eocene deposit 



Among the interesting fossils of the middle Tertiary above, is an enormous specimen of 
Astrea, which is worthy of being described. This mass was some years ago disengaged from 
the upper part of the cliff at Torbay, and is now lying on the shore, firmly fixed in the sand 
and clay. Though it has been much reduced in size since its fall, it is still of immense mag- 
nitude. Its form is of course very irregular, but its largest diameter may be estimated at four 



THE TERTIARY FORMATIONS OF VIRGINIA. 339 

at this point appears to be about twenty feet. At distant points, where 
this deposit has been examined, as for instance near the Piping Tree, 
on Pamunkey, and near Port Royal, on the Rappahannock, as well as upon 
the Potomac, much the same arrangement and succession of strata have 
been remarked. 

39. The section at Coggins Point presents the interesting feature 
of a juxtaposition in the same cliff, of the Eocene and newer Tertiary 
formations, and on this account must be regarded as an important 
locality. 

The fact too that in this as well as other places where the Eocene 
deposit has been discovered, so very large a proportion of the chloritic 
sand is contained in the matter embedding the fossils, is, we presume, 
an unexpected and interesting circumstance. Even the New Jersey 
secondary strata are seldom more abundant in this peculiar mineral 
product than the formation referred to, and hence the farmers of Vir- 
ginia are, beginning to apply this material to their fields. 

VI. NEW FOSSIL. SHELLS OF THE Eo'cENE OF VIRGINIA. 

. , - Nucula cultelliformis. 

40. Shell ovate, ensiform, somewhat inflated, rounded before, 
much elongated, and tapering behind, the posterior length more than 
twice the anterior, furnished with very fine, hardly distinct concentric 
striae, and one distinct and one very obscure rib behind ; anterior part 
with an indistinct fold ; shell thin ; lunule long and lanceolate ; beak 
small ; anterior series of the teeth gently arched ; posterior series straight ; 
teeth in both acutely bent, the angles directed towards the beak; mar- 
gin entire ; cavity of shell shallow, with a ridge passing from the beak 
to the posterior margin. Transverse length, twenty-eight hundredths ; 
height, eight hundredths of an inch. 

Locality, Coggins Point, Prince George county, in the green sand 
stratum. This very delicate shell approaches nearest to the N. media 
of Lea, the iEqualis of Conrad, but differs in the great elongation of 



and a half feet ; and its weight is probably seven or eight hundred pounds. On the shore are 
likewise found vast numbers of the teeth of sharks, some of them of enormous dimensions. 



340 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE GEOLOGY OF 

the posterior end, in the ribs, and in the less distinctness of the trans- 
verse striae. 

Nucula parva. 

41. Shell ovate, inflated, rounded before, not much produced, but 
rapidly tapering to a truncated point behind, furnished with about 
twelve rather coarse concentric folds or ridges, and a longitudinal 
gently depressed groove or undulation of surface, running from near 
the beak to the posterior basal margin ; beaks nearly central ; anterior 
series of teeth slightly arched ; posterior series nearly straight ; margin 
entire ; cavity rather deep. Length, three-twentieths ; height, two- 
twentieths of an inch. 

Locality, same as the preceding. 

Ostrea sinuosa. 

42. Shell sub-orbicular, or equilaterally sub-triangular; inferior 
valve moderately convex, with the laminae of growth profoundly pli- 
cated into loops, which are" imbricated so as to produce regularly radi- 
ating ribs ; hinge-plane depressed, and in a line with the dorsal margin, 
which is long and straight, the sides of the inferior valve being dilated 
into the form of ears ; fosset placed symmetrically and centrally in the 
hinge, and less than one-third its length, and curving suddenly at its 
termination in a narrow groove ; beak slightly curved to the right 
and truncate ; muscular impression small ; inferior valve very slightly 
convex or flat, nearly circular, with concentric almost circular wrinkles. 
Length of the specimen four and a half inches ; diameter between the 
ears five and a half inches ; diameter of flat valve four inches. 

Locality, Evergreen, James river, in the lower or green sand stratum 
of the Eocene. This very beautiful fossil oyster will be seen to differ 
from the O. compressirostra in several essential particulars, especially 
in the structure of the hinge, in the more symmetrical and profound 
plications on the inferior valve, in its less convexity, and in its more 
regular dilatation on the upper margin into partial ears. 

Cytherea ovata. 

43. Shell subovate, somewhat inflated, with concentric transverse 



THE TERTIARY FORMATIONS OF VIRGINIA. 341 

striae, very fine near the umbones, but much coarser near the margin ; 
beaks rather elevated ; lunule very indistinct ; teeth elevated and straight, 
the two posterior ones of the left valve small, much compressed, ap- 
proximate, and nearly parallel ; the anterior tooth large and grooved 
by a deep canal ; cavity of shell deep ; margin entire ; posterior margin 
straight, and separated from the muscular impression by a fold or groove. 
Length, one inch and one-tenth ; height eighty-five hundredths of an 
inch. 

Locality, Coggins Point, in the Eocene green sand. 



VOL. V. 4 L 



ARTICLE XV. 



On the Difference of Longitude of several places in the United States, 
as determined by observations of the Solar Eclipse of November 30th, 
1834. By Edward H. Courtenay, Professor of Mathematics in the 
University of Pennsylvania. Mead October 16th, 1835. 

The interest felt by the American Philosophical Society in relation 
to the late remarkable Solar Eclipse, as expressed by the appointment 
of a committee to collect accurate observations thereon, has induced 
the belief that a careful calculation of some of the principal results 
furnished by those observations, might prove acceptable to the Society. 

From the report of the committee above referred to, it appears that 
observations of the times of commencement and termination of the 
eclipse were made at Philadelphia, Baltimore, Norfolk, the University 
of Virginia, Cincinnati, the Friends' School near Philadelphia, German- 
town, and at West Hills, Long Island, a station of the coast survey. The 
termination was also observed at Nashville, Tennessee. Many of these 
observations were made by persons whose well known skill and experi- 
ence are a sufficient guarantee of the accuracy of their results ; and 
they all appear to have been made with great care. 

The most useful purpose to which observations of this kind are ap- 
plicable, is the determination of the difference of terrestrial longitude ; 
and although the method is doubtless inferior in point of accuracy to 
that of occultations, and probably to that of corresponding transits of 
the moon and stars, yet the results which it furnishes, when obtained 



344 ON THE DIFFERENCE OF LONGITUDE 

under favourable circumstances, may always be considered as near 
approximations to the truth, and are particularly valuable in a country 
like our own, whose geography must yet be regarded as very imper- 
fect. 

The difference in the results obtained by the several observers in 
Philadelphia, confirms the opinion, now generally entertained, that the 
times of commencement and termination of a solar eclipse cannot be 
observed with a very high degree of precision ; and the same inference 
is deducible from a comparison of the durations of the eclipse at the 
several places of observation. In every case where the commencement 
and end have both been observed, the duration indicated the necessity 
of a reduction in the sum of the semi-diameters of the sun and moon, 
similar to that usually made for irradiation and inflexion, but the amount 
of this correction, as determined by the observations at different places, 
varies from 1".5 to 4". 5. These discrepances are undoubtedly attri- 
butable, in a great measure, to the extreme difficulty of fixing with 
precision the instants at which the eclipse begins and terminates. 

In determining the times of conjunction of the sun and moon, the 
correction for irradiation and inflexion has been assumed at 3". 3, that 
being the mean result furnished by all the observations which have 
been calculated. To ascertain the amount of this correction from 
the observations at each place, the observed duration was compared 
with that which would have occurred had such correction been unne- 
cessary ; likewise with the duration due to an irradiation and inflexion 
of 5". Then, by a simple proportion, the value of the correction was 
estimated. 

The parallaxes in latitude and longitude were calculated by the 
method of the nonagesimal, and the deduced terrestrial longitude was 
found in every case to agree so nearly with that assumed, as to render 
a repetition of the calculation unnecessary. The errors in the Lunar 
Tables, being very nearly eliminated by the comparison of observations 
at different places, have been neglected. 

Having adopted a mean value for the correction for irradiation and 
inflexion, the times of conjunction of the sun and moon, as deduced 
from the commencement and termination at each place, are found to 
differ slightly from each other. Both these times are inserted in the 



OF SEVERAL. PLACES IN THE UNITED STATES. 345 

first of the annexed tables, in order that an opinion may be formed as 
to the accuracy of the observations. It will be seen that in no case 
does the time of conjunction deduced from the beginning or end differ 
from the mean of the two results by a quantity greater than 3". 14. 
In the second table are given the results obtained by neglecting the 
correction for irradiation and inflexion. The contents of these tables 
will be readily understood without further explanation. 

In calculating the time of conjunction for Philadelphia, I have 
employed the data furnished by my own observations, but as they are 
perhaps less worthy of confidence than those obtained by other obser- 
vers in the city, it is proper to remark that a mean of all the results 
furnished by the committee appointed to collect observations makes the 
time of commencement at Philadelphia (State House), 1 h. m. 15.1 s., 
and that of termination 3h. 37 m. 49.5 s. 

The longitude of the State House, west of Greenwich, was assume 
equal to 5 h. m. 43.7 s., in estimating the positions of the several places 
with reference to this latter meridian. 

At most of the stations where observations were made, the weather 
is described as having been decidedly favourable ; and although the in- 
strumental means at the disposal of the several observers were probably 
of very different powers, yet the observations, almost without exception, 
are represented to have been satisfactory. At Philadelphia, the time 
of commencement may probably be relied on with more certainty 
than that of termination, as the latter was rendered somewhat uncertain 
by the interposition of thin fleecy clouds. 

The longitude of the several places (with the single exception of 
Cincinnati), as deduced from these observations, will be found to differ 
but slightly from those given in the American Almanac, as the results 
of the best observations previously made. 

In conclusion, it is proper to remark that I have been prevented from 
calculating all the observations furnished to the Society, only by the 
want of sufficient leisure ; and that those omitted have not been neg- 
lected from any doubt as to their accuracy. 



VOL. V. — 4 M 



346 



ON THE DIFFERENCE OF LONGITUDE, ETC. 



Elements employed in Calculating the Difference of Longitude, from Observations of the 

Solar Eclipse of Nov. 30th, 1834. 


Place of Observation. 


Latitude. 


Commencement. 


End. 


o 
o 
o, 

DO 

<o 

M 

- - 

3 
"8 5- 

Jj 

3 
o 

s 


Philadelphia, University of Pennsyl. 
University of Virginia. 
Cincinnati Female Academy. 
Baltimore, 1 mile west of Battle Mon. 
West Hills, Long Island. 
Norfolk, Virginia. 
University of Nashville. 


39° 57 01" 

38 02 03 

39 06 00 

39 17 12 

40 48 47.1 
36 51 10 
36 09 32.7 


h. m. s. 
1 00 09.1 
41 11.0 
03 39.71 

51 58 

1 09 53.44 
55 54.6 
not observed. 


h. 
3 
3 
2 
3 
3 
3 
q 


m. s. 
37 50.1 
23 43 
49 39.71 
31 29.5 
45 18.55 
37 02.1 
41 45.2 



1 

Results obtained by assuming Irradiation and Inflexion = 3". 3. 




W~ of Observation. J^s^ct. 


Time of Conj. 


-Mean of Times 


Difference of 


Longitude 


from olis.of end. 


ofCoDJunction. 


Longitude. 


from Greenw. 




h. m. s. 


h. m. s. 


h. m. s. 


h. m. s. 


h. m. s. 


Philad. reduced to State House. 


1 47 05.87 


1 47 05.35 


1 47 05.61 


00 00.00 w. 


5 00 43.90 


University of Virginia. 


1 33 42.04 


1 33 47.21 


1 33 44.62 


13 20.99 W. 


5 14 04.89 


Cincinnati Female Academy. 


1 09 38.00 


1 09 38.07 


1 09 38.33 


37 27.28 W. 


5 38 11.18 


Bait, reduced to Battle Monu. 


1 41 25 79 


1 41 22.54 


1 41 24.16 


5 41.45 W. 


5 06 25.35 


West Hills, Long Island. 


1 54 02.12 


1 54 04.96 


1 54 03.54 


6 57.93 E. 


4 53 45.97 1 


Norfolk, Virginia. 1 42 41.71 


1 42 37.29 


1 42 39.50 


4 26.11 W. 


5 05 10.01 


University of Nashville. com.notobs. 


1 00 44.36 


1 00 44.36 


46 20.99 W. 


5 47 04.89' 



Results obtained by neglecting Irradiation and Inflexion. 


Piace of Observation. 


Time of Conj. 1 Time of Conj. 


Mean of Times 


Difference 


Longitude 


lr.&In. 


from ob. of com. from ob. of end. 


of Conjunction. 


of Longitude. 


from Greenw. 


from du. 




h. m. s. h. m. s. 


h. m. s. 


h. m. s. 


h. m. s. 




Philadelphia, State House. 


1 47 11.64 1 46 59.49 


1 47 05.56 


00 00.00 W. 


5 00 43.90 


3".5 


University of Virginia. 


1 33 47.83 1 33 41.37 


1 33 44.60 


13 20.90 W. 


5 14 04.86 


1 .5 


Cincinnati Female Acad. 


1 09 44.40 1 09 32.18 


1 09 38.29 


37 27.27 W. 


5 38 11.17 


3 .5 


Bait. Battle Monument. 


1 41 31.56 1 41 16.69 


1 41 24.12 


5 41.44 W. 


5 06 25.34 


4 .2 


West Hills, Long Island. 


1 54 07.90 1 53 59.09 


] 53 03.49 


6 57.93 E. 


4 53 45.97 


2 .5 


Norfolk, Virginia. 


1 42 47.48 1 42 31.47 


1 42 39.47 


4 26.09 W. 


5 05 09.99 


4 .6 


University of Nashville. 


| 1 00 38.47 


1 00 38.47 


46 21.02 W. 


5 47 04.92 





By comparing the results furnished by these two tables it will be. 
seen that although the times of conjunction deduced either from the 
commencement or end, when the correction for irradiation and inflexion 
is applied, diners considerably from that obtained when this correction 
is neglected, yet the mean of the times of conjunction in the former 
case differs almost imperceptibly from that in the latter, and the 
differences of longitude resulting from the two methods of calculation 
are almost identical. 



ARTICLE XVI. 



Observations on Sulphurous Ether, and Sulphate of Etherine (the 
true Sulphurous Ether). By R. Hare, M. D., Professor of Chemistry 
in the University of Pennsylvania. 

It is known that when two parts, by weight, of sulphuric acid are 
distilled with one of alcohol, a yellow sulphurous liquid is obtained. 
Berzelius alleges, that when this liquid is exposed in an exhausted re- 
ceiver over sulphuric acid and hydrate of potash, an oleaginous liquid 
remains, which he designates as u oil of wine containing sulphuric acid, 
or heavy oil of wine." 

This oil is, by the same author, described as being heavier than 
water, as having a penetrating aromatic odour, and a cool pungent 
taste, resembling that of peppermint. It is, in fact, the liquid which 
Hennel first analysed as oil of wine, without, at the same time, men- 
tioning the process by which it was procured. No doubt the differ- 
ence between it and that procured by Boullay and Dumas, was, in some 
degree, the cause of the discordance between his observation and theirs. 
According to Hennel, the oil of wine consists of an atom of sulphuric 
acid, and an atom of hydrocarbon : S -f- 4 C -(- 4 H. By the last men- 
tioned appellation, this skilful chemist designates a compound consist- 
ing of four atoms of carbon, and four of hydrogen. 

Serullas represents the oil in question as consisting of two atoms of 
the acid, two of hydrocarbon or etherine, and one of water. 

VOL. V.— 4 N 



348 OBSERVATIONS ON SULPHUROUS ETHER, 

To the hydrocarbon of Hennel (4CH), as the common base of all 
the ethers, excepting those lately alleged to have mytheline for a base ; 
the name of etherine has been given ; so that the heavy oil of wine 
may be called the sulphate of etherine : or, according to the formula of 
Serullas, 2SE-|-H, it is a hydrous sulphate of etherine. It is, in fact, 
the only compound to which the name of sulphuric ether can be ap- 
plied with propriety. The yellow liquid out of which it is procured, 
as above stated, may be designated as the ethereal sulphurous sulphate 
of etherine. 

Another oil, lighter than water, resulting from the distillation of the 
ethereal sulphurous sulphate of etherine, from hydrate of lime, or 
from potash, is described by Berzelius as oil of wine exempt from 
sulphuric acid. Of this the odour is represented as disagreeable ; and, 
though nothing is said of its taste, it is to be presumed that it diners 
from the heavy oil of wine in this respect, as well as in its odour and 
specific gravity. 

Thenard alleges, that when the heavy oil of wine is heated with 
water for some time, a liquid swims on the water, which, if refrige- 
rated by ice, will, within twenty-four hours, deposit crystals. The 
mother liquid he calls light oil of wine, while to the crystals he 
gives the name of concrete oil of wine. Hennel mentions his having 
obtained a similar product by the reaction of oil of wine with water, 
or an aqueous solution of potash ; and treats the crystalline matter as 
the base of the heavy oil of wine, deprived of its acid ; or, in other 
words, as his "hydrocarbon ;" or, as above mentioned, etherine. 

Considering how much has been written on this topic, I am sur- 
prised that I have met with no statements respecting the reaction of 
ammonia with the above mentioned ethereal sulphurous sulphate of 
etherine. 

Since the year 1818,1 have been accustomed to saturate the acid in 
that liquid by ammonia. The residue, being rendered very fragrant, 
and entirely freed from its sulphurous odour, by admixture with 
about twenty-four parts of alcohol, was found to constitute an ano- 
dyne, possessing eminently all the efficacy of that so long distinguished 
by the name of Hoffman. When the residue, remaining after satu- 



AND SULPHATE OF ETHERINE. 349 

ration with ammonia, was distilled in a water bath, ether came over, 
and left an oil which I was accustomed to consider as the oil of wine. 

I had observed that, in the process above mentioned, there was a 
striking evolution of vapour, which seemed irreconcilable with the 
received opinion of the re-agents employed. Since the affinity be- 
tween the ammonia and sulphurous acid is energetic, it did not ap- 
pear to be reasonable that a copious escape of the one should be caused 
by its admixture with the other; and it was no less improbable that 
the vaporization of hydric ether, in its natural state, could take place 
at temperatures so much below its boiling point as those at which this 
phenomenon was noticed. In order to ascertain the truth, I luted a 
funnel, furnished with a glass cock and an air tight stopple, into the 
tubulure of a retort, of which the beak was so recurved downwards as 
to enter and be luted into the tubulure of another retort. The beak 
of the latter passed under a bell over water. 

Both retorts were about half full of liquid ammonia, and surrounded 
with ice. The apparatus being thus arranged, about a thousand grains 
of the ethereal sulphurous sulphate of etherine were poured into the 
funnel, and thence gradually allowed to descend into the ammonia in 
the first retort. Notwithstanding the refrigeration, much heat was 
perceptible, and a copious evolution of vapour, which, passing into the 
second retort, was there absorbed or condensed, none being observed 
to reach the bell glass. At the close of the operation, hydric ether, 
holding oil of wine in solution, floated upon the ammonia in the first 
retort, and pure ether, of the same kind, floated on the ammonia in 
the second. 

The ammonia in both retorts gave indications of the presence of sul- 
phurous acid, on the addition of sulphuric acid. From these results, 
I inferred that a chemical compound of sulphurous acid and hydric 
ether formed the principal portion of the yellow liquid, and might be 
separated by distillation. Accordingly, by means of retorts arranged 
and refrigerated as above described, I procured a portion of sulphu- 
rous ether, which boiled at 44°, and which, when agitated with am- 
monia in a bottle, produced so much heat and consequent vapour, as to 
expel the whole contents in opposition to the pressure of my thumb. 
By employing the same distillatory apparatus,! subjected 2150 grains 



350 OBSERVATIONS ON SULPHUROUS ETHER 

of the ethereal sulphurous sulphate of etherine to distillation, and ob- 
tained 726 grains of sulphurous ether, which boiled as soon as the 
frigorific mixture was removed from the containing retort. This 
being redistilled, as in a former experiment, so as to receive the product 
in ammonia, left in the retort five grains of oil of wine. The result- 
ing ammoniacal liquid, saturated with chloride of barium in solution, 
gave a precipitate which, agreeably to the table of equivalents, con- 
tained 356 grains of sulphurous acid. 

The residue of the 2150 grains of ethereal sulphate being subjected 
to distillation, raising the temperature from 95°, the point at which it 
had been before discontinued, to 140°, the product obtained by means 
of a refrigerated receiver weighed 602 grains. This was, of course, 
inferior in volatility to the first portion distilled ; and, when redistilled, 
it was found to contain a small quantity of oil of wine. In fact, it 
appears, the boiling point of the ethereal sulphurous sulphate rises, not 
only as the ratio of the sulphurous acid lessens, but also as the propor- 
tion of oil of wine augments. 

The residual liquid being exposed to the heat of a water bath at 
212° ; a very fragrant, and well flavoured oil of wine was evolved, and 
floated upon a quantity of water acidulated by sulphuric or sulpho- 
vinic acid. 

Agreeably to another experiment, 1750 grains by weight, of the 
ethereal sulphurous sulphate of etherine, after washing with ammo- 
nia, gave 869 grains of an ethereal solution of oil of wine. This be- 
ing subjected to distillation by a water bath raised gradually to 190°, 
there remained in the retort 148 grains of oil, beneath which there 
were a few drops of acidulated water. Agreeably to the result of 
several experiments, the ethereal sulphurous sulphate of etherine 
yields about half its weight of the ethereal solution of oil of wine. 
The quantity is always somewhat less than half when weighed ; but 
the deviation is not greater than might be expected to result from the 
loss by evaporation, and the diversity of refrigeration employed in the 
condensation of the ethereal sulphurous sulphate, during the process 
by which it is evolved. 

Under the expectation of procuring a sulphurous ether of a still 
higher degree of volatility, I associated with the apparatus usually 



AND SULPHATE OF ETHERINE. 351 

employed in the process for generating hydric ether, a series of 
tubulated retorts, of which the beaks were recurved downwards 
in such a manner that the beak of the first communicated with 
a perpendicular tube, passing through an open-necked cylindrical 
receiver, so as to enter the tubulure of the second retort, of which the 
beak was in like manner inserted into a tube passing through a receiver 
in a third retort, and this communicated in like manner with a fourth 
retort. The second, third and fourth retorts, and the tubes entering 
them, were all refrigerated, the first with ice, the second with ice and 
salt, and the third with ice and chloride of calcium. 

By these means, on subjecting to distillation in the first retort 48 
ounces of alcohol of 830, and a like weight of sulphuric acid, besides 
the ethereal sulphurous sulphate of etherine usually resulting from the 
process, and condensing in the first receiver, it was found that in the 
other retorts severally, there were liquids of various degrees of volati- 
lity. That in the last boiled at 28°, but the boiling points rose gradu- 
ally as the quantity of the residual liquid diminished. 

In order to ascertain the nature of the sulph-acids abstracted 
from the ethereal sulphurous sulphate of etherine by the ammonia 
employed, chloride of barium was added in excess to the resulting am- 
moniacal solution, until no further precipitate would ensue. The 
liquid having been rendered quite clear by filtration, soon became 
milky. By evaporation to dryness, and exposure to a red heat, a 
residuum was obtained which proved partially insoluble in chlorohydric 
acid, and by ignition with charcoal, yielded sulphide of barium. It 
appears, therefore, that a hyposulphate of barytes existed in the liquid 
after it was filtered ; as I believe that the hyposulphuric acid is the only 
oxacid of sulphur which is capable of forming with barytes a soluble 
compound, susceptible, by access of oxygen, of being converted into an 
insoluble sulphate, and precipitating in consequence. 

It must be evident from the facts which I have narrated, that the 
yellow liquid obtained by distilling equal measures of sulphuric acid 
and alcohol, consists of oil of wine held in solution by sulphurous 
ether, composed of nearly equal volumes or weights of its ingredients; 
also, that the affinity between the ether and the acid is analogous to 
that which exists between alcohol and water. The apparent detection 
vol. v. — 4 o 



352 OBSERVATIONS ON SULPHUROUS ETHER, 

of sulphuric acid in the ammonia, justifies a surmise, that the etherine 
distils in the state of a hyposulphate, which subsequently undergoes a 
decomposition into sulphurous acid and sulphate of etherine. 

The liquid above alluded to, as resulting from the saturation of the 
ethereal sulphurous sulphate of etherine by ammonia, and distillation 
by means of a water bath gradually raised to a boiling heat, is a very- 
fragrant variety of oil of wine. It differs from that described by Ber- 
zelius as the heavy oil of wine of Hennel and Serullas, in being lighter 
and containing less sulphuric acid. I have a specimen exactly of the 
specific gravity of water, and have had one so light as to float on that 
liquid. The oil of wine obtained by ammonia approximates, in its 
qualities, to the variety which Thenard describes as light oil of wine. 
The presence of sulphuric acid in a definite or invariable ratio does 
not appear requisite to the distinctive flavour or odour of oil of wine. 

The heavy oil of wine treated by Hennel as sulphate of hydro- 
carbon, 2 S > -f- 4 C H ; and by Serullas as a hydrous sulphate of etherine, 
4 CH-}-2S-f-H; I have obtained, as above mentioned, by exposing 
the ethereal sulphurous sulphate of etherine, in vacuo, over the hydrate 
of lime, or potash, and sulphuric acid. This variety sinks in water, 
being of the specific gravity of 1.09 nearly : is of a deeper hue than the 
other, and of a smell less active, with a taste somewhat more rank. A 
specimen of oil thus obtained being subjected to the distillatory pro- 
cess, a portion came over undecomposed, leaving in the retort a carbo- 
naceous mass. 14 grains of the oil which had not undergone distilla- 
tion, and a like portion of the distilled oil, were severally boiled in 
glass tubes with nitric acid until red fumes ceased to appear ; about 28 
grains of pure nitre were added to each, some time before the boiling 
was discontinued. The resulting liquid was in each case poured into 
a platina dish, boiled dry, and afterwards deflagrated by a red heat. 
The residual mass being subjected to water, the resulting solution was 
filtered, an excess of nitric acid added, and then nitrate of barytes in 
excess. 

The precipitate obtained from the distilled oil, weighed, when dry, only 
nine and five-eighths grains, while that procured from the oil which 
had not been distilled, amounted, under like circumstances, to fourteen 
and one-eighth grains. Ten grains of another portion, left for some 



AND SULPHATE OF ETHERINE. 353 

time over liquid ammonia, yielded only seven-eighths of a grain of sul- 
phate. 

About a drachm of Hennel's oil of wine was subjected to distillation 
with strong liquid ammonia ; fourteen and a half grains came over, re- 
taining the appropriate fragrance and flavour. This yielded, by the 
process above described, only two grains of sulphate of barytes. After 
all the water and ammonia had distilled, the receiver was changed, and 
fourteen grains of oil, devoid of the fragrance and flavour of the oil of 
wine, were obtained. This yielded one and one-eighth grains of sulphate. 
A carbonaceous mass, replete with sulphuric acid, remained in the 
retort. 

Hennel states that when oil of wine was heated in a solution of potash, 
an oil was liberated which floated upon water, having but little fluidity 
when cold ; and which, in some cases, partially crystallized. When 
gently heated, it became clear, and of an amber colour. The vapour 
had an agreeable, pungent, aromatic smell. This oil must have been 
pure etherine. 

It is not improbable that this oil, which may be considered as devoid 
of sulphuric acid, is more or less liberated in evolving oil of wine, 
according to the nature of the process employed ; and that the oil al- 
luded to by Thenard, and those procured by me by simple distillation, 
ebullition, or distillation with ammonia or potassium, are mixtures of the 
etherine with its sulphate in various proportions. As it is well known 
that the odour of the essential oils is rendered more active by dilution, 
the livelier smell of the solutions may be consistent with a diminished 
proportion of the odoriferous matter. 

Oil of wine cannot be distilled per se without partial decomposition, 
which does not take place below the temperature of 300. When 
subjected to the distillatory process, over potassium, at a certain tem- 
perature, a brisk reaction ensued, and the oil and metal agglutinated 
into a gelatinous mass. By raising the temperature the mass liquefied, 
and a colourless oil came over, which retained the odour of oil of wine. 
Meanwhile some of the potassium remained unchanged, and appeared 
within the liquid in the form of pure metallic globules. On pouring 
into the retort a portion of nitric acid in order to remove the caput 
mortuum, ignition took place from the presence of the potassium. 



ARTICLE XVII. 



Of the Reaction of the Essential Oils with Sulphurous Acid, as 
evolved in union with Ether in the process of JEtherification, or other- 
wise. By R. Hare, M. D., fyc, fyc, fyc. 

Having mixed and subjected to distillation two ounces of oil of tur- 
pentine, four ounces of alcohol and eight ounces of sulphuric acid, a 
yellow liquid came over, having all the appearance of that which is 
obtained in the process for making oil of wine, described in the pre- 
ceding article. On removing, by means of ammonia, the sulphurous 
acid existing in the liquid, and driving off the ether by heat, a liquid 
remained, which differed from oil of turpentine in taste and smell, 
although a resemblance might still be traced. This liquid was without 
any sensible action on potassium, which continued bright in it for many 
weeks. It proved, on examination, to contain a small quantity of sul- 
phuric acid. I ascertained, afterwards, that in order to produce these 
results, it was sufficient to pour oil of turpentine on the mass which 
remains after the termination of the ordinary operation for obtaining 
ether, and apply heat. Subsequently it was observed that when the 
sulphurous ether was removed by heat or evaporation, without the use 
of the ammonia, the proportion of sulphuric acid in the remaining oil 
was much greater. 

By subjecting to the same process several essential oils, I succeeded 
in obtaining as many liquids to which the above remarks were equally 
vol. v. — 4 p 



356 OF THE REACTION OF THE ESSENTIAL OILS 

applicable. With some of the oils, however, similar results were, by 
this method, either totally or partially unattainable, in consequence of 
their reaction with the sulphuric acid being so energetic as to cause 
their decomposition before any distillation could take place. No pro- 
duct can be obtained by distillation with sulphuric acid and alcohol 
from the oil of cinnamon obtained from cassia. From the oils of sas- 
safras and cloves, but little can be procured. 

However, in one instance, by previously mixing the oil of sassafras 
with the alcohol, in the manner described in the account given of the 
first experiment with the oil of turpentine, I succeeded in obtaining, 
in addition to a small quantity of the heavy liquid containing sulphuric 
acid, a minute quantity of a lighter one, devoid of that acid, which 
burned without smoke, was insoluble in water, and very fluid. I am 
disposed to consider the liquid thus procured as a hydrate of sassafras 
oil, or sassafreine, as I would call it, being analogous to hydric ether. 

The oil of sassafras, whether isolated or in combination, possesses a 
remarkable property, which, I believe, has not attracted sufficient ob- 
servation : I mean that of producing an intense crimson colour, when 
added, even in a very minute quantity, to concentrated sulphuric acid. 

One drop of oil of sassafras imparted a striking colour to forty- 
eight ounce measures of sulphuric acid, and appeared perceptible when 
it formed less than a five millionth part. This property was com- 
pletely retained by the lighter liquid above described as procured from 
oil of sassafras. 

I subsequently observed, that when sulphurous acid, whether in 
the form of sulphurous ether, in that of a gas, or when in union with 
water, was brought into contact with any of the essential oils (including 
kreosote), which were subjected to the experiment, they acquired a 
yellow colour, and a strong smell of this acid. 

In the case of the yellow compound thus obtained from any of the 
essential oils which I have tried, if the sulphurous acid be removed by 
heat, the oil, by analysis, will be found to yield sulphuric acid. That 
some acid of sulphur remains in union must be evident, since washing 
with ammonia will not entirely remove the power of yielding sulphu- 
ric acid ; and the total absence of the sulphurous smell demonstrates 
that the sulphurous acid either enters into an intimate combination 



WITH SULPHUROUS ACID. 357 

with the oil, or acquires oxygen sufficient to convert it into sulphuric 
or hyposulphuric acid. 

Those essential oils which contain oxygen, are most affected by the 
action of sulphurous acid. 

Both the oils of cloves and cinnamon, after admixture with sulphu- 
rous ether and subsequent distillation, gave, on analysis, precipitates of 
sulphate of barytes. In the case of cloves, the precipitate amounted to 
one-seventh of the whole weight. 

By distilling camphor with alcohol and sulphuric acid, I obtained a 
yellow liquid, which, by washing with ammonia and evaporation, in 
order to get rid of the sulphurous ether, yielded an oil. The oil, by 
standing, separated into two portions, one solid, the other liquid. The 
solid portion resembled camphor somewhat, in smell, but differed from 
it by melting at a much lower temperature, becoming completely fluid 
at 175°. 

I found that the essential oils of cinnamon and cloves possessed an 
antiseptic power, quite equal to that of kreosote, and that their aqueous 
solutions, when sulphated, were even superior to similar solutions of 
that agent. 

One part of milk mingled with four parts of a saturated aqueous 
solution of the sulphated oil of cloves, remained after five days sweet 
and liquid, while another portion of the same milk became curdled and 
sour within twenty-four hours. Having on the 2d day of July added 
two drops of oil of cinnamon to an ounce measure of fresh milk, it re- 
mained liquid on the 11th; and, though it finally coagulated, it conti- 
nued free from bad taste or smell till September, although other por- 
tions of the same milk had become putrid. A half ounce of milk, 
to which a drop of sulphurous oil of turpentine had been added, re- 
mained free from coagulation at the end of two days, while another 
portion, containing five drops of pure oil of turpentine, became curdled 
and sour on the next day. 

A number of pieces of meat were exposed in small wine glasses, with 
water impregnated with solutions of the various essential oils. Their 
antiseptic power seemed to be in the ratio of their acridity. The 
milder oils seemed to have comparatively little antiseptic power, un- 



358 OF THE REACTION OF THE ESSENTIAL OILS 

less associated with the sulphurous acid, which has long been known as 
an antiseptic. 

In cutaneous diseases, and, perhaps, in the case of some ulcers, the 
employment of the sulphurous sulphated oils may be advantageous. 

A respectable physician was of opinion that the sulphurous sulphate 
of turpentine had a beneficial influence in the case of an obstinate 
tetter. ♦ 

Possibly the presence of sulphurous acid may increase the power of 
oil of turpentine as an anthelmintic. 

Pieces of corned meat hung up, after being bathed with an alcoholic 
solution of the sulphurous sulphated oil of turpentine, or with solutions 
of the sulphated oils of cloves or cinnamon, remained free from putri- 
dity at the end of several months. That imbued with cinnamon had 
a slight odour and taste of the oil. 

I am led, therefore, to the impression that the antiseptic power is 
not peculiar to kreosote, but belongs to other acrid oils and principles, 
and especially to the oils of cinnamon and cloves. 

The union of sulphuric acid with these oils appears to render 
them more soluble in water: whether any important change is effected 
in their medical qualities by the presence of the acid may be a ques- 
tion worthy of attention. 

I have stated my reasons for considering the ammoniacal liquid, 
resulting from the ablution of the ethereal sulphurous sulphate of 
etherine with ammonia, as partially composed of hyposulphurie acid. 
By adding to this ammoniacal liquid a quantity of sulphuric acid, suffi- 
cient to produce a strong odour of sulphurous acid, and then a portion 
of any of the essential oils; a combination ensued, as already described, 
between the oils and the sulphurous acid liberated by the sulphuric 
acid, so as to render them yellow and suffocating. The habitudes of 
cinnamon oil from cassia under these circumstances were peculiar. A 
quantity of it was dissolved, communicating to the liquid a reddish hue. 
The solution being evaporated, a gummy translucent reddish mass was 
obtained, which, by solution in alcohol, precipitated a quantity of salt, 
and being boiled nearly to dryness, re-dissolved in water, and again 
evaporated, was resolved into a mass having the friability, consistency 
and translucency of common rosin ; but with a higher and more lively 



WITH SULPHUROUS ACID. 359 

reddish colour. Its odour recalls, but faintly, that of cinnamon ; its 
taste is bitter and disagreeable, yet recalling that of the oil from which 
it is derived. Its aqueous solution does not redden litmus ; nor, when 
acidulated with nitric acid, does it yield a precipitate with nitrate of 
barytes. 

Of this substance ten grains were exposed to the process above men- 
tioned, for the detection of sulphuric acid, and were found to yield a 
precipitate of 6.5 grains of sulphate of barytes. 

It may be worth while to mention, that in boiling the sulphated oils 
with nitric acid, compounds are formed finally, which resist the further 
action of the acid, and are only to be decomposed by the assistance of 
a nitrate and deflagration. I conjecture that these compounds will be 
found to merit classification as ethers formed by an oxacid of nitrogen. 

One of my pupils, in examining one of the compounds thus gene- 
rated, was, as he conceived, seriously affected by it, suffering next 
day as from an over dose of opium. He also conceived that a cat, to 
which a small quantity was given, was affected in like manner. 

I had prepared an apparatus with the view of analyzing accurately 
the various compounds above described or alluded to, by burning them 
in oxygen gas ; when, by an enduring illness of my assistant, and sub- 
sequently my own indisposition, I was prevented from executing my 
intentions. 



vol. v 4 Q 



ARTICLE XVIII. 



Of Sassarubrin, a Resin evolved by Sulphuric Acid from Oil of Sas- 
safras, which is remarkable for Us efficacy in Reddening that Acid in 
its concentrated state. By R. Hare, M. D., 4*c, 4*c, #c. 

This colour is due to a peculiar resin, which I would call sassaru- 
brin, being elaborated from the oil of sassafras, by its reaction with 
sulphuric acid, with phenomena which are striking, and, in some 
respects, singular. If a mixture be made of equal parts of the oil of 
sassafras, alcohol and sulphuric acid, on raising the temperature to a 
certain point, the whole mass rises up in a resinous foam, of a beautiful 
colour, between copper and purple, with a metallic brilliancy. In 
some instances, it has been partially forced out of the retort through 
the beak in a cylindrical mass, which acquired, on cooling, the con- 
sistency of pitch. This pitchy substance is a compound of the resin 
above alluded to and sulphuric acid, with which it forms a soluble 
substance, neutralising its sourness to a certain extent. By steeping 
this subacid compound in ammonia, straining, washing the residue 
with water, and desiccation, a brittle tasteless resin remains, which is 
quite insoluble in water, but very soluble in alcohol and hydric ether. 

The addition of this sassarubrin to concentrated sulphuric acid, pro- 
duces the crimson colour already mentioned as resulting from the 
presence in that liquid of a minute portion of oil of sassafras. I infer 
that the colour is due to the evolution of sassarubrin, which has a 



362 OF SASSARUBRIN. 

bassic affinity for the acid, to which it owes its birth. The ethereal 
and alcoholic solutions of sassarubrin are of the colour of a dingy white 
wine, but acquire a deep crimson when mingled with concentrated 
sulphuric acid. 

Sassarubrin may be produced by the union of the acid and oil, pro- 
vided it be moderated by refrigeration or dilution with water. 

Without some precaution, the heat produced is sufficient to char the 
resin more or less. The reddening influence of the oils of cinnamon 
and cloves is due to the generation of resins analogous to sassarubrin. 

To those resins the names of cinnarubrin and clovorubrin may be 
severally assigned. Cinnarubrin may be evolved by adding oil of cin- 
namon to equal parts of sulphuric acid and water, previously mixed 
and refrigerated, the temperature being subsequently elevated till the 
mass rises up in a foam ; when the whole should be poured into a 
solution of pearlash, from which the resin may be extricated by a 
strainer. It is analogous to sassarubrin, but is less efficacious in colour- 
ing sulphuric acid, and does not, like the former, impart to the sides 
of the containing glass a rich red colour. Moreover, it appears to be 
partially insoluble in alcohol, and to retain sulphuric acid after being 
boiled with an alkaline solution. 

I infer that a new series of resins may be evolved from the essential 
oils by their reaction with sulphuric acid; which, having a general 
analogy to each other, may still have discriminating characteristics, 
arising from the oils whence they may be derived. 




ARTICLE XIX. 



Process for Nitric Ether, or Sweet Spirits of Nitre, by means of an 
approved Apparatus. By R. Hare, M. D., fyc, fyc, fyc. 



The reaction of nitric acid with alcohol is so difficult to regulate, 
in the ordinary mode of making nitric ether in which the whole of 
the materials are mingled at the outset of the process, that I was in- 
duced, about twelve or fifteen years ago, to introduce an apparatus in 
which they were gradually added together within a glass bottle, by 
means of glass funnels with glass cocks. 

Subsequently I adopted the more simple apparatus represented in 
the accompanying figure. 

Providing a bottle with three tubulures, let one tubulure communi- 
cate, by means of a recurved tube A, with another tube passing per- 
pendicularly through an open-necked inverted receiver C, and entering 
vol. v. — 4 R 



364 APPROVED PROCESS FOR NITRIC ETHER. 

a bottle surrounded with ice and salt, occupying a suitable vessel B B. 
The cavity of the receiver should likewise be occupied by a freezing 
mixture. 

Into each of the remaining tubulures let a glass tube be introduced, 
ground or luted to fit air tight, and tapering so as to terminate in a 
capillary orifice near the bottom of the bottle. 

Through one of the tubes introduce as much alcohol as will cover 
the bottom of the bottle, and then, by means of the other tube, introduce 
as much strong nitric acid as will cause an effervescence. Should the 
effervescence threaten to become explosive, the reaction may be checked 
by the further addition of alcohol, and when the reaction appears to 
decline too much, it may be re-excited by an additional quantity of 
acid. By these means, without applying heat, a quantity of nitric* 
ether will soon be condensed in the refrigerated bottle. To convert 
this ether into a liquid, fully equal to the officinal sweet spirits of 
nitre, let it be mingled with seven parts of alcohol, and four of water. 

The colder the freezing mixture, the greater will be the product ; 
yet more or less may be obtained by refrigeration with cold water. 

It may be proper to mention, that at the bottom of the phial an 
aqueous acid liquor is deposited, upon which the ether swims, and from 
which it should be carefully separated. 

* The proper appellation of this ether being unsettled, I adhere to that generally used. 



ARTICLE XX. 



Description of an Electrical Machine, with a Plate four feet in dia- 
meter, so constructed as to be above the Operator : also of a Battery Dis- 
charger employed therewith : and some Observations on the Causes of the 
Diversity in the Length of the Sparks erroneously distinguished by the 
terms Positive and Negative. By R. Hare, M. D., 4*c, #c, fyc. 

The opposite engraving represents a machine with a plate four feet 
in diameter, which I have recently constructed so as to be permanently 
affixed to the canopy over the hearth of my lecture room. 

This situation I have found convenient even beyond my expecta- 
tions, as the machine is always at hand, yet never in the way. In 
lecturing, with the aid of a machine on the same level with the lec- 
turer, one of two inconveniences is inevitable. Either the machine 
will occasionally be between him and a portion of the audience, or he 
must be between a portion of the audience and the machine. Situ- 
ated like that which I am about to describe, a machine can neither 
hide the lecturer, nor be hidden by him. With all its power at his 
command, while kept in motion by an assistant, he has no part of it to 
reach or to handle besides the knob and sliding rod of the conductor, 
which are in the most convenient situation. 

The object of this machine being to obtain a copious supply of 
electricity for experiments, in which such a supply is requisite, it was not 
vol. v. — 4 s 



366 



DESCRIPTION OF AN ELECTRICAL MACHINE 



deemed necessary to insulate the cushions and the axis, as in the electrical 
plate machine which I employ for experiments requiring insulation.* 

The prime conductor is supported and insulated by means of wooden 
posts covered by stout bell glasses, so that the summits of the latter are 
between those of the posts and the inner surfaces of caps attached to 
the conductor. By these means the glass is subjected to pressure, but 
is liable to no strain. Such a support combines the advantages both of 
wood and glass. At C C, are the collectors. R represents a sliding 
rod, which may be drawn out to such an extent as to be brought in 
contact with any apparatus placed under it upon the table. 

In fact, the large rod in which the rod R slides may be slipped up 
to any elevation through the hole in the brass ball which sustains it. 

DR. HARE'S BATTERY DISCHARGER FOR DEFLAGRATING WIRES. 




This apparatus is employed by me in lieu of Henley's universal 
discharger ; being better adapted to my apparatus, and mode of ope- 



* See Silliman's American Journal of Science for 1828, vol. 7, page 108 ; or London 
Philosophical Magazine for 1823, vol. 23, page 8. 



AND BATTERY DISCHARGER, ETC., ETC. 367 



, JJiv., 



rating. Two brass plates, S S, are secured to the pedestal by a screw 
bolt N, which passes through a hole made in each, near one extremity : 
the plates are thus allowed a circular motion about the bolt, so as to be 
set in one straight line, or in any angle with each other. On one of 
the plates near the extremity not secured by the bolt, a brass socket is 
soldered, into which a glass column C is cemented, surmounted by a 
forceps. At the corresponding end of the other plate, there is a brass 
rod R, perpendicular to the plate, and parallel to the glass column. 
This rod is also furnished with forceps. Between these forceps, and 
those at F, supported and insulated by the glass column C, a wire is 
stretched, which may be of various lengths, according to the angle 
which the plates S S make with each other. The pedestal should be 
metallic, or have a metallic plate at bottom, in communication with 
the external coating of the battery. This being accomplished, it is 
only necessary to charge the battery, without subsequently breaking 
the communication between the inner coatings of the jars, and the 
prime conductor, by which the charge is conveyed. In that case, 
touching the conductor is equivalent to a contact with the inner coat- 
ings of the jars, so far as electrical results are concerned. Hence, by 
causing one of the knobs of the discharger D, with glass handles, to be 
in contact with the insulated forceps F, and then approximating the 
other knob to the prime conductor B, the charge of the battery will 
pass through the wire W, as it cannot descend by the glass column, 
nor reach the operator through the glass handles. These should be 
longer than represented in the cut. 

LONG ZIGZAG OR ERRATIC SPARK, CONTRASTED WITH THE SHORT 

STRAIGHT SPARK. 

"The cause of this difference between the lengths of the two electricities, we have no 
means of explaining." — Tliompsori's work on Heat and Electricity. 

The object of the engraving on the following page is to represent 
the different forms and lengths of the electric spark, which take place 
between a large and a small ball, accordingly as they are made nega- 
tive or positive. The long and zigzag, or erratic spark A takes place 
between a small ball attached to the positive pole, and a large one 
associated with the negative pole. The short straight spark B is eli- 



368 



DESCRIPTION OF AN ELECTRICAL MACHINE 




cited under circumstances the reverse of those just mentioned. They 
are represented as simultaneous, but, with the same machine, can of 
course, only be obtained in succession. 

In no respect do the phenomena of mechanical electricity appear 
more favourable to the Franklinian theory, and more inexplicable, 
according to the doctrine of two fluids, than in the diversity of the 
electrical spark in passing between a small and a large metallic ball, 
according to the manner in which the balls are associated with the 
positive or negative poles of the machine. When the small ball is 
attached to the positive pole, the spark is long, comparatively narrow, 
and of a zigzag shape, such as lightning is often seen to assume : but 
when the situation of the balls is reversed, the spark is straight and 
thick, not one-third as long, and nothing of a zigzag shape can be ob- 
served in it. 

According to the Franklinian theory, when any body is more highly 



AND BATTERY DISCHARGER, ETC., ETC. 369 

charged with electricity than the adjoining bodies, the excess of the 
fluid is attracted by them, while it is inadequately repelled by the 
inferior quantity of the electric fluid, with which they are imbued. It 
follows that when a small globe is made positive in the neighbourhood 
of a large one, the excess of electric matter in the former, is attracted 
by all the negatively excited metal in the latter. When the small 
globe is made negative, the metal of which it consists attracts all the 
electric matter in the large globe. Hence there is this difference in 
the two cases ; the small globe being positive, a comparatively small 
movable mass of electric matter, is attracted by a large immovable 
mass of metal : the small globe being made negative, a large movable 
mass of electric matter is attracted by a small immovable mass of 
metal. The charge being in both cases the effect of the same ma- 
chine; the attractive power must be as great in one case as in the 
other. The forces by which the masses are actuated being therefore 
equal, it is quite reasonable that the greatest projectile power should 
be attained, when the small mass is movable. In that case, it will 
require less air to be removed in order to effect a passage. 

There is an analogy between the difference which I suppose to exist 
in the case under consideration, and that which may be observed be- 
tween the penetrating power of a rod which is blunt, and one which 
is pointed. 

It remains to show why a large mass of electric matter will be dis- 
charged in a spark when there is sufficient proximity, although that 
electric matter be situated in the large globe, and attracted by the 
other, under circumstances in which, as above stated, it would not pass 
without that proximity. 

It must be evident that attraction increases, as the distance between 
the bodies which exercise it lessens. Of course the attraction of the 
small globe must always act more powerfully on those portions of the 
electric fluid, which occupy the nearest parts of the positively excited 
globe. But this difference of distance, and consequent diversity of 
attraction, increases as the globes are approximated. Thus that portion 
of the electric fluid which sustains this pre-eminent attraction, will 
be accumulated into a conoid ; the acuteness of which, and attraction 
causing the acuteness, increasing with the proximity, there will at last 
vol. v. — 4 T 



370 

be sufficient projectile and penetrative power to break through the air, 
and thus open a passage for the whole of the quantity attracted by the 
small negatively excited globe. 

When, by the process last described, the fluid is made to leap through 
a comparatively small interval, by the concentrated attraction exercised 
by a small negative ball upon the expanded surface of electric matter 
diffused through a large globe, the air does not become sufficiently 
condensed to resist it before it reaches its destination, and, of course, it 
cannot assume the erratic form which would arise from repeated 
changes in its course, as in the instance of the long spark. 

OF THE ELECTRICAL BRUSH. 




When the machine is in active operation, and the prime conductor 
insulated ; from a small knob attached to it, as at B, in the figure, the 
electricity will be so sent off, as by the concomitant light to exhibit 
the form of a luminous brush, as represented in this figure at B. For 
the production of this phenomenon, it is necessary that the electric 
fluid shall be condensed into a small prominent mass, so as, agreeably 
to the preceding explanation, to have great penetrating power. This 
it cannot possess, when, with the same intensity in the generating 
power, a large ball is positively electrified. In that case, the electric 
column presents a front too broad to procure a passage through the 
surrounding non-conducting air. A small ball, negatively electrified, 
can only be productive of a diffuse attraction for the electricity in the 
atmospheric medium around it; so that it has less ability to create any 
penetrating power, than when acting upon the electricity in a compa- 
ratively large globular conductor, as in the preceding illustration. 
Hence, when the knob is on the negative pole, it may be productive 



AND BATTERY DISCHARGER, ETC., ETC. 371 



, *i*v,., 



of a luminous appearance in its immediate vicinity, where the electric 
matter, converging from the adjoining space, becomes sufficiently in- 
tense to be productive of light ; but it does not produce the striking 
appearance of the luminous brush. 

As, agreeably to Du Fay's theory, the knob, whether vitreously or 
resinously electrified, is surcharged with an electric fluid, the projectile 
power ought to be as great in the one case as in the other ; and the 
long spark and the brush, should be producible in either case. 

ON SOME INFERENCES FROM THE PHENOMENA OF THE ELECTRIC 
SPARK, IN A RECENT WORK ON HEAT AND ELECTRICITY. 

By the Author of the preceding Article. 

In his valuable work on heat and electricity, Dr Thompson states 
that if a long spark be taken between two knobs, as when severally 
attached to the positive and negative conductors of the electrical ma- 
chine ; the portion of the spark near the positive knob exhibits all the 
characters of positive electricity, while the remaining portion pro- 
ceeding from the other knob displays all the characters of negative 
electricity. Although the learned and ingenious author does not state 
what differences there are between the different portions of the spark, and 
wherefore, if any exist; he can, without a petitio principii, assume that 
they are such as to justify his conclusion. He proceeds to allege that 
there can be no doubt that every spark consists of two electricities ; 
which, issuing severally from their respective knobs, terminate their 
career by uniting at the non-luminous portion of the spark, which is 
at a distance from the negative knob, of about one-third of the inter- 
val. Upon these grounds he infers that the positive electricity occu- 
pies two-thirds of the length of the spark, the negative one-third. 

I presume that, agreeably to the theory which supposes the exist- 
ence of two fluids, when the equilibrium between oppositely excited 
surfaces is restored by a discharge, whether in the form of a spark or 
otherwise, there must be two jets or currents passing each other; the 
one conveying as much of the resinous as the other does of the vitre- 
ous electricity. Of course no part of a spark can be more negative 



372 DESCRIPTION OF AN ELECTRICAL. MACHINE, 

than it is positive, nor more positive than it is negative. Upon this 
ground, a suggestion of the same author, that the diminution of light 
near the middle of the spark results from the combination of the dif- 
ferent fluids at this point, appears to me injudicious, since there is as 
little ground for supposing the union of the fluids to take place there 
as elsewhere. But admitting that the union does take place as sup- 
posed, is this a reason for the observed diminution of light? If, when 
isolated, either fluid is capable of emitting a brilliant light, should 
not their co-operation increase the effect ? If, after their union, they 
do not shine, it can only be in consequence of their abandoning, at 
that moment, all the light with which they were previously associated. 
It cannot be imagined that the light accompanying one should neutral- 
ize that accompanying the other. 

In deflagrating, by voltaic electricity, a wire of uniform thickness, 
equally refrigerated, the most intense evolution of heat and light is 
always midway. 

In truth, the theory which the learned author sanctions, requires 
two postulates so irreconcilable, that unless one be kept out of view, 
the other cannot be sustained. It requires that the fluids should exer- 
cise an intense reciprocal attraction adequate to produce chemical af- 
finity, and of course, enter into combination when they meet, and 
yet rush by each other with inconceivable velocity, not only through 
the air, but also through the restricted channel afforded by a small 
wire. If the fluids combine at a point intervening between the sur- 
faces from which they proceed, what becomes of the compound which 
they form? Is it credible that such a compound would afford no indi- 
cation of its existence ? But, again, how are two surfaces, the one 
previously deprived of a large portion of the negative electricity natu- 
rally due to it, the other made as deficient of the positive fluid, to 
regain their natural state ? By a combination midway, the resinous 
and vitreous surcharges might be disposed of, but whence could the 
vitreous and resinous deficiencies be supplied ? 

Dr Thompson, in common with the great majority of modern 
chemists, ascribes chemical affinity to the attraction between the 
two electricities combined with ponderable particles. As the combi- 
nations between such particles take place only in definite proportions, 



AND BATTERY DISCHARGER, ETC., ETC. 373 

would it not be consistent that the fluids which give rise to them, 
should combine agreeably to those laws ? But if the electrical com- 
pound, formed of the vitreous and resinous electricities, be decomposable 
by induction, as the theory in question requires, its constituents must 
be capable of uniting in every proportion. 

Agreeably to the late investigations of the celebrated Faraday, equal 
quantities of the electric fluid are evolved by analogous chemical changes, 
in equivalent weights of different ponderable bodies. It may there- 
fore be inferred, that in entering into combination the electric fluid 
is obedient to those laws of definite proportion which regulate other 
substances. 



VOL. v. — 4 u 



r 



ARTICLE XXI. 



On the Causes of the Tornado, or Water Spout. By R. Hare, 

In July last, I visited the scene of the tornado, which had in the 
previous month produced so much damage in and near New Bruns- 
wick, New Jersey, and heard it described by various witnesses, and 
have likewise been edified by the observations made respecting its 
effects by professors Henry, Torrey, Johnson and other sagacious and 
learned observers, and especially those of my friends, professor A. D. 
Bache, and Mr Espy. Probably in no other instance have the effects 
of a tornado been so faithfully and skilfully traced, ascertained and 
registered. Professor Bache regularly surveyed the path of the de- 
vastating agent, and ascertained the bearings of the various bodies pros- 
trated by it, so as to make several accurate plots.* From an examin- 
ation of these, the proximate causes of the changes effected, are those 
of a vertical current at the centre or axis of the tornado, and of a hori- 
zontal conflux of the air towards that axis from the surrounding space. 
Some trees appear to have been thrown down on the approach of the 
hiatus, both directly in front of it and on either side ; some fell at right 
angles, others obliquely to the path. Hence they were found to have 
a great variety of bearings, but always pointing towards the path. 

* I hope that these plots will appear in this volume. 



376 ON THE CAUSES OF 

The time of their falling, and consequently the direction agreeably 
to the observations of professor Bache, appear to have been deter- 
mined not only by the extent of the force to which they were exposed, 
but likewise by the strength of their roots, or the degree of protection 
afforded them by other bodies, trees or houses for instance. On these 
accounts, neighbouring trees, falling at different times, had different 
bearings ; but that they all fell towards the point occupied by the axis 
of the tornado at the time of their overthrow, appears to be consistent 
with the facts. In one instance, both professor Bache and Mr Espy 
observed that the post of a frame building, being dislodged from the 
stone on which it rested, was first moved towards the path of the tor- 
nado in one direction about eighteen inches, marking its course by a 
furrow in the ground, and afterwards moved in another direction, nearly 
at right angles to the former, leaving a similar indication of the course 
in which it had moved. Intermediately between the time when the 
tornado bore in those directions, the frame was protected bya house. 

While the phenomena above described sufficiently indicate the ex- 
istence of a horizontal conflux of the air, that of a vertical force was 
demonstrated by the transportation of the debris of the houses and 
trees, as well as lighter bodies, to a great distance. A lady's reticule 
was carried seven miles from New Brunswick, and a letter twenty 
miles. The piece of timber, technically called the plate, on which the 
rafters of the roof of a meetinghouse in New Brunswick rested, was 
carried nearly a quarter of a mile, and lodged in some trees beyond the 
Raritan. The fields, on the other side of that river, were strewed with 
shingles torn from the houses in the town. 

After maturely considering all the facts, I am led to suggest that a 
tornado is the effect of an electrified current of air, superseding the 
more, usual means of discharge between the earth and clouds in those 
sparks or flashes which are called lightning. I conceive that the inevi- 
table effect of such a current would be to counteract within its sphere 
the pressure of the atmosphere, and thus enable this fluid, in obedience 
to its elasticity, to rush into the rarer medium above. 

It will, I believe, be admitted, that whenever there is sufficient 
electricity generated to afford a succession of sparks, the quantity must 
be sufficient, under favourable circumstances, to be productive of an 



THE TORNADO, OR WATER SPOUT. 



377 



electrical current ; and that light bodies, lying upon one of the electri- 
fied surfaces, may be attracted more or less by the other. 

The phenomena of the rise and fall of electrified pith balls, called 
electrical hail, sufficiently justify this last mentioned statement; while 
the continuous stream is illustrated by the electrical brush, or the blast 
of air produced by a highly electrified point. 

It will also be conceded, that thunder and lightning are caused by 
discharges of electricity between the earth and clouds, analogous to 
those of a Leyden jar or pane ; the air performing the part of an elec- 
tric in place of the glass, while the cloud acts as a coating. 

It follows that the phenomena above mentioned as liable to arise 
between oppositely electrified bodies, may be expected to take place 
between the clouds and the earth, with effects as much exceeding those 
produced by human agency, as the snap and spark of an electric bat- 
tery are exceeded by thunder and lightning. If in the one case pith balls 
and other light bodies are lifted ; in the other, water, trees, houses, 
haystacks and barns may be powerfully affected.* If from a point 
electrified by a human contrivance, a blast of air is induced ; it is as- 



* This figure affords an illustration in miniature of 
the rise and fall of bodies situated between oppositely 
electrified surfaces, which, in the gigantic operations of 
nature, are conceived to be the exciting cause of the tor- 
nado. The phenomena represented by it are designated 
in Pixii's catalogue as " grele electrique," and may be thus 
explained. A metallic rod supports one ball within the 
bell glass, another without, so as to be in contact with 
the knob of another rod R, proceeding from the conductor 
of an electrical machine in operation. The brass ball be- 
ing by these means intensely electrified, attracts some of 
the pith balls which lie upon the metallic dish in which 
the bell is situated, and which should communicate with 
the cushions of the machine. As soon as the pith balls 
come into contact with the electrified ball, becoming simi- 
larly excited, agreeably to the general law they recede from 
each other and are attracted by the oppositely electrified 
dish. Reaching the dish, they attain the same electrical 
state as at first, and are, of course, liable to be attracted 
again. 

VOL. V. — 4 v 




378 ON THE CAUSES OF 

suredly not unreasonable to ascribe to the analogous electrical appara- 
tus of nature, aided by the elasticity of the air, a vertical hurricane. 
It was under the well founded impression that lightning may be super- 
seded by a current, that we have been instructed by Franklin, to 
surmount our lightning rods by metallic points, by which electrical 
discharges from thunder clouds are expected to be conveyed to the 
earth gradually, which might otherwise pass in sparks of lightning of 
a formidable magnitude. 

If, then, it be demonstrated that a continuous discharge of electricity 
may become the substitute for lightning, and that within the sphere of 
the discharge the air may be so lifted as to counteract its gravity; it is 
in the next place only necessary to advert to facts perfectly well known, 
in order to point out a cause of acceleration sufficient to account for 
the well known violence of the tornado. 

At the height of fifteen miles, the air has been ascertained to have 
less than one-thirtieth of the density of the stratum next the earth. 
Of course this substratum would exercise a force nearly equal to the 
atmospheric pressure, or about fourteen and a half pounds to the square 
inch, in order to attain the space occupied by the rare medium, to 
which allusion has been made. It follows that if the weight of the 
superincumbent air were removed or counteracted, that the inferior 
stratum would rise with explosive violence. 

While the air is thus carried upwards by the concurrent influence 
of electrical attraction, and the reaction of its own previously con- 
strained elasticity ; other bodies are lifted, both by electrical attraction, 
and the blast of air to which it gives rise. Hence houses within the 
sphere of the excitement are burst by the expansion of the air which 
they contain, their walls being thrown outwards, and their roofs car- 
ried away ; while, by the afflux of the atmosphere requisite to the res- 
toration of its equilibrium, trees, houses and other bodies are thrown 
inwards towards the vertical current, from before, as well as from either 
side. 

When once a vertical current is established, and a vortex pro- 
duced, I conceive that it may continue after the exciting cause may 
have ceased to act. The effect of a vortex in protecting the space 



THE TORNADO, OR WATER SPOUT. 379 

about which it is formed, from the pressure of the fluid in which it 
has been induced, must be familiar to every observer. In fact, Frank- 
lin ascribed the water spout to a whirlwind produced by the concourse 
of the atmosphere to a given point. His hypothesis was, as I conceive, 
unsatisfactory, because it did not assign any adequate cause for the con- 
centration of the wind, or for the hiatus which was presumed to be 
the cause. This deficiency is supplied, if my suggestions be correct. 

One fact, of which I am myself a witness, cannot be explained with- 
out supposing a gyratory force. About six feet of a brick chimney, 
without being thrown down, were so twisted on the remaining inferior 
portion as to be left with its corners projecting. 

I have hardly deemed it necessary to advert to the cause of the pro- 
gressive motion of a tornado, since that would appear evidently due to 
the current of the atmosphere within which it may be created. 

I believe that the electrical excitement which gives rise to atmos- 
pheric discharges of electricity, in whatever form they may occur, is 
usually ascribed to the chemical changes taking place in the atmos- 
phere ; especially the formation or condensation of vapour. 

Another view of this subject has suggested itself to my mind. It 
is known that the atmosphere acts generally as an electric, while the 
earth acts as a conductor of electricity: and since the electric fluid 
passes through an exhausted receiver with great facility, it results that 
the rare medium which exists at a great elevation, is equivalent to an- 
other conductor. Hence it is evident that there are three enormous con- 
centric spaces, of which that which is intermediate contains an electric, to 
which the others may act as coatings. When the tendency of electric 
fluid to preserve an equilibrium is taken into view, I believe myself justified 
in the inference, that not only the space occupied by the globe, but the 
region beyond our atmosphere, or where the air is sufficiently rare to act 
as a conductor, must abound with electricity. Thus the atmosphere 
is situated betw r een two oceans of electricity, of which the tension may 
often be different. Between these electric oceans, the clouds, floating 
in the non-conducting air, must act as movable insulated conductors ; 
and from the excitement consequent upon induction, chemical changes, 
or their proximity to the celestial electric ocean, must be liable to be 



380 ON THE CAUSES OF 

electrified differently from each other, and from the terrestrial electric 
ocean. 

The phenomena of thunder storms may arise, from the passage of 
electricity from one electric ocean to the other being facilitated by 
an intervening accumulation of the clouds, or in consequence of dis- 
charges from one insulated congeries of clouds to another through the 
earth. 

The aurora borealis may arise from discharges from one ocean to 
the other of electricity, which, not being concentrated by its attraction 
for intervening clouds within air sufficiently dense to act as an elec- 
tric, assumes the diffuse form which characterizes that phenomenon. 

Falling stars may consist of electric matter, in transitu between one 
portion of the celestial electric ocean and another, tending to restore 
the equilibrium when disturbed. They may, in fact, consist of elec- 
tric matter, passing from one mass of moisture to another ; as it may be 
imagined that in an expanse so vast, in which the tension is so low, 
there may be a great diversity as respects the quantity of moisture 
existing in different parts. Indeed, it may be conceived that at times 
the clouds, insulated from each other, may make their reciprocal dis- 
charges through the region occupied by the celestial ocean. 

I have been informed by my intelligent friend, Mr Quinby, who 
resided for some time in Peru, at an elevation of fifteen thousand feet 
above the level of the ocean, that the clouds in that elevated region 
are far more electric than in the lower country of the same latitude : 
and that, on this account, it was considered as dangerous, at times, to 
travel in the "sierras" or table land. Possibly thunder storms are 
more frequent in warm weather, in consequence of the greater eleva- 
tion which the clouds then attain, and their consequent approximation 
to the celestial ocean of electricity. 

Consistently with the hypothesis which I suggested in my essay on 
the gales of the United States, the enduring rains which accompany 
those gales are attributed to the contact of an upper warm and moist 
current of air, with a lower current of the same fluid at an inferior 
temperature, and moving in an opposite direction. It would follow 
that, on such occasions, the electricity of the upper region would be 
diffused among the clouds within the upper stratum, without reaching 



THE TORNADO, OR WATER SPOUT. 381 



those existing within the lower current. But in such cases neither 
stratum would be sufficiently insulated and restricted in its extent to 
transmit the electricity in a concentrated form, or to be liable to the 
intense excitement necessary to produce a tornado or lightning. 

PACTS AND OBSERVATIONS RESPECTING THE TORNADO WHICH OC- 
CURRED AT NEW BRUNSWICK, NEW JERSEY, IN JUNE LAST, AB- 
STRACTED FROM A WRITTEN STATEMENT MADE BY JAMES P. ESPY, 
M. A. P. S. 

By the Author of the preceding Article. 

The tornado was formed about seven and a half miles west of New 
Brunswick, and, moving at the rate of about twenty-five or thirty miles 
in an hour, terminated suddenly at Amboy, about seventeen and a half 
miles from the place of its commencement. It appeared like an in- 
verted cone, of which the base was in the clouds, and the vertex upon 
the earth. It prostrated or carried off every movable body within its 
path ; which was from two hundred to four hundred yards wide. Trees 
which were embraced successively within its axis were thrown down 
in a direction parallel to its path ; those on either side always point- 
ing towards some point which had been under its axis. Houses 
were unroofed, and, in some instances, unfloored ; in others, their walls 
were thrown down outwards, as if burst by an explosion. There are 
two facts stated by Mr Espy, and confirmed by professor Bache, which 
demonstrate fully the existence of an hiatus. In a house which was 
exposed to the vertical influence of the tornado, a sheet was lifted from 
a bed, and carried into a fissure made in the southern wall, which sub- 
sequently closed and retained it. The same result was observed in 
the case of a handkerchief, similarly fastened into a fissure in the nor- 
thern wall. In some instances, frame buildings were lifted entire from 
their foundations. Joists and rafters were torn from a house and thrown 
down at the distance from it of about four hundred yards, and in a 
direction opposite to that in which the trees not lifted from the earth's 
surface were prostrated. Of course lighter bodies, such as shingles, 
hats, books and papers, and branches and leaves of trees, were carried 
vol. v. — 4 w 



382 ON THE CAUSES OF 

to much greater distances. There was no general rain, but hail and 
rain accompanied the fall of the other bodies. The tornado lasted, in 
any one place, for but a few seconds : the whole of the damage done 
at a farm having been accomplished, as the farmer stated, while 
he was passing from the front to the rear of his mansion, so that, by 
the time that he reached the back door, there was a perfect calm. 
Meanwhile, his house and barn were unroofed, and all the neighbouring 
trees thrown down. The noise which accompanied the phenomenon 
was by every witness described as terrific, being best exemplified by 
the rumbling of an immense number of heavy carriages. Every object 
in its path was bespattered with mud on the side towards that from 
which it advanced. Houses looked as if roughcast, and individuals 
were so covered with dirt as to be disguised. 

Some thunder and lightning attended the tornado. Some trees, 
which resisted the onset, yielded subsequently; and hence were 
piled upon those which had fallen earlier. The weaker trees were 
undermost, and pointed in the direction in which the tornado ap- 
proached ; while the stronger were on the top, pointing in the direction 
in which it moved away. 

Four different places were noticed, where all the trees lay, with 
their summits directed to a common centre. In the middle of one of 
these localities, the house was unroofed, and the handkerchief and sheet 
were lodged within the fissures in the walls, as already stated. The 
windows in the same house were all broken, and much of the glass 
thrown outside. From the evidence, Mr Espy infers that the apparent 
height of the tornado was about a mile. He states that there were, 
on the same day, two other tornadoes about seventeen miles apart ; and 
of which the nearest was about the same distance from that of New 
Brunswick. He conceives that the phenomena all concurred to demon- 
strate an "inward motion from all directions towards the centre of the 
tornado, and an upward motion in the middle." These statements of 
Mr Espy are confirmed by professor Bache. 

One fact of some importance has not been mentioned by Mr Espy, 
which was observed by persons who were upon the ground during, or 
soon after the catastrophe. I allude to the partial withering of the 
foliage of those small trees or shrubs, which, from their suppleness. 



THE TORNADO, OR WATER SPOUT. 383 

were like the reed in the fable, neither uprooted nor overthrown. This 
unpleasant effect was perceptible when I visited the scene. Each leaf 
was only partially withered. As it would be inconceivable that me- 
chanical laceration could have thus extended itself equably among the 
foliage, a surmise may be warranted that the change was effected by 
the electricity associated with the tornado. 

Concluding Hemarks hy the Author of the Article. 

I ought, perhaps, sooner to have acknowledged that I am aware that 
it has often been suggested that water spouts might be caused by elec- 
tricity ; but the conjecture has not, as far as my information goes, been 
heretofore supported by any satisfactory explanation as to the mode in 
which such a tremendous power could arise from that source. That 
I am warranted in this impression, will, I trust, appear evident from 
the circumstance that two of the most distinguished among the late 
writers in the department of science to which the subject belongs, seem 
to admit, or to demonstrate, their inability to afford any explanation. 
I allude to Pouillet, and Despretz. 

In his treatise on meteorology, Pouillet introduces two narratives 
respecting tornadoes, which were analogous in every essential point to 
that of New Brunswick. Especially the existence of an hiatus is proved 
by the allegation that the walls of prostrated houses were thrown down 
outwards. A labourer was first urged forwards, in the next place 
lifted, and lastly overthrown. 

The learned and ingenious author concludes with these remarks. 

"Comment cette puissance, quelquefois si prodigieuse, peut-elle pren- 
dre naissance au milieu des airs ? C'est une question, il faut de dire, 
a laquelle la science ne peut faire aucune reponse precise. De toutes 
les conjectures vagues et hasardees, que Ton peut faire sur l'origine de 
ce meteore, la moins invraisemblable est peut-etre celle que le regarde 
comme un tourbillon d'une excessive intensite. Mais une discussion 
sur ce point nous sembleraitprematuree; il faut multiplier les observa- 
tions, et constater avec plus de precision toutes les circonstances de ces 
phenomenes." — Elemens de Physique Experimentale et de Meteoro- 
logie, vol 2, jo. 727. 



384 ON THE CAUSES OF THE TORNADO, OR WATER SPOUT. 

All the information respecting tornadoes afforded by Despretz is 
comprised in the following paragraphs, which I quote in his own 
words. 

" Trombe. La trombe se montre en mer et sur la terre ; tantot elle 
semble sortir du sein de la mer, et s'eleve jusqu'aux nuages; tantot 
elle descend des nuages jusqu'a terre. 

"C'est une colonne d'eau conique qui tourne sur elle-memeavec une 
grande vitesse; elle a quelquefois jusqu'a plus de deux cents metres de 
base. Elle est tres-commune entre les tropiques : les navigateurs passent 
rarement pres des cotes de Guinee sans en apercevoir plusieurs. 

"Les trombes produisent des effets terribles ; elles deracinent les ar- 
bres, renversent les faibles habitations, soulevent les voitures, etc. 

"On peut se faire une idee des trombes paries tourbillons de pouis- 
siere qui se forment tout a-coup, en ete, sur les routes, et qui tournent 
sur eux-memes avec une grande rapidite." — Traite Elementaire de 
Physique, paragraph 656, page 828, par C. Despretz. 

In Nicholson's Journal, quarto series, London 1797, vol. 1, page 
583, there is an interesting account of some tornadoes seen from Nice, 
illustrated by engravings, by M. Michaud, who appears to consider 
them as the effect of electricity, and infers that he could produce the 
phenomenon in miniature by the aid of a machine, as thunder and 
lightning are by the same means illustrated. This I have found to be 
erroneous, as far as my experience goes, and from a cause which is, 
agreeably to my hypothesis, quite evident. I mean the absence of the 
co-operating influence of the air when emancipated by electric attrac- 
tion from the confinement arising from its own weight. 

The theoretic remarks of Michaud are very brief, and, to me, scarcely 
intelligible, as he does not inform us in what way he supposes the 
electric fluid to operate. 

I have understood, since I conceived my hypothesis, that Beccaria as- 
cribed water spouts to electricity, but I have not had the advantage of 
learning by what reasoning he justified his inferences. However, should 
it appear that I have made, through the want of information, any undue 
claim to priority, I shall cheerfully do justice to any philosopher whose 
speculations I may have overlooked. 



ARTICLE XXII. 



Description of an Mr Pump of a new construction, which acts either 
as an Air Tump, or a Condenser, or as both ; enabling the operator to 
exhaust, to condense, to transfer a Gas from one cavity to another, 
or to pass it through a Liquid. By B. Hare, M. D., fyc, fyc, fyc. 

This pump has one iron chamber,* one piston, and four valves. 
When in operation, it is always simultaneously exhausting and condens- 
ing; and, of course, accomplishes as much, in a given time, as two 
chambers of the usual construction, of the same calibre and stroke. 
A suction valve is placed at each end of a steel rod, which slides through 
the packing of the piston,f so as to be air tight, and to be pressed in 
opposite directions alternately. It is of such a length, that while it 
forces one valve, towards which the piston moves, against its seat, clos- 
ing a corresponding aperture, it withdraws the other valve from its 
seat, and, consequently, opens the aperture with which this valve cor- 
responds. Hence, with every reversal of the motion, the aperture 
previously opened will be shut, while that previously shut will be 

* The diameter of the chamber in the instrument represented in the figure is three 
inches ; the length is ten and a half inches, allowing a stroke of about eight inches, taking off 
the thickness of the piston. In order to render this instrument insusceptible of injury from 
mercury, it was constructed altogether of iron or cast steel. 

t This contrivance was suggested to me by an excellent pump with glass chambers, ob- 
tained many years ago from Pixii. In that pump a steel rod is made to open and shut one valve : 
in mine the same rod opens and shuts two valves. 
VOL. V. 4 X 



386 OF A SUCTION 

opened. Between the apertures thus alternately opened and shut, and 
the valve cock A, a communication is made by means of a forked 
leaden pipe, communicating with the valve cock at A, and with the 
apertures at B and C. The valve cock, by means of a gallows screw 
D, communicates, when desirable, with any receiver by another flexible 
leaden pipe P. 

Two other analogous and corresponding apertures E R, which com- 
municate in like manner with a valve cock G, are furnished with two 
valves opening outwards. These, when not subjected to any pressure 
from within the chamber, are kept in their places by spiral springs. 
They act as valves of efflux, and, like the valves in other condensers, 
are opened by the pressure of the air condensed by the piston as it ap- 
proaches them, and are shut by the springs when the piston moves in 
the opposite direction. It is well known, however, that this mode of 
opening valves, if unassisted, always allows a small portion of condensed 
air to remain in that portion of the chamber and of the passage lead- 
ing to the valve, which the piston cannot be made to occupy entirely. 
This disadvantage is diminished in the case of the valves which I am 
describing. A stem proceeding from each valve enters the chamber 
so far, as that the piston cannot finish the stroke without coming in 
contact with the stem, and moving the valve sufficiently to allow the 
air to escape, without suffering any resistance from the valve and its 
spring. 

The means by which the apertures of the suction valves communi- 
cate with a valve cock A, and may be made to communicate with the 
receiver through the pipe P, have been explained. By like means the 
communication, existing between the apertures of the valves of efflux 
and a valve cock G, may be extended from this valve cock to any 
receiver. In fact, it is only necessary to vary the situation or number 
of the pipes, by which communications with the chamber are effected, 
in order to cause the apparatus to perform the part of an air pump, 
a condenser, or both. When employed to transfer air, it would be 
more correctly designated as a forcing air pump, than as a condenser. 

The disk of brass in front of the pump, serves as an air pump plate, 
when connected with the pump by means of the pipe P, as represented 
in the drawing. It is supported on a hollow brass cylinder, furnished 



MU, Sy^ESl'S gW@'S , S®S¥ M.M^) ^©SEtgSSff© ^.35S 5PWK&2P a 




AND FORCING AIR PUMP. 387 

with valve cocks as at K L, in order to allow various experiments to 
be performed by means of the tube in the axis, surmounted by a cup 
of copper. The tube being open at the lower end, the cup is accessible 
to an incandescent iron. The contrivance facilitates the exposure of 
substances to heat, either in vacuo, or in any gas. When boric acid 
and potassium are thus heated, boron is evolved. By means of a simi- 
lar arrangement, heating chloride of calcium with potassium, I ob- 
tained a potassuret of calcium, which decomposed water and yielded 
a solution which was rendered milky by carbonic acid. 

When a glass globe of fifteen gallons is exhausted over this plate, 
and filled with oxygen gas, phosphorus having been previously placed 
in the copper cup, on heating the phosphorus, a combustion ensues of 
transcendent splendour. 

For this and other experiments, the hollow cylinder, which supports 
the air pump plate, may be screwed into a hole in a table and placed 
at any convenient distance from the air pump. With this view, there 
is a conical screw cut upon the lower end of the cylinder. 

The mechanism by which the piston is moved, is too obvious to need 
description. There is, however, a peculiarity in the construction of 
the piston rod, which is of great utility. The rod is hollow, having 
been sufficiently reduced in diameter from a piece of gun barrel by 
the wire drawing process. The bore of this hollow rod is occupied 
by a solid rod, which extends from the metallic disk, at the farther 
end of the piston, to the rack. To the other disk, the hollow rod is 
fastened. The leather packing between the disks, being turned in the 
lathe so as to fit the calibre of the chamber accurately, is made more 
or less tight by the action of a screw just above the rack. Hence the 
pressure may be regulated without taking the pump apart, which is 
always troublesome, and, at some periods impracticable within the 
time at command. 

With respect to the efficacy of this pump, satisfactory proof was 
given some time since, at the Franklin Institute, when it raised the 
mercury very near to the height of that in the Torricellian tube. 

Having been in possession for many } 7 ears of an elegant air pump 
with glass chambers furnished by Pixii, we have been induced (o give 
vol. v. — 4 Y 



388 OF A SUCTION AND FORCING AIR PUMP. 

the preference to the new instrument, in all cases where a perfect 
exhaustion has been desirable. 

Of the three valve cocks, one usually communicates with a gage; 
since, instead of an instrument of that nature permanently associated 
with the pump, and which is subjected to exhaustion by means of a 
lateral communication with the perforation leading to the cavity of the 
receiver, I employ a movable barometer gage, which is made to com- 
municate with the receiver directly. The operator is thus enabled to 
observe the quantity of gas in the receiver, after the communication 
with the air pump is arrested by closing the valve cock through which 
it was established. An exemplification of this method of manipulating 
will be afforded by the apparatus and eudiometrical process, described 
in the next article. 



ARTICLE XXIII. 



Of an Improved Barometer Gage Eudiometer. By R. Hare, M. D., 
fyc, fyc, fyc. 

About eight years ago I published an account of a hydro-oxygen 
eudiometer, in which the measurement of the gases was effected by 
means of a barometer gage. In the apparatus then employed, the re- 
ceiver was of glass, and was, of course, fragile. Subsequently I em- 
ployed a stout iron bottle in lieu of the glass. 

The essential constituents of this apparatus are an air tight vessel, 
sufficiently strong, and having screw apertures for the insertion of 
valve cocks, V V V, a thermometer T, and a galvano ignition ap- 
paratus* W W ; also a barometer gage G, communicating by a leaden 
tube with the vessel through one of the valve cocks. 

An air pump, pneumatic cistern or trough, and reservoirs for gas, are 
necessary auxiliaries. 

It is an important characteristic of the barometer gage eudiometer, 
that it is applicable on a much larger scale than any other. It is 
only necessary to make the requisite apertures, and tap them for ap- 
propriate screws, in order to transfer the valve cocks, thermometer and 
ignition apparatus, with all the essential means of operating, to any air 
tight cylinder of any size ; to a large cannon for instance, the mouth 

* This is the name by which I have designated it in ray text book. 
VOL. v. — 4 z 



390 OF AN IMPROVED 

being closed. The sources of inaccuracy, if any exist, must lessen in 
proportion to the result, as the quantity acted upon is augmented. It 
would, of course, be safer to extend the cylinder in length than in dia- 
meter. 

Description of the Gage. 

It is well known, that if a vertical glass tube communicate, through 
its upper orifice, with a receiver, while its lower orifice is situated be- 
neath the surface of an adequate quantity of mercury, in any convenient 
receptacle ; on exhausting the receiver, the metal will rise in the bore 
of the tube in proportion to the quantity of air removed. Hence, if 
zero of the ascending column of degrees, counting upwards from one 
to ten, be placed on a level with the surface of the mercury in the re- 
ceptacle at the foot of the gage tube G, the quantity of gas condensed 
or withdrawn will be as the number of degrees opposite the surface of 
the column of the mercury in the gage tube. 

Again, supposing it were possible to exhaust the vessel perfectly, the 
column of mercury in the gage, would attain the height of a well 
filled Torricellian tube. By having such a tube by the side of the gage 
tube, as represented at B in the figure, its orifice communicating with 
the mercury of the same receptacle, and placing zero of the descending 
column of graduations on a level with the surface of the mercury in the 
Torricellian tube, the quantity of air in the receiver will always be as 
the number of degrees, between the surface of the mercury in the gage 
and the surface of the same metal in the Torricellian tube. 

The scale comprises ten divisions, each containing ten subdivisions. 
The whole scale may therefore be estimated to divide the capacity of 
a receiver into ten volumes, or into one hundred, whenever the zeros of 
the right and left hand columns of degrees coincide simultaneously, 
the one with the surface of the mercury in the receptacle, and the 
other with that of the Torricellian column. But on this it were vain 
to rely, since the altitude of the Torricellian column is liable to vary 
while the scale remains unchanged. This difficulty is, however, easily 
surmounted by restricting the length of the graduated part of the scale 
to the minimum height of the mercurial column, or twenty-seven 



BAROMETER GAGE EUDIOMETER. 391 

inches ; and employing an excess of hydrogen when the quantity of 
oxygen is to be ascertained, and an excess of oxygen when the quan- 
tity of hydrogen, or hydrogen and carbon, are in question ; the excess 
in either case, being made equal to the difference between twenty-seven 
inches, and the height of the Torricellian column. With this precaution, 
the quantities introduced or withdrawn, will always be to each other 
as the changes which they produce in the column of mercury in the 
gage tube. The rise of the mercury in the tube, will cause the sur- 
face of it in the receptacle D to be lower ; but the breadth of this ves- 
sel is so great, and the descent of the mercurial surface in it is so 
inconsiderable, that no error worthy of attention is thus created. 

I ought to mention, that the cavity of the gage tube ought to be so 
small in proportion to that of the receiver, as to create no error worthy 
of attention. 

Description of the Galvano Ignition Apparatus. 

An iron cylinder, of about an inch in bore, includes another concentric 
cylinder, or tube of glass. A platina wire, which, by being made the 
subject of a galvanic discharge, is employed to ignite the gaseous mix- 
ture, occupies the cavity of the glass. Opposite to it, two openings are 
made in the iron, which serve for windows, enabling the operator to 
see the progress of the ignition, and, consequently, to know when to 
break the galvanic circuit, in order to avoid fusing the wire. 

Method of Operating. 

In the engraving, a leaden tube is represented as making a commu- 
nication between the gage tube and the cavity of the iron bottle, 
through one of the valve cocks. Let it be supposed that, by means 
of other valve cocks and tubes, like communications with an air pump, 
and one or more reservoirs of gas, are under the control of the opera- 
tor. 

In order to analyze the atmosphere, he should have at his command 
a communication with a bell glass containing, over water, a mixture 



392 OF AN IMPROVED 

of five parts of air and three of hydrogen ; also with a reservoir of 
hydrogen.* 

These arrangements being made, exhaust the bottles; and admitting 
two or three volumes of hydrogen, exhaust again. By repeating this 
part of the process, nothing but hydrogen will remain in the vessel. 
Let the zero of the descending scale be situated on a level with the 
surface of the mercury in the gage tube, and then admit eight volumes 
of the mixture, which will be known to have entered when the sur- 
face of the mercurial column has fallen to eight on that scale. All 
the cocks being closed, ignite the platina wire. The explosion will be 
known to take place, both by the flash and sharp noise which it pro- 
duces. As soon as these indications are perceived, the cock commu- 
nicating with the gage may be re-opened. Nearly three volumes of 
the mixture will be found to have disappeared, and by the time that 
the thermometer indicates the temperature to be in statu quo, it will 
be found that the deficit arising from the combustion will a little ex- 
ceed that quantity. 

In analysing gaseous compounds of carbon with hydrogen, this ap- 
paratus may be advantageously employed ; due proportions of the car- 
buret and of oxygen gas being previously mingled in an appropriate 
vessel over water. Suppose, for instance, defiant gas were in ques- 
tion ; one volume of it being mixed with four of oxygen : after the ex- 
plosion, two volumes will be found wanting ; because, in one volume 
of the carburet, there are two of hydrogen and two of carbon vapour. 
Each volume of the latter, will unite with one of oxygen, without al- 
tering its volume. The two volumes of hydrogen will take one of 
oxygen, and be condensed with it into water. Of course, in lieu of 
the five volumes introduced, two volumes of carbonic acid, and one 
residual volume of oxygen will remain. 

By means of the forcing air pump, described in the preceding 
pages, the gas may be transferred to a receiver, and washed with am- 
monia, or milk of lime, and then allowed again to enter the iron bottle. 

* The necessary mixtures are effected either by means of the volumeters or the sliding rod 
gas measure, of which I published engravings and descriptions in Silliman's American Jour- 
nal of Science, vol. 12, page 36, 1827 ; and in the London Philosophical Magazine for 1828, 
vol. 32, page 126. 



BAROMETER GAGE EUDIOMETER. 



393 



Meanwhile, by due attention to the gage, the quantity which has 
been absorbed may be ascertained ; and consequently, the propor- 
tion of carbonic acid resulting from the oxidizement of all the carbon 
in the gas subjected to analysis. 

Instead of employing the forcing air pump, by substituting a large 
valve cock for the screw by means of which an aperture in the bottle 
at A is closed, mercury may be introduced through a funnel, and, by 
its pressure, the residual gas may be easily conveyed, by a flexible 
leaden tube, to a receiver over the mercurial reservoir, and analyzed in 
the usual way. For this purpose it is necessary that the valve cocks 
with which the mercury comes into contact, should be of iron or steel ; 
and, accordingly, I employ such where mercury is to be used. 

The gases may be supplied, without previous measurement and ad- 
mixture, by receiving them into the bottle from their respective reser- 
voirs, and measuring them as they enter, by means of the gage.* 



* I subjoin engravings of the self-regulating reservoirs which I employ in such eudiome- 
trical experiments as are described in the preceding article ; also of the calorimotor, by means 



Fig. i. 



Fig. 2, 





VOL. V. 5 A 



394 



OF AN IMPROVED BAROMETER GAGE EUDIOMETER. 



When hydrogen is employed to analyze the air, it should be the last 
admitted ; since otherwise it is liable, from its lightness, to pre-occupy 
the cavity in which the platina wire is situated ; so that some time 
would be required for its sufficient admixture with atmospheric oxygen 
to constitute a combustible mixture. 

In this mode of operating, when the apparatus is once well arranged, 
the analysis of the air may be repeated as often as desired, and after 
any interval of time. 



of which the ignition of the platina wire, and consequent inflammation of the gaseous mixtures 
are accomplished. There are two reservoirs, one of glass, fig. 1, the other of lead, fig. 2 ; the 
latter being about fifty times as large as the other. 

As there is a perfect identity in principle of the construction in these reservoirs, an expla- 
nation of one will answer for both. 

Suppose the glass jar to contain diluted sulphuric acid; the inverted bell, within the 
jar, to contain some zinc, supported on a tray of copper, suspended by wires, of the same 
metal, from the neck of the bell. The cock being open when the bell is lowered into the 
position in which it is represented, the atmospheric air will escape, and the acid, entering 
the cavity of the bell, will, by its reaction with the zinc, cause hydrogen gas to be copiously 
evolved. As soon as the cock is closed, the hydrogen expels the acid from the cavity 
of the bell; and, consequently, its reaction with the zinc is prevented, until another por- 
tion of the gas be withdrawn. As soon as this is done, the acid re-enters the cavity of the 
the bell, and the evolution of hydrogen is renewed and continued until again arrested, as in 
the first instance, by preventing the escape of the gas, and, consequently, causing it to dis- 
place the acid from the interior of the bell, within which the zinc is suspended. 

This engraving will convey an 
idea of the calori motor suitable to 
effect the ignition of the platina wire 
in the galvano ignition apparatus 
above described. It should contain 
two galvanic pairs, each consisting 
of two plates of zinc, 10 X 12, alter- 
nating with three of copper. The 
copper plates of one pair, and the 
zinc of the other being soldered to 
a common metallic strip, the other 
plates of zinc being soldered to one 
strip, the copper to another, each 
of the last mentioned strips is fur- 
nished with a gallows screw G G. 
Between these screws and those at 
W W, (see figure in the text) a com- 
munication is made by leaden or 
copper rods. 

To complete the circuit, it is only necessary, to depress the handle attached to the pulleys, 
in order to raise the reservoir of diluted sulphuric acid, and thus to cause it to act on the plates. 




ARTICLE XXIV. 



On the Cause of the Collapse of a Reservoir while apparently subjected 
within to great Pressure from a Head of Water. By JR. Hare, M. D., 

Sfc., Sfc., Sfc. 

In September 1834, I was requested by Mr Haydock, a respectable 
and intelligent plumber of this city, to call at his shop in order to see 
a copper reservoir, which had collapsed while apparently subjected to 
internal pressure, arising from a communication with the mains pro- 
ceeding from the public water-works. 

For the purpose of refrigerating the contents, the reservoir was 
placed in spring water, at the bottom of a well, so as to be at a small 
depth below the surface : receiving the river water by one pipe, it was 
made to deliver it by another. 

The pressure of the water with which the city of Philadelphia is 
supplied, is known to be sufficient, when at its maximum, to com- 
mand the most elevated rooms in our dwellinghouses. Hence, had 
the reservoir been burst, it would not have excited surprise ; but the 
converse appeared inexplicable. The figure on the next page will con- 
vey a correct idea of the reservoir as it appeared when I examined it; or 
subsequently, when a drawing of it was made at the Franklin Institute, 
to which it had been removed, at the instance of some of the members 
of that institution. 



396 



ON THE CAUSE OF THE 




A is apipe with a stop cock to allow the air to escape 
on first filling the reservoir. B, a pipe by which a 
communication with the mains of the public water- 
works was established. C, a pipe for delivering the 
water. 

The height of the vessel was three feet ; greatest 
diameter eighteen inches, least diameter twelve 
inches. 

Some days had elapsed, during which I was unable 
to offer any explanation of the phenomenon; but 
having mentioned the occurrence to another highly 
respectable and intelligent plumber, Mr Ewing, he 
alleged that facts no less surprising had fallen within the range of his 
experience. He had known an opening made in a leaden pipe at one 
time, to be closed at another, by some unaccountable inward pressure ; 
and, upon one occasion, a small fish to be caught in the fissure. 

It then occurred to me that the phenomenon of the collapse had been 
the consequence of circumstances the inverse of those which are known 
to take place in the water ram of Montgolfier, in which water, while 
flowing rapidly in a trunk, being stopped suddenly in front, is made to 
produce a jet rising above the level of the head to which the current 
arrested is indebted for existence. 

The momentum of the water which is in that case expended in a 
jet, must, in the case in which an arrestation takes place in the rear of 
a given portion of the stream, continue to propel that portion directly 
forwards, causing an hiatus or vacuum between it and the valve or 
cock by which the stoppage has been effected. 

The inward pressure, or suction, arising from such a momentum, was 
demonstrated by Venturi ;* and has latterly been ingeniously applied 
to the filling of syphons, and removal of back water from water wheels. 

In this view of the subject then, we find the rationale of the collapse 
of the reservoir. 

The current through the main being arrested at a point nearer the 
head than that from which the pipe supplying the reservoir proceeded, 



Nicholson's Journal, 4to series, vol. 2, page 172. 



COLLAPSE OF A RESERVOIR. 397 

there was an hiatus produced within the main, and cavities therewith 
communicating, which caused the atmospheric pressure to be inade- 
quately resisted, and consequently the reservoir, as one of those cavi- 
ties, was crushed. No doubt the pressure of the spring water, in which 
the reservoir was situated, co-operated. At times our springs rise 
much nearer to the surface of the earth than at others. 

When steam is made to pass through a pipe into cold water, a suc- 
cession of expansions and condensations ensue, producing much noise 
and mechanical jarring, consequent to the alternate absorption and ex- 
pulsion of the water. Agreeably to the rationale respecting the col- 
lapse of the reservoir, these effects should be productive successively 
of an inward and an outward pressure upon the surfaces of the pipes 
employed. 

Some years ago, a pipe was submitted to me by Mr Ewing, which, 
while situated as above described, had been crushed by a force which 
seemed to have exceeded any which could, under any circumstances, 
be expected from the pressure of the atmosphere. Possibly an adhe- 
sion between the water and the metallic surface, may co-operate in the 
production of such results. 



VOL. V. — 5 B 



ARTICLE XXV. 



Sundry Improvements in Apparatus, or Manipulation. By R. Hare, 
M. D., fyc, fyc, fyc. 

IMPROYED CRYOPHORUS. 

Two flasks, of which the necks have flanged orifices, are so se- 
cured in a wooden frame, that by the pressure of screws S S, and 
gum-elastic disks, the orifices of a tube are made to form with them 
severally, air tight junctures. The orifices of the tube are furnished 
with brass flanges, which correspond with those terminating the necks 
of the flasks. 




Midway between the junctures a female screw is soldered to the 
tube for the insertion of a valve cock V, by means of which, and a 



400 SUNDRY IMPROVEMENTS IN 

flexible tube extending to an air pump, the flasks may be exhausted, 
and then closed. A small quantity of water having been previously 
introduced into one of them, if, while the exhaustion is sustained, the 
other flask be refrigerated by ice and salt, the water will be frozen.* 

The intelligent chemist will perceive that this apparatus may be ap- 
plied to the purpose of desiccation by placing the article to be dried 
in one receptacle, and quick lime, chloride of calcium, or concentrated 
sulphuric acid, in the other. The orifice of the receptacles may be 
made larger without inconvenience. Two large cylinders, for instance, 
may be used. 

I propose, as soon as I have leisure, to apply the principle illustrated 
by this apparatus, to the distillation or desiccation of many substances 
which are liable to injury when exposed to heat, or air. I conceive 
that there is, by means of analogous apparatus, a fruitful field for im- 
provement in the arts. I conceive that it may be employed in the 
preservation of meat, milk, fruit, vegetables, and the making of cheese ; 
also in pickling and preserving, f 

* For the information of readers who may not be chemists, I subjoin the following explana- 
tion of the cause of the congelation of the water. 

So long as no condensation is effected, of the thin aqueous vapour, which, when water is 
present, must occupy the cavity of the instrument, that vapour prevents, by its pressure, or 
tension, the production of more vapour: but when, by means of cold, the vapour is condensed 
in one bulb, its evolution in the other, containing the water, being unimpeded, proceeds rapidly. 
Meanwhile, the water becomes colder, and finally freezes, from losing the caloric which the 
vaporization requires. 

According to Wollaston, one grain of water, converted into vapour, holds as much caloric 
as would, by its abstraction, reduce thirty-one grains from 60° F. to the freezing point; and 
the caloric requisite to vaporize four grains more, if abstracted from the residual twenty-se- 
ven grains, would convert them into ice. 

t This figure repre- 
sents a very large Cryo- 
phorus, the blowing of 
which I superintended; 
and by means of which, about twelve years ago, I successfully repeated Wollaston's experi- 
ment. 

This instrument is about four feet long, and its bulbs are about five inches in diameter. 




o 



APPARATUS, OR MANIPULATION. 



401 



CULINARY PARADOX, OR EBULLITION BY COLD. 

This figure illustrates a new and instructive 
method of effecting ebullition by cold. 

The apparatus consists principally of a glass 
matrass, with a neck of about three feet in length, 
tapering to an orifice of about a quarter of an 
inch in diameter. The bulb is bulged inwards, 
in the part directly opposite the neck, so as to 
create a cavity capable of holding any matter 
which it maybe desirable to have situated there- 
in. In addition to the matrass, a receptacle, 
holding a few pounds of mercury, is requisite. 
The bulb of the matrass being rather less than 
half full of water, and this being heated to ebul- 
lition, the orifice should be closed by the finger, 
defended by a piece of gum-elastic, and depressed 
below the surface of the mercury ; the whole 
being supported as represented in the figure. Under these circum- 
stances, the mercury rises as the temperature of the water declines, 
indicating the consequent diminution of pressure within the bulb. 
Meanwhile, the decline of pressure lowering the boiling point of the 
water, the ebullition continues till the mercury rises in the neck nearly 
to the height of the mercury in the barometer. 

By introducing into the cup formed by the bulging of the bulb, cold 
water, alcohol, ether or ice, the refrigeration, the diminution of pres- 
sure, and the ebullition are all simultaneously accelerated, since these 
results are reciprocally dependent on each other. 

The advantage of this apparatus and method of operating, lies first in 

the certainty and facility with which the apparatus is secured against 

the access of the atmosphere ; and in the next place, in the index of the 

diminishing resistance, afforded by the rise of the mercurial column. 

vol. v. — 5 c 




402 SUNDRY IMPROVEMENTS IN 



HYDRO-PNEUMATIC CISTERN. 

Fig. 1. In Silli man's Journal will be found an engraving and descrip- 
tion of a pneumatic cistern, which I employed in the experimental 
illustrations of my lectures for more than ten years ; and which I should 
probably continue to use now, had not the command of water from the 
public works, put it into my power to dispense with the mechanism 
for keeping the water at a proper level. As I am now situated, any 
deficit of water is easily supplied from the pipes known here as the 
hydrant pipes, by which the city is supplied with water; and any ex- 
cess is carried off by a waste pipe. Many chemists designate as a 
pneumatic trough or tub, apparatus for the purposes to which that in 
question is applied. Neither of these names is, in my opinion, as ap- 
plicable to the apparatus which I have hitherto used, as that of cistern, 
to which I resorted ; and although the last term be less suitable to the 
apparatus which I am about to describe, yet I beg leave to adhere to it for 
want of a better appellation. 

A A, a water-tight platform, surrounded by a wooden rim, RRRR, 
rising above it about an inch and a half. B, C, D, three wells or 
cavities, each in the form of a hollow parallelopiped, with all of which 
the cavity bounded by the rim communicates, so that when supplied 
with water to the level of the waste pipe, this liquid fills the wells, and 
covers the platform to the depth of about three-fourths of an inch. 

E, F, G, shelves, which severally move in grooves over the wells, so 
that they may be placed in the most convenient position. Under H 
is a waste pipe. At I is a hydrant pipe. K, a pipe for emptying the 
wells and casks, with all of which it maybe made to communicate by 
cocks, when requisite. N, O, casks which act as gas holders, each 
having a communication with the cistern at Q or q, for letting in 
water from that source ; the orifices being controlled by valves. By 
means of a pipe proceeding from its vertex, each gas holder communi- 
cates with a pipe or cock, at S or s. 

To these gallows screws, flexible leaden pipes may be attached, for 
transferring gas either from one of the holders to a bell glass, or from 
a bell glass to one of the holders. When a communication is esta- 



APPARATUS, OR MANIPULATION. 



403 



blished between the cavities, either of these offices may be performed, 
accordingly as the pressure within the holder is made greater, or less, 
than that of the atmosphere. It will be greater when the valve for 
the admission of water is opened, that for letting it out being shut : 
and less when these circumstances are reversed. 



Fig. 1. 




Fig. 2. 



Fig. 2 affords a view of the lower side of the 
sliding shelf, in the wood of which it will be 
seen that there are two excavations, converging 
into holes. This shelf is loaded with an ingot 
of lead at L, to prevent it from floating in the water of the cistern. 




404 



SUNDRY IMPROVEMENTS IN 



ENGRAVING AND DESCRIPTION OF VOLTAIC SERIES, COMBINING THE 
ADVANTAGES OF THE TROUGH OF CRUICKSHANK WITH THOSE OF 
THE DEFLAGRATOR. 



Fi». 1. 




Galvanic Deflagrator of one hundred pairs, of fourteen inches by eight. 

Fig. 1 represents a voltaic series, upon the plan of the trough 
of Cruickshank, associated with another trough destitute of plates, 
and of a capacity sufficient to hold all the acid necessary for an ample 
charge. The trough containing the series is joined to the other 
lengthwise, edge to edge, so that when the sides of the one are verti- 
cal, those of the other must be horizontal. The advantage of this 
arrangement is, that by a partial revolution of the two troughs, thus 
united, upon pivots which support them at the ends, any fluid which 
maybe in one trough must flow into the other; and, reversing the 
movement, must flow back again. The galvanic series being placed 
in one of the troughs, the acid in the other, by a movement such as 
above described, the plates may all be instantaneously subjected to the 
acid, or relieved from it. The pivots are made of iron, coated with 
brass or copper, as less liable to oxidizement. A metallic communi- 
cation is made between the coating of the pivots, and the galvanic se- 
ries within. In order to produce a connexion between one recipient 
of this description and another, it is only necessary to allow a pivot of 



APPARATUS, OR MANIPULATION. 



405 



each trough to revolve on one of the two ends of a strap of sheet cop- 
per. To connect with the termination of the series, the leaden rods, 
to which are soldered the vices, or spring forceps, for holding the sub- 
stances to be exposed to the deflagrating power, one end of each of the 
lead rods is soldered to a piece of sheet copper. The pieces of copper, 
thus soldered to the lead rods, are then to be placed under the pivots, 
which are of course to be connected with the termination of the series. 
The last mentioned connexion is conveniently made by means of straps 
of copper, severally soldered to the pivots and the poles of the series, 
and screwed together by a hand-vice. Each pair consists of a copper 
and a zinc plate, soldered together at the upper edge, where the copper 
is made to embrace the edge of the zinc. The three remaining edges 
are made to enter a groove in the wood, being secured therein by ce- 
ment. For each inch in the length of the trough there are three pairs. 
In the series represented by Fig. 1, there are seven hundred pairs of 
seven inches by three ; in that represented by Fig. 2, one hundred 
pairs of fourteen inches by eight. The latter will deflagrate wires too 
large to be ignited by the other, but is less powerful in producing a jet 
of flame between the charcoal points, or in giving a shock. 



Fig. 2. 




Galvanic Deflagrator of seven hundred pairs, of seven inches by three. 
VOL. V. — 5 D 



406 SUNDRY IMPROVEMENTS, ETC. 

Fig. 2, on the foregoing page, represents a series which comprises 
two Cruickshank deflagrators, so constructed as to co-operate in one 
circuit by an adequate communication between their poles, and being 
so associated with a lever, as to be made, by means of it, to revolve 
simultaneously. They may be made to act either collaterally, as a 
series of 350 pairs, or consecutively, as 700. As the plates are seven 
inches by three, when used collaterally, they are equivalent to 350 
plates of seven inches by six. 

COMBUSTION OF PHOSPHORUS IN NITROUS OXIDE GAS. 

There is a striking backwardness in the oxides of nitrogen to part 
with their oxygen to phosphorus, until it be intensely ignited, either by 
an incandescent iron, or by the access of uncombined oxygen. 

This characteristic in the case of nitrous oxide, may be illustrated 
by means of an apparatus like that employed for the combustion of 
phosphorus in oxygen* with a tall cylindrical receiver, and a tube 
descending through the neck, and along the axis of the receiver, ter- 
minating in a capillary orifice over the cup for holding the phosphorus. 
The upper end of the tube, outside the receiver, is furnished with a 
cock, to which a gum-elastic bag inflated with oxygen is attached. 

Under these circumstances, the receiver having been exhausted, and 
filled with nitrous oxide; phosphorus, previously placed within the 
cup, may be melted without taking fire. But as soon as the cock com- 
municating with the bag of oxygen is opened, an intense combustion 
ensues ; since the oxygen, emitted in a jet from the capillary orifice of 
the tube, reaching the melted phosphorus excites it into an active 
combustion, which the nitrous oxide afterwards sustains with great 
energy. 

* See article on Forcing Air Pump, page 388. 



@®SSIBW® , 3PS®S¥ ®5F l?m©&'i?M@lB,W& EW SffS'O'lECflErffl ©XSDIga 




ARTICLE XXVI 



Notes and Diagrams, illustrative of the Directions of the Forces 
acting at and near the surface of the Earth, in different parts of the 
Brunswick Tornado of June 1 9th 1835. By A. D. Bache, Professor of 
Natural Philosophy and Chemistry in the University of Pennsylvania ; 
one of the Secretaries of the American Philosophical Society. Read 
April 2d 1836. 

In company with my friend, Mr Espy, I visited, in the early part of 
July last, the scene of the destructive tornado of June 1 9th, the ravages 
of which had been most severely felt in New Brunswick, New Jersey, 
and its vicinity ; the effects extending about seven and a half miles to 
the west, and ten to the east of that place. The idea of illustrating 
these effects by the aid of instrumental means, first occurred to me 
after hearing an interesting account by professor Johnson, before the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of this city, of an examination made by 
professor Henry and himself of the position of materials carried by the 
storm from the city of Brunswick, and deposited in a field on the 
opposite bank of the river Raritan. 

The regularity in the general arrangement of these materials gave 
me the hope that further facts of interest might be brought to light by 
an examination of the country along the path, and fully established, as 
well as clearly represented to the eye, by diagrams laid down from 
actual measurement. 
vol. v. — 5 E 



408 NOTES AND DIAGRAMS ILLUSTRATIVE OF 

To this point I devoted exclusive attention during the limited time 
which a very brief recess from duty at the University afforded me. 
Mr Espy collected at the same time the accounts of those who had 
witnessed the phenomenon, examined closely the general circumstances, 
and is equally concerned with myself in any claim to novelty in the 
results about to be submitted. As he will embody the deductions 
from the information collected and from the general observations 
which we made, I do not propose to go into them further than is 
necessary to make my results intelligible. 

The accompanying diagrams, Plates XXIII. XXIV., represent diffe- 
rent portions of the track of the storm, from the point at which its 
effects were first felt in any considerable degree, to a point about a 
mile east from Brunswick, where I was reluctantly obliged to close 
my observations. 

They were obtained by means which, though rough, are abundantly 
exact for such a purpose, namely, by measuring the angles to be taken, 
by the compass, and by pacing the short distances to be estimated. 

Such an examination being made of the track of the tornado through 
a wood, or in any other suitable case, the directions of the acting forces 
are determined, and thus is ascertained whether they correspond to the 
effect of a whirl at and near the surface of the ground, as is generally 
assumed, or to that of a rushing wind, or, as most fully appears, to that 
of a mighty column of rarefied air in motion. 

Although the action of the storm on buildings affords many inter- 
esting facts in regard to the phenomenon, and in one case, an effect of 
great interest was thus first pointed out; yet, as we expected, the most 
satisfactory evidences of the directions of the forces occur, generally, in 
open woods, and in the plantations near buildings. 

It may seem superfluous to a reader accustomed to observation to 
say that entire regularity is not to be looked for in the effects to be 
brought before him. I have, however, thought it best to remark briefly 
upon some of the causes which might be expected to produce consi- 
derable irregularities, in the positions of trees overthrown, or broken, 
by the storm. 

The soil of the part of New Jersey through which this storm passed 
is a red clay (from the red shale), and deficient in strength. The trees 



THE NEW BRUNSWICK TORNADO. 409 

growing upon it extend, their roots very far horizontally, while they 
penetrate but a short distance below the surface. They are therefore 
readily uprooted, and in the overthrow carry a considerable extent of 
soil with them. 

If the forces acting during the whole period that the trees were 
within the sphere of action of the storm, be supposed of equal intensity 
but varying direction, then the trees extending their roots unequally in 
different directions, will oppose unequal resistances in those directions, 
and two trees side by side may be thrown different ways. Several trees 
presenting thus a want of conformity of direction, would induce, at first 
view the idea of a total want of regularity calculated to baffle observation. 
If the forces vary in intensity as well as in direction, this difficulty will 
be increased. Again, the circumstances of the proximity of other 
trees may not only influence the direction in which a tree will fall, 
after its motion has commenced, but the very direction in which the 
force producing its fall may act. And these remarks apply in even 
greater force to the case in which trees are broken, instead of being 
overthrown. 

The unequal strength of parts of a building, and its protection by 
adjacent buildings must produce difficulties of a similar kind; while 
in the trees near to houses we should look for even more irregularities 
of direction, than in those in an open wood. 

These remarks, it will be seen, are not intended to set aside any 
cases which may appear inapplicable to a general conclusion, but 
merely to guard against unreasonable requirements. 

Of the diagrams, figures 1, 4, 5 and 7, are drawn to the same scale; 
the scales of figures 3 and 6 are attached to them respectively; and 
figure 2 is not drawn to a scale. 

The directions of the trunks of the trees are represented in all but 
figure 1 by arrows. In order to make these directions appear distinctly, 
these arrows are out of proportion to the horizontal distances between 
the trees. This causes the tops of trees to appear very near, which, 
in many cases, were not so. 

The first point to which we traced the action of the storm, was 
near the farm of Mr M. S. Garretson, about seven miles, a little south 
of west, from New Brunswick. It crossed the Millstone river, and the 



410 NOTES AND DIAGRAMS ILLUSTRATIVE OF 

Trenton and Brunswick canal, about half a mile to the west of Mr 
Garretson's dwelling, and its track was between this house and 
a barn about sixty yards from it. A small portion of a light 
fence and some other matters were carried across the road upon 
which the house fronts, and a part of the trees in an orchard thrown down. 
Neither the barn nor dwellinghouse was injured, and the action was 
described as that of a strong wind of limited breadth. In the orchard 
the trees to the south of the path of the storm were thrown northwardly 
and those to the north southwardly. Passing on to the east, the next effect 
was seen in overthrowing a large cherry tree, and carrying off the south- 
west corner of the thatched roof of a small saw-mill. The most violent 
action, however, at this place was upon a wood nearly east from the dwell- 
inghouse, and is shown in the sketch figure 1 , Plate XXIII. This is, per- 
haps, the most hasty of all the determinations which I made, as the interest 
which attached to the effects wanted the force of novelty : they being simi- 
lar to those referred to, as observed by professors Henry and Johnson. The 
ground represented in the diagram is irregular, consisting of a hill, the 
sides of which are covered by wood ; the hill being cut by a ravine which 
was apparently near the northern border of the storm, or of that part in 
which the trees were thrown in the direction of its course. The wood was 
of young hickory and black oaks without undergrowth, but even here 
some irregularities were seen. The spiral growth of a few of the 
trees had led the proprietor of the farm to think, and speak, of the 
whole effects as produced by a whirlwind. He pointed out those 
cases, which were, obviously, seen to have resulted from the cause which 
I have just assigned. It will be observed in the figure that of nine 
trees there represented, the two on the north side of the storm fell 
southward and eastward, one, g, points out its direction nearly, and 
five of the six of the south side are directed between N. 10° E., and 
E. 40° N. The breadth of the storm was here about 200 yards, and 
its direction about that of the line A B. 

We next repaired to a point where the destruction was reported to 
have been considerable, namely, to the farm of Mr D. Polhemus, be- 
tween two and three miles E. 17° N. from Mr Garretson's. Here a 
very curious fact was developed, which I have attempted to represent 
in the sketch and ground plan figure 2, Plate XXIII. The building or 



THE NEW BRUNSAVICK TORNADO. 411 

shed attached to a large frame barn, and on the southern side of it, was 
moved during one part of the phenomenon to the west of north, and subse- 
quently to the eastward. The posts (see b, figure 2) slipped from the 
stones, a, which supported them, when the building was first acted upon 
by the storm, and moving northward and westward ploughed a furrow, c, 
in the soft surface of the ground, heaping up the manure, d, before them. 
Afterwards, being moved eastwardly,they formed another furrow, e, and a 
heap of manure, f, remaining in the position, b, when they were pointed 
out to us. As the first direction is nearly at right angles to that of the 
motion of the storm, the building being to the south of its axis, the conclu- 
sion is irresistible that there was, on the approach of the storm, a tendency 
to motion towards it. The second furrow shows a motion towards the 
receding storm. Why this building moved but in two directions will 
appear from the protection afforded to the north east by a large barn, 
the strength of which enabled it to bear the tendency towards the 
moving meteor, without much injury. In figure 3, D is the shed, C 
the barn, and FG the probable direction of the storm, the probable 
axis nearly coinciding with that line. It is believed that the relative 
positions of the buildings there shown, are nearly correct ; no particular 
pains were, however, taken on this score, a survey of the orchard to 
the east of the house being the main object. 

Of the trees in this orchard, figure 3, more than two-thirds suffered ; 
being generally torn up by the roots. Of these there are two lying 
actually west of north, and seven thrown to the north of north east ; 
while the greatest amount of devastation is in the direction of the 
meteor, which passed over the western part of the orchard, the inclina- 
tion of its path being about 10° N of E. It is remarkable that some 
small trees, as n and o, were left standing, and were not much broken. 
Some large trees, as between s and g' ? were also left. The former 
ones had probably sufficient flexibility to give way to the action of the 
storm without breaking; c', b', a', f and z were probably uprooted 
on the approach of the storm. The tree y presents a curious 
case : it is broken into three parts, the middle one lies north, and the 
two exterior ones are separated from it to the eastward and westward. 
It will be observed that the trees lying perpendicularly to the track of 
the storm, are not those furthest from the centre of that track. 

VOL. V. 5 F 



412 NOTES AND DIAGRAMS ILLUSTRATIVE OF 

While the trees on the southern edge of the storm were thrown 
generally northward and eastward, the few which were on the north 
side, were thrown to the southward. Thus at i' is shown a large 
black cherry tree, uprooted and lying nearly parallel to the side 
of the house A, while at k' and 1' are groups of willows, the limbs 
of which were broken off, and thrown to the southward and eastward. 
There were no trees in the meadow to the north of the orchard and 
east of the group k'. 

We were told by Mr Polhemus that the orchard of a neighbour to 
the west of him had been prostrated, but did not consider it advisable 
to return upon that point, determining rather to follow the track of the 
storm towards Brunswick. The general direction of Brunswick from 
Mr Polhemus's house is E 10° N. 

We explored the wood belonging to Mr Polhemus, and eastward 
from his dwelling, where the marks of the tornado were next to be 
seen. As, however, nothing of special interest was developed, I have 
not thought it necessary to copy the drawing made from my notes. 
Passing through this wood, the track was marked through fields of grain 
and orchards in which the trees were uprooted, and near buildings 
which suffered more or less from its action. 

The next point of interest occurred where we distinctly made out 
that the meteor did not maintain its position at the surface of the 
ground ; a fact which has before been observed in regard to other tor- 
nadoes. After a slight damage upon the edges of a thick wood of 
black oak trees, the marks of destruction were not seen until traced 
upon a ploughed field, to the east of the wood, in which there were a 
few trees. These were uprooted, and the moist earth from the sur- 
face of the field was thrown against the trees of an adjacent wood. 

The next diagram, figure 4, represents a very remarkable case, esta- 
blishing conclusively the direction of the forces already pointed out in 
figure 2, but in a case less complicated than the former. 

In a tolerably open wood, we lost all traces of the storm, but pur- 
suing a general easterly direction, came upon a part of its track where 
the trees were broken near the top. A little further on they were 
broken nearer to the trunk, and at last uprooted. A survey of the exterior 
of a circular space around which the trees were overthrown, gave the 



THE NEW BRUNSWICK TORNADO. 413 

accompanying representation, figure 4. The round was traced by the 
directions of the trees ; that is, having set out atone point, I arrived at it 
again, by following the indications afforded by the directions of the 
trees. In the mean time Mr Espy explored the interior of the round, 
and pointed out to me a space where the tops of the trees were lying 
together. The evidence of a rush towards a central space is thus con- 
clusive. 

To generalize the results of this diagram, it will be seen, that with 
a few exceptions to be remarked upon directly, all the trees on the 
southern border of the circular space A, are thrown northward ; those 
to the north southward ; to the east westward, and to the west east- 
ward. 

These exceptions are probably to be referred, generally, to the 
forward motion of the spout. Thus, while c is thrown to the west of 
north, a tree beside it, and many like p to the south of it, were car- 
ried in the general direction of the moving column. The same is 
true of trees to the north of g and h. In selecting the trees to be 
noted, I took care to put down cases which seemed anomalous, lest 
something of consequence should escape observation. The irregular 
positions of the tops of trees at i, seem to be sufficiently explained by 
their interference in falling. The tree g may have had its top carried 
northward in falling, and lies almost directly opposed to the directions of 
trees to the north of it ; these trees being bent permanently, but not 
broken. Pursuing the track of the storm along B C, the trees were 
thrown in its general direction. 

Passing forward to the east, we lost the traces of the storm, 
and when they appeared again, the circumstances seen in approaching 
figure 4 were repeated. Figure 5 represents the recurrence of the effects 
produced by the descending of the column to the grouud. I did not 
think it necessary to go round, with the compass, that part of the circle 
which is turned in the general direction of the motion of the spout, 
but merely the other portion which presents the curious circumstance 
of trees thrown in a general direction opposed to that of the motion, 
proving conclusively that a rushing wind from the westward will not ex- 
plain the effects. The fatigue incident to the previous work made me 
very willing to cut off all that seemed of doubtful utility. 



414 NOTES AND DIAGRAMS ILLUSTRATIVE OF 

The next position surveyed, was at and around the dwelling of Mr 
David Dunn. The destruction here was terrible indeed. The dwel- 
linghouse had been unroofed, and otherwise severely injured. A large 
barn and stable had been torn down, the outhouses prostrated, and all the 
trees around the dwelling uprooted or broken to pieces. The storm had 
passed from an adjacent wood, about one-sixteenth of a mile to the 
west. All this destruction had been accomplished and an entire calm 
taken place, in the time that Mr Dunn ran from the front to the back 
door of his dwelling, a distance of about thirty feet. This excessive 
rapidity of motion was no doubt one of the causes why lives were not 
lost, in vain attempts to escape from the effects of the storm. 

Mr Dunn received us with great kindness, and gave every information 
in his power without expressing weariness at our curiosity. Indeed it 
is but justice to say here that we met with uniform courtesy and 
kindness, along the whole route of our inquiry, and experienced no 
case where those whom we addressed were unwilling even to leave 
their work, to point out to us matters worthy of attention. For this 
attention we beg leave thus publicly to return our thanks. 

A general glance at sketch figure 6 will serve to show that the trees 
near the house were thrown inwards. No case occurs in which the 
trees are thrown outwards from the house. Many, however, further 
to the north and east of the house, and which are not represented in the 
sketch, were carried in the direction of the storm. A closer examina- 
tion will serve to show several interesting particulars. 

Of twelve trees in the row A B, south and west from the dwelling, 
all but three were injured, and generally uprooted. The three not 
injured were young black cherry trees, two were of "medium size," 
and the other quite small. Six of the trees were thrown between 
N. 4i° W., and N. W., or towards the approaching spout. Three were 
thrown towards the house, namely, the one nearest to the house, and 
two furthest from it : all these are large trees. Of the trees around 
the house, all those uprooted or broken, except q and k, point towards 
the house, and these were evidently caught by the trees to the west of 
them, s' presents a curious case: the tree was broken off. and the 
fragment carried towards the west ; then, by a subsequent force, laid 
in the position s\ E 7^° S. The tops of m, n and w were lying to- 
gether in a heap, and the limbs from the trees in this group, together 



THE NEW BRUNSWICK TORNADO. 415 

with palings from a fence to the west of the house, and fragments of 
the outhouse, C, were strewed at x. u and t have received their 
direction probably from the onward motion of the spout, which heaped 
an immense mass of rubbish againsf the west side of the house, break- 
ing it in, and destroying nearly every article of furniture in the south- 
west room. The house, and the area just described to the north of it, 
seem to have been the scene of this inward rush. The facts to prove 
that it was also an upward one, will be stated by Mr Espy. The 
trees in a field to the north of the house, and beyond u, t, s, o, were 
carried eastward in the general direction of the storm ; and in a field 
still further north, the rafters from the roof of the dwelling A were 
found. 

Two rows of trees extended from the south side of the house to the 
road. These do not appear to have suffered as much as the row to the 
west of them. In the nearest position of the spout, they were in part 
protected by the house. The trees which were uprooted lie in direc- 
tions extending over the sector between N. 15° W. and N. 45° E. ; 
much the greater number of trees being thrown between north and 
north east. 

A tree at d' was thrown against a small porch to the north of 
east of it. 

As the destruction to the eastward of this house renders it improbable 
that the axis of the spout did not touch the ground there, it seems to me 
that this inward rush indicates that the spout had its velocitj' momen- 
tarily checked at this point. 

On the following day we examined a wood to the east of Brunswick 
and on the opposite side of the river Raritan. This wood is to the 
east of the position examined by professors Henry and Johnson, from 
which the debris inspected by them had been removed. 

The case here presented was so complex, that I doubt much if we 
could have unravelled it without previous preparation. The irregula- 
rities encountered on the southern edge, see diagram figure 7, detained 
me so long, that I was only able generally to sketch the northern bor- 
ders, the directions of the trees being, however, still taken w T ith the 
compass. The inward direction of the forces is here well made out, 
notwithstanding the confusion produced by the subsequent forward 
vol. v. — 5 G 



416 NOTES AND DIAGRAMS ILLUSTRATIVE OF 

rush of air. While I was engaged in obtaining materials for this 
sketch, Mr Espy penetrated further west into the wood and beyond 
it. He states that the marks on the trees indicate a downward motion 
of the spout at this place, more obscurely made out than in the other 
cases before described. The nature of the ground to the west of the 
wood was unfavourable to an exact determination of this point, but it 
is probable that the spout was raised, for a short distance, above the 
surface of the ground. 

As far as the examination of the different diagrams has shown, I 
think it entirely made out that there was a rush of air, in all direc- 
tions, at the surface of the ground, towards the moving meteor ; this 
rush of course carrying objects with it. That the meteor did not 
always extend to the surface of the ground, and when at the surface 
did not move uniformly either in velocity or in direction. 

In figure 1 there is no motion towards the approaching meteor exhi- 
bited ; and this appears generally to have been the case along its track • 
when moving uniformly and reaching to the surface of the ground. 
The reason of this readily appears, for the air in front of it would hardly 
be in motion, the trees carried by it hardly bent, before the second and 
more violent action would prostrate them in the general direction of 
the motion of the meteor. 

Figures 2 and 3 exhibit cases of this motion in both directions, to- 
wards the approaching and towards the receding meteor. But there 
is no evidence here that the spout was not moving along the surface. 
In the case of figure 2, the motions were registered by the effects upon 
the ground, and the easily uprooted trees shown in figure 3, fell in di- 
rections, with one exception, between 10° W. of N. and 3° N. of E. : the 
meteor moving about 8° N. of E., and to the north of the orchard con- 
taining the trees. 

The disappearance of the track of the storm is first satisfactorily 
made out in the remarks subsequent to those upon figure 3. The 
effect of a second case of the sort is represented in figure 4, where 
around a circular space, in which the tops of the trees were found 
lying together, is a ring in which the trees generally point to the cen- 
tral space. At the outlet, where the storm moved on its track, the 



THE NEW BRUNSWICK TORNADO. 417 

trees are found in the ordinary directions, and the same is true to the 
eastward of the place in which this descent of the spout occurred. 

A second case of the same kind is represented in figure 5. At Mr 
David Dunn's, the evidence is against such a descent having taken 
place at the dwellinghouse, as shown by the row of trees to the south 
and west of the house, see figure 6, and by the fence, trees and shrubs 
of the garden to the west of the house. Yet the dwelling appears as 
a centre, towards which objects to the north and east of it were thrown. 
To account for this I have supposed a momentary, and the evidence 
shows that it was merely momentary, pause or check in the velocity of 
the meteor. Such pauses were represented to us by many spectators 
to have taken place, and sometimes in cases where they could hardly 
have been deceived. In figure 7 is shown a case in which it is doubtful 
whether the effects are those of a check of velocity, or of a descent of 
the spout; most probably both took place. 

These effects all indicate a moving column of rarefied air, without 
any whirling motion at or near the surface of the ground. 



References to the Diagrams on Plate XXIII. 



Figure 1. 
Wood of Mr M. S. Garretson. 

a. Tree uprooted * N. 20° E. 

b. Broken off, lies N. 10 e E. 

c. Hickory torn up by roots with a sapling along- 
side, N. 38° E. 

d. Top of a black oak blown off, carried to E. 40° N. 

e. Hickory broken off about two feet above the root, 
lies E. 1° N. 

f. Black oak broken off at the root, E. 41° N. 

g. E. 15° N., about thirty yards from the north 
edge of the storm. 

h. The south east corner of Mr Garretson's house 

bears W. 3° S. from this point. 
i. A sapling bent over and kept in place by other 

trees, E. 30° S. 
k. A sapling bent to E. 36° S. 



Figure 2. 

Outhouse of Mr D. Polhemus. — Ground Plan. 

a. A flat stone, on which the post b originally stood. 

b. Present position of the foot of the post. 

c. Groove made in earth to northward of a by the post. 

d. A mound of manure heaped up at the end of the 
groove c. 

e. A second groove north of east in direction. 

f.' A mound heaped up by the post b two feet high. 

Figure 3. 

Grounds of Mr D. Polhemus. 

A. Dwellinghouse of Mr Polhemus, slightly injured. 

B. Outhouses not injured. 

C. Barn, shingles torn off, not many in number. 

D. Shed shown in figure 2. 

E. Open work corn crib, not injured. 

a. N. 12° E. Uprooted.t 

b. Tree uprooted, too crooked to determine its di- 
rection. 

c. N. 6° E. 

d. N. 27|° E. 

e. E. 20° N. 

f. Tree standing near the fence. 

g. E. 6° N. 
h. E. 3° N. 
i. E. 31° N. 
k. E. \3h° S. 
1. E. 25o N. 

m. E. 18° N. Tolerably straight. Shingles from 
barn found at the foot of m. Southeast angle of 
the barn bears W. 30° S. 

n. Tree standing. 

o. Low tree standing : small. 



p. N. 32° E. 

q. Broken, not uprooted. 

r. N. 27° E. Dead : bushy. 

s. Standing. High and stout. 

u. N. 24° E. 

v. Plum tree near, standing. 

x. N. 5° E. 

z. N. 9° W. Small, firmly rooted in north side. 

j'. Thick and bushy : broken off into three parts, 

the smallest of which points west of north, the 

next north, and the largest east of north ; the bark 

is stripped off below the fracture, 
a'. N. 4° E. 

b'. Same general direction as a', 
c'. N. 2|° E. Small roots, 
d'. E. 22° N. Very large roots, 
e'. N. 10° E. 
f. N. 10° W. A small tree near this, in the same 

row is untouched, 
g'. E. 35° N. 
h'. E. 3° N. Three trees at the south end of the row 

f g' are standing, 
i'. A very large black cherry tree, uprooted, and lying 

nearly parallel to the house, 
k' 1'. groups of willows, the limbs and branches of 

which are torn off, and thrown to southward and 

eastward. 

Figure 4. 
A wood. 

a. N. 40° E. Uprooted. 

b. N. 35° E. Several in the same general direction. 

c. N. 29° W. The top of a tree has fallen on c and 
nearly at right angles to it. 

d. W. 12° N. Uprooted. 

e. W. 421° N. 

f. W. 13o N. 

g. W. 4° N. It lies N. 15° W. from c, and about 
one-eighth of a mile from it. 

h. S. 23° W. One of the last trees near the edge. 

i. Top blown E. 3G° N., large end foremost. Another 
top at right angles. 

k. Top blown off E. 0|° S. 

1. E. 7^° N. A tree near 1 is broken off and top ly- 
ing to west, obviously could not go to eastward on 
account of the other trees. 

m. N. 23° E. 

n. N. 15° W. Many large and small trees, not 
varying in direction 5° from the direction in which 
this has fallen. 

o. Is the same as a. Being at once the point of de- 
parture and of termination, b was also examined 
and identified. 



* The trees are uprooted unless the contrary is stated, or shown in the figure. 
t The directions of the arrow? indicate those of the trunks of the trees. 



References to the Diagrams on Plate XXIV. 



Figure 5. 
A wood. 

a. E. 35° S. Tall hickory broken off about fifteen 
feet from the root. 

b. S. Also broken. 

c. S. 31^° W* 

d. W. 9° N. Uprooted. A tree near to d is broken 
off and carried in the same general direction. 

e. Broken off and carried W. 18° N. A tree near to 
this and west of north of it, carried in the same 
general direction. 

f. A large rotten oak broken off, lying W. 36° N. 
Its trunk at the base, fifteen feet from the fracture, 
measures six and a half feet in circumference. 

g. A broken tree lying over f and nearly at right 
angles to it. 

Figure 6. 

Dioelling and grounds of Mr David Dunn. 

a. N.40°E. A cherry tree. The west corner of the 
house is about one hundred feet off, and lies to 
N. 42i° E. 

b. N. 20° W. A cherry tree uprooted. 

c. Cherry tree of medium size, unbroken. 

d. N. 22° W. A large cherry tree uprooted. 

e. N. 19° W. Uprooted. 

f. Small cherry tree standing. 

g. Large cherry tree N. 4-j° W. 

h. Cherry tree of medium size, unhurt. 

i. N. 10° W. 

k. Black cherry tree N. 13£° W. 

1. N. 23-^9 E. 

m. Largest cherry tree in the row, N. 10^ E. 

n. Large pear tree. 

0. Broken off and cut since the storm. 

p. A small tree standing. A tree on the opposite 

side of the road is broken off and the broken part 

lies to the northward. 
q. A large black cherry tree lies N. 15° W. 
r. Not taken, 
s. Broken seven feet from the ground, and has fallen 

against t. 
t. Not taken. 

u. A large black cherry tree N. 18° E. 
v. E. 30° N. Large black cherry tree, torn up and 

thrown from its bed. 
w. N. 40° E. Black cherry tree. 
x. N. 3° E. Smaller cherry tree, 
y. N. 18J E. Largest size, 
z. Broken to north east, 
y'. Standing, 
z'. Broken. 

a. N. 3° E. Very large black cherry tree. 

b. Small tree not injured. 

c. Larger than b not injured. Small. 

d. Uprooted N. 45° E. 

e. Small. 

/. Medium size cherry tree. Not broken. 
g. Broken limbs to east. A black walnut (?) tree. 
h. Cherry tree broken. 
i. Pear tree uprooted. 

k. N. of house. W. 4° S. Small fruit tree fallen 
against I. 

1. Stripped of leaves. 

m. Pear tree uprooted, points, as shown in the figure, 

towards the house. 
n. Ditto. 

o. p. Broken fruit trees. Small. 
q. Broken off and lying against r. 
s' Is the position of the broken part of s. It lies 

E. 7|° S. 
t. Large pear tree, pointing as shown in figure. 
u. Points to about ten feet east of the wash house B. 

It is a broken apple tree. 



v. Broken pear tree, coated with dust on the north 

west side. 
w. Large cherry tree broken off E. 27^° S. Its top 

lies with those of m and n. 
x. A pear tree. Broken. 
y. A black cherry tree, uprooted and thrown against 

z. Lies in the line y z a'. 
z. Black cherry tree, dirt on the north east side of it. 

Broken on that side, its limbs lie parallel to the 

house. 
C, D. Two outhouses to east and west of 2. The 

timbers of the eastern outhouse C lie in the mass 

b', which contains the tops of trees, &c. The 

windows of D are broken on the east, one on the 

west side is forced in. Clap-boards are off in part 

near the ground on the north side. 
bi. A heap of rubbish left by the storm. Tops of 

trees k, I, m, &c, beams from C, <fcc. 
c A tree lying as shown in the figure. 
d 1 . To S. of house. A small tree broken and thrown 

against the porch H. 
F. A fence to the west of the house prostrate, and in 

part carried against and into the west side of the 

house. All the trees and shrubs which were in 

this garden are prostrate or broken. 

Figure 7. 

A wood to the east of Neio Brunswick. 

b. N. 26° W. Two oaks close together, uprooted. 
Trees to N. 26° W. of b lie in the same general 
direction. 

c. E. 9° N. Trees near c and to west of b lie, some 
directed as c, others as b. 

e. E. 36° N. A small oak, which may have been 
deflected by the trees against which it has fallen. 

f. Three trees, smallest N. 38^° E. The largest has 
possibly been deflected by the trees against which 
it has fallen : it rests N. 18^° E. One to the west 
of the other two is rotten; it lies N. 3^0 W. 
Smallest and largest not wholly uprooted. 

g. N. 16|E. Uprooted. A tree to the south of this 
inclines to the east. 

h. E. 40° N. 

i. W. 18° N. 

i'. Two small trees uprooted, lying under i, N. 3° E. 

k. Broken. Its top lies N. 10^° E. from the trunk. 
Crooked. 

1. N. 6° E. The top of an oak. Broken off. 

m. Top off. E. 32° N. 

p. N. 16° W. Three oaks uprooted. 

q. N. 30° E. 

q'. To N. and E. from q. Broken, N. 35° E. 

r. Two oaks uprooted, E. 36° N. 

s. N. 23^° E. 

t. N. 32^° E. Several others not 10° from this di- 
rection. 

v. A broken oak, N. 44° E. 

w. Top broken off and carried to north east. Direc- 
tion of the stem of top N. 20° E. 

x. N. 26° E. 

y. N. 10° E. 

z. Top carried to N. 39° W. Some trees near, lie to 
N. 40° E. 

a. Lies S. 2^° E. Another, near it, is in the same 
general direction. 
Nearly south. A rotten stump. 
A sound tree broken to S. 35° W. 
Uprooted to S. 36° W. Many like this to the 
east of it. 
S. 28° W. 

S. 14° W. This tree is north of the point a. 
S. 12° W. 



Very nearly S. 3° E. 
S. 6|° W. 



* The trees to the directions of which the angles refer, unless when the contrary is stated, were uprooted. 
VOL. V. 5 H 



ARTICLE XXVII. 



Deductions from Observations made, and Facts collected on the path 
of the Brunswick Spout of June 1 9th, 1 83 5. By James P. Espy, Mem- 
ber of the American Philosophical Society. Head April 1 5th, 1836. 

From the evidence which I collected during five days which I spent 
on the Brunswick spout, the following important facts are clearly 
established. 

The spout was suddenly formed about seven and a half miles west 
of New Brunswick, and terminated as suddenly at Amboy, about 
seventeen and a half miles from where it began. It travelled a little 
east of north with a very moderate velocity, probably not more than 
twenty-five or thirty miles an hour. It appeared to all persons, in what- 
ever direction it was viewed, in the shape of an inverted cone of very 
dark cloud or smoke, reaching from a dark cloud above down to the 
earth. 

It prostrated nearly every thing in its path, which was from two 
hundred to four hundred yards wide ; the trees on the north of the 
central line being thrown with their tops towards the south east, and 
those on the south of this line with their tops towards the north east ; 
while those in the central line itself were thrown nearly towards the 
east, or in the direction of the spout : not one instance being found of 
the trees being thrown with their tops outwards. 

It unroofed the houses, prostrating many of their walls outwards as 



422 DEDUCTIONS FROM, AND OBSERVATIONS ON 

if by explosion, and tearing up the floors of some whose walls were 
left standing ; and not unfrequently, it lifted frame buildings entire 
from their foundation. 

It carried the joists and rafters in some instances to a considerable 
height and threw them down on the north side of its path, four hun- 
dred yards from the house from which they were taken, almost at 
right angles to its course, and exactly opposite to the course which the 
wind must have blown at the ground in the yard, as manifested by the 
direction in which the trees were lying. 

It carried up shingles, boards, hats, books, and branches and leaves 
of trees, and threw them down on the north side of the spout in a 
band of several miles wide, terminating on the north east end of Staten 
Island and fifteen miles from Amboy, where the spout ceased to reach 
the earth, and twenty-five miles from New Brunswick. 

At the time when these materials fell, there fell with them a vio- 
lent shower of hail and rain, the hail however being confined to a few 
miles in the middle of the band where the heaviest part of the shingles 
and boards fell. 

On each side of this band, particularly on the north, there fell a 
copious shower of rain, mingled with shingles ; and even beyond the 
borders of the rain, on the north east, small branches and leaves of trees 
fell in New York Bay, and in North River opposite to the city of New 
York. 

There was no rain nor hail on the path of the spout, nor on the south 
side of it; it began about a mile on the north side, increasing in quan- 
tity to the middle of the band where the hail was,' and then gradually 
diminishing again as it approached the northern and eastern boundary. 

The spout lasted only for a few seconds in a place, and was immedi- 
ately before and after nearly calm, and its effects were hardly felt a few 
hundred yards off to either side. The noise which accompanied it 
was every where described as very alarming, not like any thing heard 
before, more like the rumbling of a great many carriages than any 
thing else, or, as one man expressed himself, like an earthquake in the air. 
In Staten Island, as to the length of time this noise was heard previous 
to the commencement of the hail and rain, the evidence varies from 



THE BRUNSWICK SPOUT OF JUNE 19, 1835. 423 

fifteen minutes to an hour, and as to the length of time the shower 
was falling, it varies from eight minutes to thirty or forty. 

Though there was no rain in the path of the spout, the cloud or 
mist of which it was composed must have been very humid, as the 
grave stones at Piscataway were covered on the west side with a coat 
of mud, and in many places the grass and leaves which lodged in 
masses on the west side of trees which were left standing were clotted 
together with mud, as if they had been drifted there by an inundation, 
and several persons that were caught in the spout were entirely covered 
with mud, so that they could not be known by their friends. There 
were some lightning and thunder attending the meteor, but not much 
unless the continual rumbling or roar was produced by it, which is 
not very likely, as a great many who heard the rumbling did not even 
see lightning. ■' 

The wind, probably in the whole length of the spout, certainly in 
many places, began to blow on the northern half of the spout from the 
N. E., and on the southern half of the spout from the S. E. ; for 
materials were found which had been moved in that direction first, 
and afterwards carried back even beyond their original position by the 
hinder part of the spout, which appears in all cases to have been the 
strongest. As a proof of this, several places were found where the weak 
and rotten trees were thrown down by the van of the spout, with the 
tops of those on the northern side towards the S. W., and the tops of 
those on the southern side towards the N. W. ; while the stronger 
trees which resisted the first shock were afterwards prostrated by the 
rear of the spout. And in every case where trees were found lying 
across each other, which to a careless observer might have indicated a 
whirlwind of confusion, the most perfect regularity was manifested ; 
the strongest trees lying on top, and with their tops pointing inwards 
and forwards, as mentioned before. 

Besides, four different places were found where the tops of all the 
trees in a circular space, equal in diameter to the breadth of the spout, 
were thrown inwards towards one common centre. In the middle of 
one of these stood a large frame house, which had its roof carried off. 
The walls of the upper story, both on the north and south side, were 
cracked; and in one crack was thrust a lady's pocket handkerchief, and 
vol. v. — 5 I 



424 DEDUCTIONS FROM, AND OBSERVATIONS ON 

in the other a sheet, taken up from a bed in the room, and the cracks 
closed when they were carried partly through. All the windows in 
the house were broken, and much of the glass was lying on the outside 
of the house. The owner of the house is sure all this was done in a 
second or two of time, and he assured me that the next moment it 
was as still as death, not enough of air to move the leaves of the trees, 
which were prostrated all round his house with their tops against his 
very door. 

In this case the van of the spout appears to have been as strong as 
the rear, for several out-houses to the east of the dwelling mansion 
were prostrated, having many of their heaviest materials carried some 
distance towards the west. Perhaps indeed I was too hasty in draw- 
ing the conclusion that the rear of the spout was stronger than the 
van, from the circumstance that the trees were generally thrown down 
in the direction of the spout ; for if the forces had been equal, they 
might have generally fallen in this direction, from the momentum 
they would have in this direction in straightening themselves, by their 
elasticity, at the moment the van passed and the rear came upon them. 
Notwithstanding, as the wind on that day was from the S. W., this 
circumstance renders it probable that the rear of the spout was the 
strongest ; for it would appear that the force of the wind, whatever it 
was, should be added to the rear and subducted from the van. 

During the fall of the rain and hail in Staten Island, the wind in the 
borders of the shower blew in all places from the centre of the shower, 
very strong in the northern part from the south, variable in the mid- 
dle, and moderate in the south from the north. And the rumbling 
noise preceded the fall of the rain at least fifteen minutes at Mussero's 
ferry, on the very north side of the island. As the time of the shower 
at this place was certainly, from the evidence, after the spout had dis- 
appeared, it seems probable that the spout continued in mid air some 
time after its disappearance at the surface of the earth. 

Was this noise caused by the concussion of the materials, the lighter 
particles of hail which were then just formed being carried up with 
great swiftness against the heavier, which at that time might be at 
their greatest elevation or even beginning to descend : or was it pro- 
duced by electricity ? The height of the spout where it lost itself in 



THE BRUNSWICK SPOUT OF JUNE 19, 1835. 425 

the cloud, though it probably rose much higher into the cloud itself, 
was not very certainly made out. 

It is probable, however, from comparing several accounts of the 
distance at which it was seen, and the angular elevation as near as 
could be ascertained, that the height was about a mile, or, from the 
very distinct testimony of Mr Cole, a little more. 

He was standing four and a half miles east of Amboy, beyond which 
the spout did not reach. He saw a very black column of cloud, about 
eight times as high as it was broad, rising in the west ; lighter clouds 
on each side of it were " streaming " towards it with great velocity 
and joining it, but not crossing it. The upper end of this column was 
about ten degrees high. The evidence of Mr Hunt, engineer of the 
boat Napoleon, is almost exactly similar to Mr Cole's. He was about 
seven miles from New Brunswick, and saw the spout before it reached 
the town. He thinks, however, that the column was only about three 
times as high as it was broad. After looking at it some minutes, he 
could plainly see detached pieces of cloud darting inwards and up- 
wards, joining the upper end of the column and losing themselves 
there, and in five or six minutes more, when the column reached 
New Brunswick, the materials which had been seen to fly upwards 
increased in number, and gave the appearance of a volcano ; these 
materials seemed to him to rise three hundred yards. Now as the 
spout when first seen by Mr Hunt must have been eight or nine 
miles distant, its height could hardly have been less than a mile. 

On this same day three other spouts occurred, about seventeen miles 
apart, measuring perpendicular to the line of direction of the Bruns- 
wick spout. The one next to the Brunswick spout, seventeen miles 
north, passed through a village in the neighbourhood of Patterson, 
New Jersey, about three hours after the passage of the spout at Bruns- 
wick. It was accompanied by violent hail and rain on the very path of 
the spout. 

On the same day and afternoon and night, there was a very great 
rain in the state of New York, commencing at Schenectady, about three 
P. M., with a roaring of fifteen minutes like a distant cataract : 2-45 
inches of rain fell in Albany, wind N., and much more at Lebanon. 
And during the whole night of the 1 9th, there was in the neighbourhood 



426 DEDUCTIONS FROM, AND OBSERVATIONS ON, ETC. 

of Amboy a violent S. W. wind and very black clouds coming from 
the N. E., mingled with a bright silvery light, and most vivid light- 
ning without thunder. The wind below changed about daylight to 
the N. E., and blew violently very cold for some hours, and then 
again resumed its old course, S. W., on the afternoon of the 20th. 

On this same morning, the 20th, a most violent N. E. gale was 
experienced at Quebec. 

Two conclusions, which promise to be of immense value in meteor- 
ology, are clearly deducible from the facts here established. 

1. There was an inward motion of the air in atl directions towards 
the centre of the spout below, and upward motion in the middle.* 

2. The hail was formed by the congelation of drops of rain gene- 
rated at and over the place where the shingles were taken up. 

The cause of this upward motion in the spout is the great expansion of the air from the 
evolution of latent caloric, when the vapour in the spout changes to water ; the expansion of 
the air by the liberated caloric being about six times greater than when combined with water 
in the form of vapour, as has been fully explained in a paper now preparing for insertion in 
the Transactions of this Society. 



ARTICLE XXVIII. 



On the Relative Horizontal Intensities of Terrestrial Magnetism at 
several F laces in the United States, with the Investigation of Correc- 
tions for Temperature, and Comparisons of the Methods of Oscillation 
in Full and in Marefied Air. By A. D. Bache, Professor of Natural 
Philosophy and Chemistry, and Edward H. Courtenay, Professor of 
Mathematics, in the University of Pennsylvania. Mead May 6th, 1836. 

The observations for horizontal intensity which we are about to 
present to the Society were commenced in the spring of 1834, and 
have been continued at intervals since that time. The first series 
was made w r ith the usual apparatus, namely, a needle, suspended by a 
fibre without torsion, and made to vibrate in a closed box. The 
second series was obtained by oscillating the needles in rarefied air. 
These latter observations having proved satisfactory, we should be able 
to determine the total intensities at the several places of observation, 
were the dip determined with a sufficient degree of minuteness. 
While our observations with the ordinary dipping-needle already pub- 
lished by the Society,* show approximately the variations of that ele- 
ment, a minute variation in the angle affects, when the dip is so large, 
so considerably the total intensity, that we do not feel warranted at 
present in combining those results with the horizontal forces. 

* American Philosophical Society's Transactions, Vol. V., (Part II.) page 309. 
VOL. V. 5 K 



428 ON THE RELATIVE HORIZONTAL INTENSITIES 

In the present state of the experimental part of this branch of 
science, we are induced to present these observations, not only as show- 
ing the horizontal intensities at the different places of observation, but 
on account of the deductions warranted by the investigation of cor- 
rections for temperature, and the comparison afforded between the 
methods of oscillation in full air, and in a rarefied medium. This lat- 
ter mode is so great an improvement, that its claims cannot be too 
strongly urged. 

The most numerous observations of the first series above referred to, 
were made at Philadelphia and West Point. These presented discre- 
pancies which we were entirely at a loss to explain. 

The differences, in the time of ten vibrations, as observed on different 
occasions at the same place, were of an amount entirely beyond what 
could have resulted from errors of observation, which the method of 
observing rendered quite small. Pains had been taken, in all cases, 
to remove magnetic matter which might have affected the results ; and 
in other respects the observations were carefully made. 

Some part of the discrepancies might be charged to the errors in 
the time-pieces used. The observations at West Point were made 
however, with a chronometer of undoubted reputation, and most of 
those at Philadelphia, with chronometers of good standing; and the 
discrepancies could not thus be satisfactorily accounted for. 

The magnetic needles used had not changed their magnetism during 
the series of observations, and were thus shown to be sufficiently hard 
to retain their charge. It was not probable, therefore, that they would 
readily change, from day to day, their magnetic state, unless from 
changes in the earth's magnetism, or from heat. A correction for 
temperature was ascertained by experiment, and the results show that 
this correction was accurate. Without it the amount of the differences 
is very much increased. 

It is possible, that in some of the earlier observations in the first 
series, sufficient care was not taken to allow the needles to attain the 
temperature of the surrounding medium, a source of error which was 
guarded against in the later results. 

The discrepancies seemed to us to show, either that there was some 
imperfection in the apparatus, other than those already enumerated, or 



OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM AT SEVERAL PLACES, ETC. 429 

that the magnetism of the earth really undergoes frequent and consi- 
derable changes. This latter point seems to be generally conceded, 
but we do not think upon sufficient grounds. 

Mr Harris,* of Plymouth, had already pointed out the effect of cur- 
rents of air within the apparatus in which the needle is inclosed, as 
rendering this method of experiment objectionable. He had proposed 
to remove this objection by oscillating the needles in a rarefied medium, 
and had devised an apparatus for this purpose. Mr R. W. Fox had 
noticed the same defectf It first occurred to us in full force when 
observing for the correction for temperature. This source of error 
was particularly active in the case of the needle of the smallest mass, 
oscillating rapidly, and, as is usual, in large arcs, at the commencement 
of the motion. To get rid of this cause of error, we resorted to the 
method proposed by Mr Harris, and had constructed a stationary, 
and also a portable apparatus for vibrating in a rarefied medium. The 
stationary apparatus was intended to investigate the supposed changes 
of the horizontal intensity from day to day, and the portable apparatus 
to repeat the observations made in the first series at several different 
places. 

Our expectations of the superior accuracy of observations in a rarefied 
medium, were not disappointed. We had laid aside our first series of 
results as unsatisfactory, and now propose to use them only when the 
observations were very numerous. A comparison of their mean error 
with that of the series in the rarefied medium, will serve to show, that 
they have little weight when the number is not very much multiplied, 
in comparison with the latter. 

It was stated that arrangements had been made by Mr Harris for 
determining the relative intensities at certain places in England, by a 
needle oscillating in rarefied air; but we believe that our results are 
the first of this kind which have been offered to the public. The 
method of vibrations in air continues to be used, and, if our views of 
its imperfections are correct, the importance of our results is consi- 



* W. Snow Harris, in the Trans, of the Royal Society of London, 1831, pp. 67, 68, &c. 
t R. W. Fox, in the London and Ed. Philos. Mag., Vol. I., p. 310, &c. 



430 ON THE RELATIVE HORIZONTAL INTENSIIES 

derably beyond what could be claimed for the mere determination of 
the horizontal intensities at the several places of observation. 

These and other circumstances render it imperative upon us to give 
the observations in detail, and will, we trust, excuse to the Society the 
length of our memoir. 

OF THE INSTRUMENTS. 

The needles used in the First Series for horizontal intensities were 
of the form originally adopted by professor Hansteen, namely, cylinders 
terminated by cones. They were three in number, and of different 
masses. These were in turn suspended by one or more fibres of silk- 
worm's thread in a small box which protected them from the air, and 
at the bottom of which was placed a graduated circle. Two threads 
were fastened vertically against two small glass windows in the sides 
of the Box, and in a plane passing through the centre of the divided 
circle. These threads, when brought into the plane of the magnetic 
meridian, served to observe the passage of the ends of the needle across 
this plane. Three levelling screws were attached to the bottom of the 
box. The method of adjusting for the level of the needle, and of the 
box, for placing the line of suspension in the direction of the threads, 
and bringing them into the meridian, and for centring the needle, are 
too simple to need any particular description. The needles were placed 
in small stirrups, and were raised, usually, about half an inch above the 
bottom of the box. 

Needle No. 1, the largest, was three inches long, and .22 in diame- 
ter in the cylindrical part. It was placed in a brass stirrup, and sus- 
pended by two fibres of silkworm's thread. This needle was most 
steady in its vibrations, and did not lose any appreciable part of its 
magnetism while in use, though it was softer than No. 3. 

No. 2 was of the same material as No. 1. Its length was 2.53 inches, 
and diameter of the cylinder .22 inches ; weighing, with its stirrup, 
203 grains. Both of these needles were made at West Point, and 
they were not highly charged. 

The observations made with the latter needle, No. 2, were few in 
number, and they were neither considered at the time of the observa- 



OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM AT SEVERAL PLACES, ETC. 431 

tions, nor proved by their agreement with those made with Nos. 1 and 
3, to be satisfactory, we have thought it best not to use them in taking 
our mean. We have placed the description of the needle here, because 
the correction for temperature was observed, and we are enabled to use 
the results in their bearing upon the general conclusions in regard to 
the effect of heat on the intensity of the magnet itself. 

No. 3 was of the Hansteen model, 2.43 in length, and .14 inch in 
diameter, at the cylindric part ; weighing, with its pasteboard stirrup, 
78 grains. For this needle, we are indebted to our friend, professor 
Henry, of Princeton, by whom it was made and magnetized, several 
years since. Its rate is slower than that of either Nos. 1 or 2. 

The needles were kept in separate boxes, and when stationary, or car- 
ried from place to place, the cases containing them were kept as far as 
possible from each other, and from iron or steel. 

Observations were made at Philadelphia and West Point, with a 
fourth needle, C of second series, but the results were very little ac- 
cordant. This we attribute to its small mass, and the rapidity of its 
vibration. So materially was this needle affected by accidental circum- 
stances, that its small correction for temperature not only was masked 
by them, but was even, apparently, negative under their influence. 
In a rarefied medium the performance of this needle was very regular 
and satisfactory. 

In the Second Series of observations, upon which we principally 
rely, three needles were used. The first, A, was a small bar 2.83 
inches long, and .22 by .14 of an inch in cross section, the larger 
dimension being vertical. The weight of the bar, and of its suspend- 
ing stirrup of wire, was 184 grains. It was suspended by three silk 
worm threads, and made, when in a medium rarefied to between three 
and a half and three inches of mercury, three hundred vibrations, be- 
tween the semi-arcs of four and two degrees. A small black line on a 
white ground, upon one end of the needle, served to observe its passage 
over the meridian, when oscillating. 

The second needle, B, was No. 3 of the first series. It was placed in 
a pasteboard stirrup, which made its moment of inertia slightly different 
from that in the first series. It made about two hundred and fifty 

VOL. V. — 5 L 



432 ON THE RELATIVE HORIZONTAL INTENSITIES 

vibrations between the semi-arcs of six and two degrees, in a medium 
rarefied to between three and a half and three inches of mercury. 

The third needle, C, was the fourth of the first series. It made, be- 
tween the semi-arcs of six and two degrees, three hundred vibrations, 
at the pressure just referred to. The length of this needle was 2.36 
inches. The diameter of the cylindrical part .14 of an inch, and the 
weight of the needle and paper stirrup in which it was hung 72 
grains. 

The apparatus in which these needles were oscillated, consisted of a 
small jar, furnished with a brass cap, screwing into a ring cemented 
around the mouth of the jar. Attached to this cap was a siphon gauge 
to show the pressure within ; a lateral tube, or passage, from the jar, 
terminated by a screw, served to apply a small syringe for the purpose 
of exhausting the jar. The tube was closed by a valve of oiled silk, 
which acted as one of the valves of the air-pump. A metallic stem, 
passing through a collar of leathers, occupied the centre of the plate ; 
and the needles, being suspended by a hook at the end of this stem, 
were raised or lowered by means of it, as occasion required. A 
scale for measuring the arcs of vibration was fastened around the exte- 
rior of the jar. The smallness of these arcs rendered minute accuracy 
in their measurement of no importance. 

A jar of the requisite form not being at hand, one of ordinary height 
in proportion to its diameter, was partly filled with cement, so as to 
diminish the space within. The height of the part of the jar in which 
the needle vibrated, was about three and a half inches, and its diameter 
nearly the same. The needles swung about .6 of an inch from the 
cement floor. This jar was particularly adapted to needle A. 

A thermometer placed within the jar completed this apparatus. 
The parts being readily detached, the whole was very portable. 

METHODS OF OBSERVATION. 

In the commencement we adopted the method used by Captain Sa- 
bine, and described in the Royal Society's Transactions, London, for 
1828. We have subsequently adopted another method, which not 
only saves much labour, but is, we think, quite as unexceptionable in 



OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM AT SEVERAL PLACES, ETC. 433 

a theoretical point of view, as the one just referred to. This is, sim- 
ply, to note the time of beginning and ending of a considerable num- 
ber of vibrations, with the arcs of vibration at the commencement 
and end. 

In practice, the needle having been made to oscillate, and having 
arrived at the arc previously fixed upon for beginning the observations, 
the time of passing the meridian is noted. The oscillations continu- 
ing, when the arcs have decreased to the point intended for terminating 
the experiment, the time of passage is again observed. The interval 
is the time of making the observed number of oscillations. If it were 
necessary to count this number without any checks upon the count- 
ing, the method would be tedious and liable to mistakes, but this is 
not the case. If the time of a given number, for example, of ten os- 
cillations has been found approximately, and the time of passage of the 
needle over the meridian be always observed when the same end is 
moving in the same direction, there can be no doubt of the number of 
vibrations corresponding to an observed interval, until the difference 
between the quotient of the observed interval by a number greater or 
less by two than the true number of oscillations, is less, than the limit 
of accuracy with which the time of the supposed number of oscilla- 
tions is known. 

To furnish convenient numbers for calculating the time of ten oscil- 
lations, we observed usually at the end of fifty or one hundred oscilla- 
tions, a number much below the limit allowed by the condition just 
referred to. An example will serve to show how fully this method, 
when properly applied, is to be relied upon. 

Philadelphia, September 19th, 1835. Needle A. 

Observed times of passage over the magnetic meridian. 

h. m. s. 

P. M. 5 35 17.8 

31 18.0 

37 18.0 

43 18.0 

The time of ten vibrations being known to be between 36 seconds 
and 36.4 seconds, there can be no doubt as to the number of vibra- 
tions corresponding to either of the intervals deduced from the observa- 



434 ON THE RELATIVE HORIZONTAL INTENSITIES 

tions just given. One hundred oscillations gives, from the interval 
between the first and second observations, 36.2 seconds, for the time 
of ten vibrations, while ninety-eight gives 36.75 seconds, and one hun- 
dred and two, gives 35.31 seconds for the same time. There is more 
certainty than could have been obtained by counting the whole num- 
ber of vibrations, and quite as much as if each ten had been counted, 
and the time corresponding to it noted, as in the method usually prac- 
tised. 

The time of ten vibrations can obviously be found within the re- 
quired limit of accuracy by one or two sets of ten vibrations, counted 
at the beginning of the experiment. When the limit of accuracy is 
fixed, it is easy to determine how many pairs of vibrations the needle 
may make before another observation for the time of passage is neces- 
sary.* 

CORRECTIONS FOR TEMPERATURE. 

In determining these corrections, we proceeded upon the principle 
usually assumed, that to equal increments of temperature correspond 
equal diminutions in the magnetic force of the suspended needle. 
This is, no doubt, approximately true within a moderate range of tem- 
perature. We also assumed, that the magnetic state of the needle is 
the same at the same temperature. The formula of professor Han- 
steen, based upon these suppositions, is, 

t = T' (i — m(*' — 1)\ 

where T represents the time of making a certain number of oscilla- 

* The following simple investigation will serve to determine the greatest admissible num- 
ber of vibrations between two consecutive observations. 

Let t = the time of 10 vibrations ; n = the true number of vibrations in the whole time ; 
e the greatest error in the observed time of 10 vibrations. 

Then, — = the greatest error in estimating the whole time. That there may be no 
10 , ne t , t 

doubt as to the true value of n, we must have -rr < -rp:> or " < -—■• 

To exemplify this, in regard to needle A, suppose t = 36 seconds, e = .2 second, we 

36 
must have n< -=< 180. 



OF TERRESTRIAL, MAGNETISM AT SEVERAL PLACES, ETC. 435 



lations at the temperature t, T' the time of making the same number 
at the temperature f, and m is a constant to be determined by experi- 
ment, from the equation 

T' — T 
m — T' (t' — t) 

The effect of the expansion of the needle upon its moment of in- 
ertia is, of course, too minute to enter into the discussion. The 
method adopted for finding this coefficient was similar to that de- 
scribed by Captain Sabine.* The observations in the first series were 
made in the small magnetic observatory, where most of the observa- 
tions at Philadelphia were made. 

In the First Series the arrangements for observing were as fol- 
lows. The apparatus for oscillating was placed in a large wooden 
vessel, forming a considerable inclosure around it. The temperature 
of the inclosure, and of course of the apparatus, was lowered by filling 
around the latter with ice, the melting of which was occasionally pro- 
moted by sprinkling with salt. The top of the inclosure was covered, 
except only a sufficient space to look down upon the northern half of the 
needle, and upon the thermometer within the box. Access of air, and 
radiation from the sides of the observatory, were thus, in a great mea- 
sure, cut off. A local dew point resulted from this arrangement, within 
the inclosure, which prevented embarrassment from the deposition of 
moisture upon the needle, or upon the glass cover of the box. 

The needle to be observed having been allowed to remain in the 
box a sufficient length of time to acquire the temperature of the me- 
dium within, the experiment was commenced. The temperature of 
the box was noted, by the inclosed thermometer, at intervals during 
the oscillations, the temperature being made as nearly stationary as 
possible. The mean temperature thus obtained does not, of course, 
coincide with the half sum of the temperatures taken at the beginning 
and end, and which are recorded with the means in the table which 
follows. 

The observation of the passage of the needle over the meridian, and 
of the arcs of vibration, had been rendered easy and accurate by tracing 

* Brande's Quarterly Journal of Science, Vol. XXVIII. p. 14, &c. 
VOL. V. 5 M 



436 



ON THE RELATIVE HORIZONTAL INTENSITIES 



on the glass cover of the box a zero line and graduations, similar to 
those on the scale at the bottom of the box. 

Some of the results were carried from semi-arcs of twenty-five to 
three degrees, but the observations below the semi-arcs of five degrees 
are omitted. The series thus requires no correction for arc, to obtain 
relative results. The observations made below five degrees were not 
as accordant as those above; they were, however, few in number. 

The experiments just detailed occupied almost the entire interval 
between 10^ A. M. on the 25th, and 12^ A. M. on the 26th of Au- 
gust 1834; they are, therefore, affected by the diurnal variation. 
Needle No. 1 was vibrated at intervals to determine the amount of 
this correction ; but the nature of the results did not warrant the use 
of any correction derived from this source. 

The following table contains the record of the observations just re- 
ferred to. The several columns contain, first, the number of the ex- 
periment, for reference; second, the designation of the needle; third, 
fourth and fifth, the times of beginning and ending the oscillations; 
sixth, the temperatures at the beginning and end ; seventh, the num- 
ber of oscillations between the semi-arcs of twenty and of five degrees ; 
eighth, the mean temperature; ninth, the time of ten vibrations. 



TABLE No. I. 

Observations for Correction for Temperature of Needles 1, 2 and 3. 



"S 

g 

<u 
H 

'— 
o 

d 
Z 


a 

<o 

Z 

o 

6 

iz; 


Times 

of 

Beginning and End. 


Temperatures 

at Beginning 

and End. 


03 

c 
c 

> 

o 
6 


0) - 


° a 


Observers' Names, &c. 


Hours. 


Mins. 


Sees. 


Fah.° 


Fah.° 


Sees. 


1. 


1. 


P.M. 


12 
1 


38 
08 


44.0 
08.6 


36 
32 


390 


33.6 


45.25 


August 25th, 1834. 
Bache. 


2. 


i> 


P.M. 


4 


30 
56 


19.2 
00.2 


35£ 
35A 


340 


35.7 


45.32 


Bache and Courtenay. 


3. 


n 


P.M. 


8 


04 
31 


00.0 
40.5 


98 
100 


356 


99.1 


46.64 


Bache and Courtenay. 


4. 

5. 


it 


P.M. 
A.M. 


11 

12 


51 
19 


16.4 

20.8 


98 
98 


362 


98 


46.53 


Bache. (August 26.) 


2. 


P.M. 


1 
2 


44 
09 


35.8 
14.6 


32 
32| 


340 


32.2 


43.50 


Bache. 


6. 
7. 


3. 


P.M. 


10 

11 


42 
14 


47.8 
25.8 


98 
102 


424 


99.3 


44.77 


Bache and Courtenay. 


P.M. 


2 


36 
50 


45.0 
24.6 


35 
36 


170 


35.3 


48.21 


Bache. 


8. 


ci 


P.M. 


9 
10 


51 

06 


22.2 
16.2 


102 
102| 


182 


102.2 


49.12 


Bache and Courtenay. 



OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM AT SEVERAL PLACES, ETC. 437 

The time was observed by a good pocket chronometer, making one 
hundred and fifty beats per minute, and the observed times of beginning 
and end are given to four-tenths, and probably with accuracy even to 
two-tenths of a second. 

The irregularity in the number of vibrations between two given 
arcs was observed very generally in the first series of experiments, and 
is probably, in a great measure, due to the imperfect mode of estimat- 
ing the arcs. It has little or no effect on the accuracy of the results, 
since even at the largest arcs many successive vibrations will be per- 
formed in times not differing appreciably from each other. 

The coefficient for the correction for temperature of needle No. 1, 
as deduced from the experiments just given, is, 

From experiments 1 and 3, m = .000,455 

1 " 4, m = .000,427 

2 « 3, m = .000,446 
2 " 4, m = .000,417 



Mean, m — .000,436 



Although it appears rather obvious that these several corrections do 
not differ essentially from the mean, it may not be amiss to show that 
the difference in the time of ten vibrations produced by using either 
of them, is within the probable limit of accuracy of the separate ob- 
servations. By applying the first coefficient, which differs more from 
the mean than either the second or third, to deduce the time of ten 
vibrations at 98° Fah. from the observed time at 33.6, as given in the 
preceding table, we have 46.58 seconds : while the mean coefficient 
similarly applied, gives 46.52 seconds, differing but .06 of a second in 
the time of ten vibrations. If now it be considered that these ex- 
tremes of temperature are much further apart than in the cases oc- 
curring in the use of the needles, and further that the observations are 
to be reduced to a selected mean temperature, the result seems entirely 
satisfactory. 

The coefficient for the reduction for temperature of needle No. 
2, deduced from experiments five and six of the foregoing tables, is, 
m = .000,423. That for No. 3, is m" = 000,277. 



438 ON THE RELATIVE HORIZONTAL INTENSITIES 

No permanent change in the magnetic state of either of the needles 
was produced by the elevation of temperature to which they were 
subjected in these experiments. 

In the Second Series of observations, the correction for temperature 
of Needle A, was obtained immediately after the observations at the 
different stations had been completed. As in the experiments already 
given, the temperature of the needle was lowered by ice, and raised by 
the heat from spirit lamps, placed in the same inclosure with the jar. 

It was not convenient to observe the other needles at the same time, 
and the corrections applied to them were obtained in February, and 
within doors. Two questions were thus suggested : first, whether the 
correction for temperature is sensibly the same at different seasons, or 
whether a variation in the earth's magnetic intensity may produce a 
change in the distribution of the magnetism of a needle, so as to ren- 
der it more or less liable to have its state changed by heat. Second, 
whether the local magnetism proportionably affects the magnetic state 
of a needle at different temperatures. As far as the practical use of 
the correction for our observations is concerned, both these questions 
were resolved. And from the answer, we felt warranted in deducing 
the corrections for the needles B and C, as above stated. 

All the observations were made with the same thermometer which 
was used to give the temperature of experiment of the different stations. 
The observations for the correction for needle A, are contained in 
the following table, of which the form is similar to that before given. 
A column is introduced for the height of the gauge, and two others to 
contain the mean of the separate determinations at each temperature. 



OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM AT SEVERAL PLACES, ETC. 439 



TABLE No. II. 









Observations for the Correction for 


Temperature of Needle A. 




> 
o 


Times of Beginning 


rature 
inning 
End. 


v. 

o . 


CO 

o 


1 s 


S3 

fc" 1 a 

«H-J3 


Mean Tempe- 
rature of each 
set of Observ- 
ations. 


Time 
Vibra- 
n each 
t. 




O.I 
o 

6 
JZi 


and Ending. 


Tempe 

at Beg 

and 




°.2 
So 


.S a. 




Mean 
of Ten 
tions i 

se 


Observers. 


Hours. 


Mins. 


Sees. 


Fah.° 


Inch. 


Fah.° 


Sees. 


Fah.° 


Seconds. 




P.M. 


4 


14 


26.4 


72 














October 5th, 






66 


32 
34 


27.8 
30.8 


72 


3 


300* 


72.0 


36.05 






1835. 
Bache and 


1. 






52 


32.0 


701 


4 


300t 


71.2 


36.04 


71.6 


36.045 


Courtenay. 




P.M. 


6 


31 


57.2 


36 






















46 


55.2 


32 


4t 


250 


33.7 


35.92 












6 


59 


07.6 


32 














Bache and 


2. 




7 


17 


04.0 


36 


n 


300 


33.7 


35.88 


33.7 


35.900 


Courtenay. 




P.M. 


8 


42 


23.2 


61 




















9 


00 


23.6 


62 


3£ 


300 


61.7 


36.01 












9 


02 


55.2 


62 














Bache and 


3. 






20 


56.2 


64 


4 


300 


62.9 


36.03 


62.3 


36.020 


Courtenay. 




P.M. 


10 


29 


24.4 


92 






















44 


28.0 


90 


M 


250 


91.2 


36.14 












11 


10 


33.2 


86 














1 4. 




28 


38.2 


91 


3 


300 


88. 5| 36.17 


89.8 


36.155 


Bache. 



The second set of observations was introduced to ascertain the al- 
lowance to be made for the diurnal variation of intensity. Reducing 
it to the temperature of the first set by using the mean coefficient 
from the entire series, it shows an increase in the time of ten oscilla- 
tions between 4 and 5 P. M., the mean hour of making the first set, 
and 9 P. M., the mean hour of the third, of .022 seconds. Apply- 
ing the proportional part of this correction to the sets numbered 2 and 
4, the temperatures and times will be found to be as follows, 
No. 1, 71.6o, 36.045 seconds. 

2, 33.7°, 35.888 « 

4, 89.8°, 36.124 « 
And the corrections deduced from a comparison of the several sets 
will be more accordant, than when the daily variation is not consi- 
dered. The values of the coefficient are, 



* Terminated in an arc rather greater than two degrees, 
t Terminated in an arc rather less than two degrees. 
% Above four inches. 

VOL. V. — 5 N 



440 



ON THE RELATIVE HORIZONTAL INTENSITIES 

From Nos. 4 and 2, m = .000,116 
u a 4 a j 5 m — .000,120 



a 



a 



a 



1, m = .000,115 



Mean m = .000,117 



It appears distinctly, from comparing these results, that the change 
of intensity of the needle's magnetism is greater at the higher tempera- 
tures than at the lower, for equal changes of temperature. The value 
of m, deduced from observations between 72° and 90°, is the greatest; 
next the value obtained between 34° and 90°, and last that between 
34° and 72°. This change would have appeared greater if no cor- 
rection had been made for the daily variation. 

The second and third sets of observations on needle A, before re- 
ferred to, are given in the annexed table. The object of these sets has 
already been explained. 

TABLE No. III. 

Observations for the Correction for Temperature of Needle A. 



a 














> 


ci 


c c 






Times of Beginning 


2 s . 

3 bo W 

3.5.9 


Cm 

° 6 

« fcD 


a 

o 


u 

a. 


o 2 


O 

a. 

a ■ 
a 8 


».2 




a 

o 


and Ending. 


||J 


'SO 


> 


a 

a 

o 


° 2. 
£ 


^2 

a 

ta 

o 


o a 


Place of Observa- 
tion, &c. 


o 

d 






H« 




o 
6 


§ 


&" 


a 




Hours. 


Min. 


Sees. 


Fah.° 


Inch. 


Fah.° 


Sees. 


Fali.° 


Sees. 




P.M. 


4 


10 


47.6 


31 














la small Observatory, 


5. 






22 


45.2 


29| 


4 


200 


30.2 


35.88 


30.2 


35.880 


out of doors, Dec. 7, 
1835. Bache. 




P.M. 


5 


31 


36.0 


86 




















43 


40.0 


90 


+4* 


200 


88 


36.20 












5 


46 


48.8 


92 
















6. 






58 


53.2 


92 


+ 4 


200 


92 


36.24 


90.0 


36.220 


Bache. 




P.M. 


7 


49 


22.4 


31 


















8 


01 


20.8 


32 


+4 


200 


31.5 


35.92 












8 


04 


42.8 


32 


* 














7. 






16 


42.2 


31 


+4 


200 


31.7 


35.97 


31.6 


35.945 


Bache. 




P.M. 


11 


08 


10.6 


86 














In the house, Feb. 1st, 








23 


05.6 


80 


31 


250 


84.0 


35.80 






1836. 






11 


26 


26.4 


80 
















8. 






38 


21.6 


72 


+4 


200 


76.0 


35.76 


80.0 


35.780 


Bache. 

Feb. 2d. 




A.M. 


12 


13 


02.4 


52£ 




















24 


54.4 


50 


+4 


200 


50.8 


35.60 












12 


26 


27.4 


50 
















9. 






38 


20.4 


48 


+4 


200 49.2 


35.65 


50.0 


35.625 


Bache. 



This sign denotes that the gauge was above the mark to which the sign is prefixed. 



OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM AT SEVERAL PLACES, ETC. 441 

A comparison of observations 5 and 7, after correcting the latter by 
an approximate coefficient for temperature, gives the amount of daily 
variation to be allowed for. Assuming the progress of this variation 
to be in proportion to the time, a correction is deduced for number 6, 
which is in the right direction, though small in amount. The coeffi- 
cient deduced from 5 and 6 is m = .000,147. The coefficient be- 
fore obtained was m = .000,117. It would certainly be rash to infer 
from the small difference thus rendered evident between the values of 
m, deduced under different circumstances, that the difference resulted 
from these circumstances. The times of vibration at corresponding 
temperatures, are greater in the second set of observations than in the 
first, as well as the differences for a given number of degrees. It is 
possible that the needle may have undergone a slight change between 
October and December, a question which future observations may de- 
termine. As far as the application to the observations which are to 
follow is concerned, these coefficients are so near to each other that 
either might be adopted without sensibly affecting the results. The 
difference would amount to but .01 second in ten vibrations, for ten 
degrees of temperature. From 8 and 9 uncorrected for diurnal varia- 
tion, m = .000,145. The times of oscillation being nearly equally 
before and after midnight, about which time the march of the intensity 
begins to change its direction, a correction deduced from preceding 
observations, would probably render the results less accurate than they 
are without it. 

The very close agreement of the two numbers just given for the 
coefficient, strengthens the opinion, that the difference from the num- 
ber found in October results from a slight change in the magnetic 
state of the bar: the circumstances in the second and third sets of 
observations having been so very different as to local magnetism. 

We infer from a comparison of the three values of m, that a co- 
efficient for the correction for temperature, obtained under the circum- 
stances of the second and third sets of observations, may safely be 
applied to correct, for temperature, the observations made during the 
summer and autumn. 

The following table contains the observations made to obtain the 
correction to apply to needles C and B. The former has so small a 



442 



ON THE RELATIVE HORIZONTAL INTENSITIES 



correction that the observations upon it were quite laboured. It will 
probably be better not to go into the same detail in stating these re- 
sults as in the former ones. With this impression we present the fol- 
lowing table. The first column contains the number of the observa- 
tion ; the second, the designation of the needle ; the third, the mean 
time at which the set of observations was made ; the fourth, the num- 
ber of oscillations from which the time of ten contained in the sixth 
has been calculated ; the fifth, the mean temperature ; the seventh, re- 
marks, &c. 

TABLE No. IV. 

Observations for the Correction for Temperature of Needles C and B. 



a 

o 

> 

u 
o 

DQ 

.a 

o 

o 
6 


O 
O 

tn 

o 

C a! 

.2 — 

a 

'ai 

<L> 

Q 




a 
o 

ci 

> 

en 

o 

6 

t5 


f-t 

h 

s 


l_, to 

o a 
o 

go 


Remarks, &c. 


Hours. 


Fah.° 


Sees. 


1 
2 
3 

4 


C. 


2.1 
4.5 

7.7 
9.4 


550 

1226 

400 

450 


47.8 
87.8 
65.5 
48.0 


32.005 
32.044 
31.980 
31.930 


Bache, observer. 
February 1, 1836. In doors. Gauge 3| to +4. 
Jar leaks much, frequently exhausted. Sets of from 
Gauge 3J to 4. [150 to 250 observations. 
" 4 and above. 


5 
6 

7 


B. 


5.3 

7.7 
9.6 


400 
320 

284 


37.7 48.230 
89.9 49.085 
45.2| 48.260 


Bache, observer. 
In doors. February 4th. Gauge about 4 inches. 
Gauge 3 J to 4. 

" above 4. Jar leaks badly. 



Needle B presents a curious case of correction for temperature. 
The diurnal variation shown from observations 1 and 3 is greater than 
the correction for eighteen degrees of temperature. This fact was per- 
ceived during the experiments, and led to the very frequent repeti- 
tions of the experiment at 87.8°, No. 2 of the table. Using observa- 
tions 1 and 4 for the correction for change of intensity, and assuming 
that change to have been regular, observations 1 and 2 give for the 
coefficient of the correction for temperature, 

m = .000,049, 
And 1 and 3 give m — .000,056 



Mean m = .000,052 



OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM AT SEVERAL PLACES, ETC. 443 

The progress of intensity within doors, as shown by observations 1 
and 4, is contrary to that of the ordinary diurnal variation. This was 
correct, however, as was shown by six sets of observations between 3 h. 
51' and 5 h. 49', at temperatures between 83.3 and 91.8°. The time 
often oscillations diminished from 32.115 to 32.035. 

The same fact recurs in the observations on the 4th of February. 
From these, numbered 5, 6 and 7, allowing for the diurnal change of 
intensity deduced from 5 and 7, the value of m, for needle B, is, 
m = .000,357. 

This supposes 7 to be reduced to the temperature of 5, by an ap- 
proximate coefficient. 

The correction obtained in 1834 for this same needle was 
m = .000,277. 

It would seem to be rather more susceptible to changes of tempera- 
ture now than at the former time. The difference however is small, 
amounting to about .04 of a second in ten vibrations, for ten degrees 
of the thermometer. 

The coefficients used in correcting the observations which follow, 
are brought together in the following table. 

TABLE V. 

Correction for Temperature of Needles 1, 2, B, A and C. 



First Series. 


Value of m. 


Second Series. 


Value of m. 


Needle No. 1 

2 

" 3 


.000,436 
.000,423 
.000,277 


Needle A 
" C 

3 (B) 


.000,117 
.000,052 
.000,357 



As far as we may be allowed to infer from these observations, the 
correction for temperature depends for its amount upon the degree of 
hardness, or temper, of the material of the needle ; in other words, 
upon the same property which causes a needle to retain or to lose a 
charge once given to it. 

Nos. 1 and 2, of different dimensions, but of the same material, 

have sensibly the same correction. C, which is certainly the hardest 

of the set, has a very small correction. The prismatic bar A has a 

correction intermediate between the two cylinders G and 3 (B), which 

vol. v. — 5 o 



444 ON THE RELATIVE HORIZONTAL INTENSITIES 

are similar in their general proportions. The effects of figure and 
of relative dimensions seem to be without influence upon the result. 

In all cases pains were taken to allow the needles time to arrive at 
the temperature of the inclosure, but observations made at intervals 
during the heating or cooling seem to show that this precaution was 
not essential. 

These observations conclusively show the importance, and indeed 
the necessity, of determining a specific correction to be applied to each 
needle used in a series of observations for intensity. They confirm in 
this respect conclusions to which the observations of captain Sabine 
for obtaining the same correction, would seem to lead. The variation 
of these coefficients from each other, as well as from those of captain 
Sabine, and from that quoted as having been determined by professor 
Hansteen, agrees in the conclusion to which they lead. It is the more 
necessary to call special attention to this point, because the coefficient 
of professor Hansteen has been applied in the reduction of the observa- 
tions (Royal Soc. Trans. 1828) for the relative intensities at Paris, 
London and Edinburgh, and more recently in a very extensive series 
of observations by M. Quetelet of Brussels, whose activity in this 
branch has of late years been particularly prominent. 

A further inference may be deduced from these observations, viz. 
that a sensible change in the magnetic state of a bar, will be attended by 
a change in the correction to be applied for temperature. So that a cor- 
rection once obtained should not be used after such a change has taken 
place in any considerable degree. In an extensive series of observa- 
tions, it would therefore be necessary to investigate this correction 
during the time of making the observations, or before the series was 
commenced and after its completion. 

In applying the correction for temperature, it is convenient, and 
generally admissible, to take for the multiplier of the coefficient just 
determined, a mean time of vibration, instead of the actual time in a 
given case. 

That is, to take for the value of T, 

T = T' — T" . m (f — /), 
where T" represents the mean time referred to. When the correction 



OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM AT SEVERAL PLACES, ETC. 445 

is not large, on account either of the value of m, or of /' — /, the dif- 
ferences will fall much below the errors in the observed times of oscil- 
lation. 

CORRECTION FOR ARC. 

In many observations in the First Series, the horizontal oscilla- 
tions were performed through arcs of very different extent. With 
needle ~No. 1, the semi-arc of vibration at the commencement of the 
experiment was, in some cases, 30°, and in others not more than 20°, 
the arc at the conclusion of the experiment depending, of course, 
upon its duration. Similar variations occur with the other needles. 
The most simple method, therefore, of rendering the results compara- 
ble is to reduce the times of oscillation to what they would have been 
in indefinitely small arcs. The formula for this purpose is the same 
with that investigated by Borda for the pendulum.* By applying the 
known values of the arcs observed at beginning and ending the experi- 
ment, the times are reduced in the tables which follow. Some error 
is, no doubt, introduced, particularly when these arcs are large, by 
the difficulty of observing accurately the extent of the arc of vibration, 
To diminish these, as far as possible, the arcs of vibration should be 
reduced to the smallest practicable limit, in order that the times in the 
different arcs may not vary too rapidly. The practice of oscillating 
in different arcs leading to a troublesome correction, is to be avoided. 
We find as the greatest semi-arc of observation suitable to be employed 
in such observations about fifteen degrees. The oscillation in a rare- 
fied medium permits this to be much reduced. 

In the Second Series all the observations were made within the 
same arcs, and are directly comparable. Needle A made 300 oscilla- 
tions between the semi-arcs of 4° and 2° when the mercury gauge 
stood at three inches. At the same pressure C and B made 300 oscil- 
lations, between 6° and 2°. In such small arcs, the difference in the 

* T' = T i 1 — Sin - ( A + a) • Sin. (A — a) v 

V . 32 M (Log. Sin. A — Log. Sin. a}) 
in which T' is the reduced time of a given number of vibrations ; T, the observed time ; A 
and a the arcs at beginning and ending ; M, the modulus of the common logarithms. 



446 ON THE RELATIVE HORIZONTAL INTENSITIES 

times of vibration resulting from differences of arc are entirely in- 
sensible. 

We proceed now to give the observations and calculations for the 
magnetic intensity at the several places named in the title of our me- 
moir. 

RELATIVE HORIZONTAL INTENSITIES AT PHILADELPHIA AND 

WEST POINT. 

Before giving the tables of observations at these two places, we pro- 
pose to state the different occasions on which the observations were 
made. 

First Series. 

The first observations were made at West Point on the 21st of 
April 1834, with needle No. 1. This needle was then taken to 
Philadelphia, its rate ascertained (May 16th and 20th), and the needle 
returned to West Point, where it was observed, at intervals, during 
five weeks (from June 2d to July 8th). In this last period 3558 os- 
cillations were observed. The same needle was oscillated at Philadel- 
phia on the 5th of August, at West Point on the 13th, and again at 
Philadelphia on the 20th of the same month. These repeated trans- 
fers completely guard against the effect of change of rate in the needle. 

No. 3 was first oscillated at West Point on the 23d of April, and 
again between the 28th of May and 9th of June. It was then trans- 
ferred to Philadelphia, where it was observed on the 26th of June and 
12th of July. It was taken to West Point and oscillated on the 7th 
and 8th of August, and finally observed at Philadelphia on the 20th 
and 25th of August. 

This series comprises 6478 oscillations at West Point, and 7069 at 
Philadelphia. 

The observations at Philadelphia were made at two different places 
in the city. In part of the series the apparatus was placed in the 
open air upon a marble column, and in the other part, in a small ob- 
servatory ; both in the yard attached to professor Bache's dwelling. 

The observations at West Point were made upon a small brick 
column, north of professor Courtenay's house. 



OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM AT SEVERAL PLACES, ETC. 447 

It is certain, that considerable differences in local attraction exist at 
different positions of this highland station. The place of observation 
is at the base of the hills which inclose, on the west, the table laud 
upon which the buildings of the Military Academy are situated. 

The series embracing observations at different hours of the day, with 
different states of weather, &c, are the more valuable, as presenting a 
nearer approximation to the mean intensity. In all the remarks and 
calculations which follow, the intensity is assumed to be constant. 

The times, at West Point, were observed by a chronometer by Par- 
kins and Frodsham, of excellent character : those at Philadelphia by 
a pocket chronometer by Barraud, and by one by French, both of good 
character. The daily rates were too small to produce any sensible 
difference by correcting the observations for them. 

In the following table, No. VI., the first column contains the number 
of the observation ; the second, the designation of the needle ; the third, 
the date of observation : the fourth, the time of beginning ; the fifth, 
the duration of the experiment ; the sixth, the number of vibrations ; 
the seventh, the mean temperature ; the eighth, the arcs at beginning 
and ending; the ninth, the duration of experiment corrected for arc; 
the tenth, the duration corrected for arc and temperature ; the ele- 
venth, the time of ten vibrations corrected for arc and temperature ; 
the twelfth, the state of the weather ; and the thirteenth, the names 
of the observers. 

The table of observations at West Point, No. VII., is arranged in a 
very similar manner to that just described. 

The temperature to which the results are reduced is 60° Fab. 



vol. v. — 5 P 



448 



ON THE RELATIVE HORIZONTAL INTENSITIES 



TABLE No. VI. 

Observations at Philadelphia. — First Series. 





Cm 


, 














<D 


■L« 


£ 6 e> 1 A & 8 S» 


s — 








O 

C . 

O o 


3 




Time of Beginning 


■SB 




s • 




tM < 

o 


° ft CK 

5 -«2 s 


■go g 


State 


Observers' 




5 o 






Experiment. 


*-£ '*< 


O a 


C P 


rt d — 


•|Stl 


'■§ sHE-i 


a a ■ 2 

1)*" 


of the 


Names. 


oE 
6 


IB 


o g 

o 










3 

p 


o '-P 

6 


o 




a g.e 


3 '£ "o T3 

o Si o c 


o . 
O o 


Weather. 




Zi 


P 


Q 












z; 


















Hours. 


Mins. 


Sec. 


Sees. 




Fah.° 


Degs. 


Sees. 


Sees. 


Sees. 






1 


No. 1. 


May 


16 


P.M. 6 


13 


13.8 


2209 8 


480 


60.0 


35 to 5 


2198.1 


2198.1 


45.79 


Clear. 
Cumulus. 


H. D. Rogers 
and Bache. 


2 


u 


« 


30 


" 5 


29 


42.2 


2049.8 


440 


85.7 


« 


2038.9 


2015.7 


45.81 


Hazy. 


Bache. 


3 


a 


Aug. 


5 


A.M. 7 


21 


09.6 


3035.6 


654 


83.5 


20 to 3 


3029.9 


2998.4 


45.84 


Clear. 


u 


4 


tt 


it 


ti 


« 8 


33 


04.8 


1035.6 


232 


87.5 


20 "10 


1081.3 


1068.1 


46.04 


a 


a 


5 


a 


a 


tt 


P.M. 7 


04 


56.0 


2372.0 


510 


87.2 


20" 3 


2367.5 


2339.2 


45.87 


a 


it 


6 


tt 


ti 


20 


" 3 


58 


10.8 


2082.4 


452 


92.9 


19" 3 


2078.8 


2048.7 


45.33 


Clear. 
Cumulus. 


a 


7 


.t 


a 


ti 


" 8 


14 


12.0 


2486.8 


538 


93.5 


20 " 3 1 2481.7 


2444.9 


45.45 


tc 


a' 


8 


a 


n 


tt 


" 10 


24 


33.6 


2212.4 


486 


55.5 


20" 3 


2208.2 


2212.6 


45,53 


a 


tt 


9 


tt 


tt 


25 


" 8 


10 


05.2 


1660.4 


356 


99.1 


20" 5 


1656.1 


1627.4 


45.71 


Cloudy. 


tt 


10 


a 


" 


it 


" 11 


51 


16.4 


1684.4 


362 


98.0 


20" 5 


1680.0 


1651.7 


45.63 


" 


" 


14 


No. 3. 


June 


26 P.M. 7 


10 


00 


1086.8 


220 


82.5 


30" 5 


1082.1 


1071.3 


48.68 




Bache. 


15 


a 


July 


12 


" 4 


31 


28.0 


1411.8 


290 


84.5 


15" 2 


1410.4 


1395.1 


48.11 


Cloudy. 


tt 


16 


a 


a 


" 


" 5 


14 


00 


1460.8 


300 


83.5 


15" 3 


1459.0 


1443.8 


48.13 




a 


17 


" 


Aug. 


20 


" 6 


04 


39.6 


1290.8 


204 


84.4 


20" 3 


1288.4 


1274.5 


48.28 


Clear. 


n 


18 


ti 


tt 


25 


" 9 


51 


22.2 


894.0 


182 


102.2 


20" 5 


891.7 


875.0 


48.08 


Cloudy. 


Bache and 
Courtenay. 


Needle No 1 


. Whole No. of Vibrations 4510 ; Whole time, 20,604.8 Sees.; Mean Time of Ten Vibrations, 45.687 Sees. 




!. 


a 




1256; " 6,059.7 " " 


48.246 " 



TABLE No. VII. 

Observations at West Point. — First Series. 





cm 


ri 






m 


o 


c-3 


* i, 6 1 * i 8 6 


o 




Ph 

* _ 

o = 
d 


d . 
= £ 

CO ^ 

o 


> 

M 

m 

og 

o 
o 




O g 

r 

1 L 

P 


O 

*o 
w 



o 


a* 

EtM 

O O 


■g 3-a 

o bJD 


fi *» ,o 

O C "" 

s 3 = «j 
3 '^ " 

P S.-B 


Cm *= 

° ft o- 

T5 S ~ E -1 

s s a 

Shu's 


o ° 


Observers' Names. 


2; 


Q 


cj 






















a 




Sees. 


il 


Fah.° 


Degs. 


Sees. 


Sees. 


Sees. 




1 


No.l. 


April 


21 


953.8 


200 


63 


25 a 15 


945.6 


944.3 


47.22 


Courtenay and Bache. 


2 




" 


22 


752.5 


160 


49 


25 a 10* 


758.4 


752.1 


47.01 


tt 


3 




June 


2 


960.5 


200 


74 


30 a 15 


952.2 


946.5 


47.32 


Courtenay and Cram. 


4 




<i 


It 


1142.4 


238 


C£ 


a 


1132.6 


1125.8 


47.30 


tt 


5 




tt 


9 


971.7 


200 


89.2 


tt 


963.3 


950.8 


47.54 


a 


6 




tt 


C< 


1018.7 


210 


tt 


a 


1010.0 


990.9 


47.47 


it 


7 




it 


14 


1958.5 


410 


66* 


30 a 5 


1950.0 


1944.6 


47.43 


it 


8 




July 


1 


1913.7 


400 


74 


30 a 4 


1906.3 


1894.9 


47.37 


Courtenay. 


y 




it 


ti 


1916.5 


tt 


79 


30 a 5 


1908.2 


1892.1 


47.30 


ti 


10 




a 


3 


1919.2 


tt 


74 i 


tt 


1910.9 


1899.0 


47.47 


tt 


n 




ti 


7 


1920.8 


tt 


82 


30 a 6* 


1917.2 


1898.5 


47.40 


tt 


12 




a 


8 


1924.0 


tt 


81 


ti 


1914.4 


1896.4 


47.41 


it 


13 




a 


12 


955.5 


200 


71 


20 a 10* 


951.5 


946.9 


47.34 


11 


14 J 




ti 


ti 


955.7 


tt 


78 


20 a 7 


952.8 


945.3 


47.26 


it 


15 




a 


<< 


956.1) 


tt 


72* 


20 a 7* 


953.1 


947.9 


47.39 


it 


10 




Aug. 


12 


1675.5 


348 


86 


20a 3 


1672.3 


1653.0 


47.50 


Courtenay and Bache. 


25 


No. 3. 


April 


22 


515.5 


100 


52 


30 a 14 


501.4 


592.5 


50.25 


u 


26 




May 


28 


515.2 


" 


64 


40 a 19 


508.0 


507.4 


50.74 


Courtenay and Cram. 


27 




tt 


30 


516.1 


" 


a 


40 a 22 


508.1 


507.5 


50.75 


a 


28 




June 


2 


517.0 


tt 


7H 


40 a 17 


510.4 


508.8 


50.88 


tt 


29 




tt 


9 


520.7 


tt 


89-i 


39 a 21 


513.1 


508.9 


50.89 


it 


30 




Aug. 


7 


1537.8 


300 


82 


30 a 4 


1531 .9 


1522.5 


50.75 


Courtenay. 


31 




tt 


8 


1543.9 


tt 


84 


tt 


1537.9 


1527.5 


50.92 


tt 


Neec 


le No. ] 


L. WholeNo.ofVibs.' 


566; whole time, 21 ,635.0 sees.; 


Meant 


me of 10 Vibs. at 60°47.381 . 






3. 


" 


1100; 5,585.1 




50.774. 



OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM AT SEVERAL PLACES, ETC. 449 

The horizontal intensities deduced from a comparison of these last 
results with those obtained at Philadelphia, are, from No. 1, .92977 ; 
and from No. 3. .90290, the horizontal intensity at Philadelphia being 
assumed as unity. The relative weights of the observations with the 
two needles, taking the whole number made with each needle as be- 
longing to one set of observations, will be, according to the formula of 
Gauss,* 

„ ^ T 4566x4510 

For No. 1, 2x 9Q76 = 4540; 

. , , XT 1100x1256 
And for No. 3, 2 x ^^ = 1 174. 

The mean horizontal intensity thus deduced is, .92424. An arith- 
metical mean of the two intensities would have given .91633, a num- 
ber differing sufficiently from that just found, to make the calculation 
worth pursuing, notwithstanding that it is less than the difference of the 
intensities determined by the two different needles. 

SECOND SERIES. 

These observations were made on the 7th and 8th of September 
1835, at West Point, and in September and October in Philadelphia. 
They were made in the vacuum apparatus, and although the number 
of observations is not equal to that of the first series, the mean error is 
so much diminished by the superior accuracy of the results in the 
rarefied medium, that the weight of the observations is very much 
greater than that of the more numerous ones of the first series. 

The following tables, Nos. VIII. and IX., are arranged nearly as the 
preceding ones, and require no specific description. 

The table for Philadelphia contains observations with needle No. 
3 (B), for comparison with others with the same needle at different 
places. This needle was not oscillated at West Point. 

* Baily in Trans. Astr. Soc. Lond., Vol. II. p. 19. 



450 



ON THE RELATIVE HORIZONTAL INTENSITIES 



TABLE No. VIII. 

Observations at Philadelphia. — Second Series. 



o 


Cm 

o 

B . 


c3 

h 
O 




a 
'So 




j 


EH a 


03 

B 


g g 
Eh o 


fTen 

dions 
ed for 
ature. 






W s 

•- B 

6 


■3? 
■^ £ Z 

o 


O 
Ch 

o 

o 


o 


g 


tt 

H 




c r- 


'3 
a 

o 

6n 


O ji 
C 7Z± 

s o 
HO 


° 33 o o 

Eh°S£ 


Weather and 
Remarks. 


Observer, &c. 


Z 


a 


(3 






















Q 




Hours. 


Mins. 


Sec. 


Fah.° 


o 

z; 


Sees. 


Sees. 










1835. 


















1 


A 


Sept. 


19 


P. M. 5.4 


18 


00.2 


63.2 


300 36.01 


36.02 


Cloudy. E. Nimbus. 


Bache. 


2 


.'£ 


a 


30 


" 3.5 


18 


00.6 


63.9 300 36.02 


36.05 


Cloudy. WindN.W. 


Place of 


3 


££ 


tt 


it 


" 3.8 


15 


00.4 


63.1 1 260 36.02 


36.05 


Cumulus. 


Observation. 


4 


" 


Oct. 


5 


" 4.2 


18 


01.4 


72.0 1 300 36.05 


36.04 


Cloudy. N. E. wind. 


Small 


5 




a 


tt 


" 4.6 


18 


01.2 


71.2 300, 36.04 


36.04 


Cumulo-stratus. 


Magnetic 


6 


it 


tt 


tt 


" 6.5 


14 


58.0 


33.7 250 35.92 


36.07 


In ice. 


Observatory 


7 


tt 


tt 


it 


'•' 7.0 


17 


56.4 


33.7 300 35.88 


36.03 


u 


in rear of 


8 


it 


tt 


tt 


" 8.7 


18 


00.4 


61.7 300 36.01 


3G.05 


u 


Prof. Bache's 


9 


it 


a 


It 


" 9.0 


18 


01.0 


62.9 


300 36.03 


36.06 


n 


dwelling, 


10 


^ 


" 


tt 


" 10.5 


15 


03.6 


91.2 


250 36.14 


36.05 


Heated by lamps. 


Chcsnut St. 


11 


tt 


» 


it 


« 11.2 


18 


05.0 


88.5 


300 36.17 


36.09 


'•' 


near Schu'kll 


12 


tt 


tt 


17 


« 3.9 


12 


02.4 


77.2 


200 36.12 


36.09 


Cloudy. S. E. 


Sixth. 


13 


c 


Sept. 


18 


P. M. 5.3 


16 


05.2 


69.4 


300 32.17 


32.17 


Clear. S. E. Cirro- 


Bache. 


14 


u 


u 


It 


" 5.6 


16 


05.6 


68.1 


300 32.19 


32.19 


Cumulus — rare. 


Place 


15 


a 


u 


19 


'•' 3.9 


16 


06.4 


69.5 


300 32.21 


32.21 


Cloudy. Nimbus. 


of 


16 


tt 


(i 


tc 


" 4.4 


16 


05.4 


69.0 


300 32.18 


32,18 


Wind E. 


Observation 


17 


a 


a 


u 


« 5.0 


13 


24.4 


68.0 


250 32.18 


32.18 


" 


as above. 


18 


B 


Oct. 


5 


P. M. 3.3 


20 


26.0 


74.0 


250 49.04 


48.97 


Cloudy. N. E. 


Bache. 


19 


,|. 


a 


i: 3.6 


20 


27.2 


73.4 


250 49.09 


49.03 




Same Place of 
Observation. 


Mean Time c 


f T 


en Oscillatic 


ins at 7 


0° Fah. by A, 3G.053 in 


Semi-arcs of 4 a 2°. Total No. 


of Vibe. 3350. 






tt 

a 






C, 32.166 
B (3) 49.000 


it 

a 


6 a 2°. " 


1450. 
500. 



TABLE No. IX. 

Observations at West Point. — Second Series. 



a 

! c . 

1 X +j 

a c 
• % 

6 

z; 


o 



.2 <u 

•-Z; 

tfl *^ 

o 


> 

M 
<D 

Si 

o 
a 

a 


o 

^ feD 

=« B 

g 


r- 3 

? 3 


Mean Tem- 
perature. 


71 
O 

'3 

6 

o 
6 


Eh O 

o _d 

c ~ 

a o 

.3 ^ 

HO 


Time of Ten 
Oscillations 
corrected for 
Temperature. 


Weather, &c. 


Observer, &c. 


Hours. 


Mins. 


Sees. 


Fah.° 


Sees. 


Sees. 


l 

2 
3 


A 

tt 
It 


Sept. 7 

tt << 

" 8 


P. M. 5.0 

" 5.3 

A. M. 10.1 


18 
18 
18 


48.4 
47.6 
44.7 


69.9 
66.8 
64.0 


300 

it 

tt 


37.61 
37.59 
37.49 


37.61 
37.60 
37.52 


Clear. Wind N. 

ofW. 
Clear. W. 


Bache and 
Courtenay. 
Same locality as 
in former Ob- 
servations. 


4 
5 
6 


C 

it 
tt 


Sept. 8 

it a 

i< " 


A.M. 10.9 
" 11.2 
" 11.6 


16 
16 
16 


44.6 
37.6 
44.6 


70.3 
69.5 
71.9 


302 33.27 
300 33.25 
302 J 33.27 


33.27 
33.25 
33.27 


Clear. W. 


M« 


;an Tin 
ti 


le of Ten 


Oscillations 
tt 


at 70° Fah. by 
tt 


A, 37.577 in Semi-arcs fr. 4 to 2°. No. of Oscillations 900. 
C, 33.263 6 to 2°. " 904. 



OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM AT SEVERAL PLACES, ETC. 451 

The horizontal intensity compared with that at Philadelphia is, from 
A, .92053, and from C, .93630. The relative weights to be attached 
to the results with the two needles are, respectively, 1419 and 1113. 

We now proceed to compare the horizontal intensities, deduced from 
both series of observations, to obtain the mean. 

As the methods of observation in the two series are liable to different 
errors, and the number of observations are different, we have allowed 
to the results obtained by them, weight in proportion to the number of 
observations directly, and the square of the mean error inversely. 
The mean error is hardly attained, even in the case of the greatest 
number of sets of observations of the second series; but an approxi- 
mation to it will afford a far more satisfactory mode of deducing the 
mean intensity than could be obtained by an indiscriminate mean of 
the results. 

The numbers found for the weight of the observations with each 
needle in the two series, have been of course used instead of the num- 
ber of observations, as referred to in the preceding paragraph. And a 
mean error has in like manner been deduced from the combined 
observations with each needle at the two places. Using these num- 
bers, we have obtained the following for the relative weights of the 
observations with each needle. 

First Series. No. 1, 2728 Second Series. A, 29319 

" 3, 476 " G, 1136. 

By the use of these numbers, and of the horizontal intensities al- 
ready obtained, we have for the mean, h' = .92156. 

The superiority of the method in the rarefied medium, cannot bet- 
ter be shown than by stating, that the mean error with needle A, sup- 
posing it reached in the observations, was .022 seconds in about 36^ 
seconds, while, with No. 1 in the first series, it was .129 seconds in 
about 46 seconds, or six times the former. 

The probable error* in the time of ten vibrations of Needle A is, 
.0005 second. 



* Deduced from the formula P = 85-^- Young, Phil. Trans. 1819, p. 77. 
VOL. V. 5 Q 



452 



ON THE RELATIVE HORIZONTAL INTENSITIES 



RELATIVE INTENSITIES AT NEW YORK AND PHILADELPHIA. 

The observations to be presented belong to both series. Those 
of the first are retained as second in number to the Philadelphia and 
West Point observations of the same series. The observations of the 
first series were made in April and in August 1834. In the first set 
I had the kind assistance of professor Renwick; the times were ob- 
served with a pocket chronometer belonging to him, the rate of which 
was ascertained, but was not such as to affect the results sensibly. At 
his suggestion the observations made at Columbia College green were 
checked by a set made near Belle vue. Another set was made in the 
north part of the city, but there appeared no difference of local attrac- 
tion in the three places. The pocket chronometer used in the Au- 
gust observations was of good character. 



TABLE No. X. 

Observations at New York. — First Series. 



o 
s . 

•ate 

OS 
0) 

Q 


> 
M 
GJ 

ta 

og 

t« • -3 
O *^ 

o 
Q 


o .5 

B.S 

n 


CfH 

o 
p 

fai CU 
O 0) 

1* 

GJ 


J} 
'3 

GO 

? CO 

cu w 

Q 
3 

z, 


Arc at Begin- 
ning and End. 


Observed Time 
of Ten Vibra- 
tions. 
Time of Ten 
Vibrations cor- 
rected for Arc 
and Tempera- 
ture. 


Weather, &.c. 


Observers and Places of 
Observation. 


Hours. 


Fah.° 


Degs. Sees. 


Sees. 


No. 1. 

U 

a 


1834. 
April 25 
u ti 
ii a 
« 24 


A.M. 8.0 
" 8.5 

P.M. 12.6 
" 6.1 


42 

i< 

44.5 
50 


330 
320 
350 
280 


25 a 5 

it 
ii 
u 


46.03 
46.05 
46.20 
46.24 


46.24 
46.26 
46.36 
46.28 


Wind N. W. 
Nimb. & Snow. 
Slight Rain. 
W'dhighN.W. 


Prof. Bache & Renwick. 

Col. College Green. 
Bache. Rose hill. 
Bache. No. 31. 5th St. 


a 


August 7 A. M. 6.2 


76 


548 


20 a 3 


46.98 


46.56 


Clear. N. W. 


Bache. Colum. College 
Green. 


Needle No. 1 ; No. of Vibrations 1823; Time of 10 Vibrations at 60°, reduced for Arc, 4G.340 Sees. 



Comparing this result with the mean time of No. 1 at Philadel- 
phia, we have the relative horizontal intensity at New York, .97202. 
The time of ten oscillations as observed in August, indicates a real 
diminution of intensity in the magnetism of the needle or of the earth. 
The observations at Philadelphia do not indicate a change in the mag- 
netism of the needle, we have therefore retained this result, and used 
it in obtaining the mean. 



OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM AT SEVERAL PLACES, ETC. 



453 



SECOND SERIES. 



The observations of the second series were made in August and 
September 1835, with needles A and C. 
tains the results. 



The following table con- 



TABLE No. XL 

Observations at JVew York. — Second Series. 



c 

CD 

B 

w 

Cm 
O 

6 


v. 
o 

a . 

O <u 

a ° 

'w ft 
oi 

Q 


> 

<D 

to 

og 

«h '43 
O 

(1) 

"ed 

Q 


o .« 

<x> fi 
a a 

pq 


° § 

B 'S3 

O C3 

'43 > 
g » 

Qo 


O 

0) 

o 


W 

R 

.2 

"cd 
"o 

Efl 

o 

o 
d 




Time of Ten 
Vibrations cor- 
rected for Tem- 
perature. 


Weather, 
&c. 


Observer, &c. 


Hours. 


Min. 


Sec. 


Fah.° 


Sees. 


Sees. 


1 


A 


August 5 


P. M. 5.1 


18 


35.6 


71.0 


302 


36.94 


36.94 


Cldy. S.W.Bache. Place of Observ. 


2 


a 


<i <i 


" 5.6 


19 


12.8 


71.0 


310 


36.95 


36.95 


Cumulus. 


Yard in rear of dwell- 


3 


a 


6 


A.M. 10.8 


20 


19.0 


68.9 


330 


36.94 


36.94 


Cloudy. E. 


ing of E. Martin, Esq. 


4 


a 


tc e< 


" 11.3 


17 


07.0 


69.7 


278 


36.94 


36.94 


Nimbus. 


No. 31,5th Street. 


5 


a 


Sept. 10 


P. M. 5.1 


17 


33.0 


762 


284 


37.07 


37.04 


Cldy. S W. Bache. 


6 


tt 


a it 


" 5.4 


15 


56.9 


75.2 


258 


37.09 


37.06 


Cumulus. 1 


7 


a 


ti tt 


" 5.7 


18 


39.2 


73.5 


202 


37.06 


37.04 


tt 


8 


c 


Sept. 10 


P. M. 7.5 


16 


19.4 


73.5 


296 


33.08 


33.08 


Cldy. S.W.'Bache. 


9 


" 


a a 


" 7.8 


16 


32.2 


71.0 


300 


33.07 


33.07 


Cumulus. | 


Mean! 


'ime of Ten Oscils. at 70° Fah. 


in Aug. by A, 36.941 in Sen 


d-arcs of 4° a 2°. No. of Vibs. 1220. 


" 


it it 


Sept. " " 37.047 ' 


it a it 744. 


it 


tt it 


" " C, 33.075 " 


6° a 2°. " 596. 



The times of vibration observed in the beginning of the month of 
August are all less than those observed in September, probably from 
a slight change in the magnetism of needle A, with which the observa- 
tions were made. This change, however small, renders it expedient 
to compare only the September observations with those at Philadel- 
phia. From the mean of these, we have, 

Relative horizontal intensity at New York, by A, 0.94707, 
" " " " C, 0.94697. 

These results agree very well together, but not very well with that 
from the first series, Table X. As from the comparisons at West Point 
and Philadelphia, there does not appear to have been a real change in 
the intensity of the earth's magnetism between the times at which the 
two series of observations were made, it will probably be more accu- 
rate to take the mean of the two determinations. Allowing weight 



454 ON THE RELATIVE HORIZONTAL INTENSITIES 

to the different sets according to the method before explained, we 
have for the mean horizontal intensity, 

h" = .94705. 
By comparing this result with the mean of the observations made 
in full air, it will be seen, that in determining the value of h" the first 
series of observations has hardly any weight, and we propose in the 
cases which follow, where observations were made by both methods, 
to omit those of the first series entirely. In no one of the cases alluded 
to were the observations of the first series as numerous as at New 
York. And the comparison has probably been carried sufficiently far to 
show the superior value of the results in rarefied air ; the comparisons 
having been made according to principles involving the mean error to 
which the methods are liable, as deduced from the observations them- 
selves. 

MAGNETIC INTENSITY AT NEWPORT, R. I. 

The observations at Newport were made during a visit there in the 
months of August and September 1835. They all belong to the 
Second Series, and were made in nearly the same place, and, with 
few exceptions, about the same period of the day. The results with 
all three of the needles agree very nearly ; the greatest number of ob- 
servations having been made with needle A, and the least with No. 
3 (B). 

We have abridged this table by omitting the column for the dura- 
tion of the observations. 



v 



OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM AT SEVERAL PLACES, ETC. 455 



TABLE No. XII. 











Observations at Newport, R. 


J. — Second Series 




•Q 




ti 






u 


S3 








1 


3 
a. 


o 

a . 

O id 
7* QJ 


> 
u 

0) 
S3 

o 


o 


o.S 

•_ = 

3 C 


3 
Id 

P. 

s 


O 

> 


^ C 

£ a c 
E-< 




Weather, Wind, &c. 


Observers, &c. 
Place of Observation. 


"o 
d 




o *^ 
a) 

Q 


£ "So 

— . 
pq 


11 



6 


-> 


. 
0*3 






Fah.° 


Sees. 


Sees. 






1835. 
















1 


A 


Aug. 


19 


A.M. 10.1 


86.2 


350 


38.14 


38.07 


Clear. S. W. Cirrus. 


Bache and Courtenay. 


2 


" 


a 


" 


" 10.5 


87.2 


348 


38.09 


38.01 






3 


it 


a 


20 


" 10.4 


76.5 


350 


38.00 


37.97 


Clear. Cloudless. S. E. 




4 


a 


it 


<< 


" 10.8 


77.5 


352 


37.99 


37.95 


At 8 A. M. North. 


In the Garden in rear of 


5 


tt 


a 


2-1 


" 10.7 


74.7 


350 


38.03 


38.01 


Cloudless. W. S. W. 


Wm. Littlefield, Esq. 


6 


a 


" 


ti 


" 11.3 


76.0 


300 


38.00 


37.97 




corner of High and! 


7 


« 


it 


25 


" 10.1 


75.2 


300 


38.06 


38.03 


Clear. S. W. 


Mary streets. 


8 


a 


a 


31 


" 10.7 


75.2 


300 


38.06 


38.03 


Overcast. S W. 




9 


a 


it 


tt 


" 11.1 


75.6 


306 


38.03 


38.00 






10 


c 


Aug. 


25 


A.M. 11.1 


- 78.2 


300 


33.88 


33.87 


Clear. S. W. 


Bache and Courtenay. 


11 


a 


a 


26 


" 10.1 


78.7 


300 


33.97 


33.96 


S. W. Clear. 




12 


a 


tt 


a 


" 10.4 


80.0 


284 


33.98 


33.96 




- 


13 


tt 


a 


27 


" 9.7 


73.6 


300 


33.93 


33.93 


Clear. N. W. 




14 


tt 


it 


tt 


" 10.0 


74.5 


236 


33.95 


33.94 






15 


tt 


tt 


31 


" 12.4 


78.7 


300 


33.93 


33.92 


Overcast. S. W. 




16 


a 


a 


it 


" 12.7 


78.5 


300 


33.92 


33.91 






17 


No 3 


Aug. 


25 


A.M. 10.91 77.5 


164 


51.57 


51.44 Light haze. S. W. 


Bache and Courtenay. 


18 


it 


a 


a 


" 11.2 77.9 


250 


51.57 


51.43 




19 


u u 


27 


P.M. 5.6 71.5 


250 


51.51 


51.48 {Clear. N. W. 




20 


it tt 


31 


A.M. 12.0| 78.5 


150 


51.67 


51.51, Overcast. S W. 




Mean Time of Ten Vibs. at 70° Fah. by A, 38.004 in Semi-arcs of 4° to 2°. Total No. of Vibs. 2956. 


it 


" " C, 33.927 " 6° to 2°. 


" " 2020. 


tt 


" " (B) 3, 51.465 " " 


" " 814. 



From these observations are deduced the following relative horizon- 
tal intensities, the same element as Philadelphia being taken as unity. 
From Needle A, 0.89996 
" " C, 0.90000 

" " 3,0.90651 

The mean of these, taken according to principles heretofore stated, 
gives for the relative horizontal intensity, h'" = 0.90086. 



INTENSITIES AT PROVIDENCE, R. I., SPRINGFIELD, MASS., AND 

ALBANY, N. Y. 

For the horizontal intensities at these several places, we rely en- 
tirety upon the Second Series of observations. 

The observations at Providence were made on a visit there for the 
purpose ; and the kind assistance of professor Caswell, of Brown Uni. 
vol. v — 5 R 



456 



ON THE RELATIVE HORIZONTAL INTENSITIES 



versity, rendered them easy, notwithstanding the unfavourable condi- 
tion of the weather. The place of observation was north of the Col- 
lege buildings. It will be seen that the results here obtained accord 
very well with the deductions from numerous observations at New- 
port, which is about thirty miles south of Providence. 

In crossing from Providence to Albany, N. Y., one of us observed at 
Springfield, Mass., seventy-five miles west from the former place. The 
place of observation was highly favourable, being in an open field, re- 
mote from buildings, and well shaded from the sun. 

At Albany the place of observation was less favourable, being in- 
closed by buildings. 

The results are given in the following table. 



TABLE No. XIII. 









Observations at Providence 


, Springfield and Albany 




1 -w 

a 

CD 

g 
a) 

Q< 
X 

W 
en 

o 


f 

— 
o 

C . 

CD 

!« 

M 

01 M 

01 

a 


> o 

PI 

O „ 

£ a 


a 
'3d 

o 

M b'c 
tw a 

°s 

CD 

s 


CD 

3 

"S 

3 
p, 

g 

o 


10 

a 
.2 

"5 

'o 
to 

o 

tin 

o 


- B 
c rzl 

J- oi 


y 

oc.S 
U o 


Weather, Wind, &c. 


Locality of Observa- 
tions and Observers. 


d 
iZi 


Q'-S 


Hours. 


Fah.o 


d 


Sees. 


Sees. 










Providence. R. I., 1835. 














1 


A 


Aug. 28 


P. M. 1.5 


71.0 


298 


38.08 


38.08 


Nimbus. S. E. wind. 


Bache. Place of Ob- 


2 


tt 


it it 


" 1.8 


70.5 


300 


38.08 


38.08 


Showers during Ob- 


servation to North 


3 


C 


a a 


" 12.6 


73.0 


300 


33.99 


33.99 


servations. 


of N. College Hall, 


4 


a 


tt tt 


" 12.9 


71.5 


308 33.95 


33.95 


Rains. 


Brown University. 


5 


No.3 


a tt 


A.M. 11.4 


76 


264 51.61 


51.50 






6 


ti 


a a 


" 11.8 


75 7 


252 


51.63 


51.52 


Rains. 








SpringfieldJYlass. 1835. 














7 


A 


Sept. 4 


P. M. 1.7 


77.0 


298 


38.35 


38.32 


Slightly hazy. Wind Bache. Place of Ob- 


8 


a 


ti ti 


" 2.0 


77.5 


302 


38.30 


38 26 


S. by W. 


servation on N. E. 


9 


tt 


tt it 


2.4 


77.8 


250 


38.30 


38.26 




side of a large Elm 


10 


c 


it n 


" 3.9 


78 9 


300 


34.20 


34.18 




tree in rear of Pin- 


11 


tt 


if (( 


4.3 


78.9 


300 


34.20 


34.18 




chyn house. 


12 


No.3 


it d 


" 4.8 


79.4 


270 


52.12 


51.95 






13 


tt 


it tt 


5.2 


76.0 


250 52.16 


52.05 










Albany, N. Y. 1835. 














14 


A 


Sept. 6 


A. M. 9.7 


85.1 


256 


39.13 


39.06 


Cloudy. ' Wind S. 


Bache. Place of Ob- 


15 


a 


a a 


" 10.2 


87 8 


300 


39.12 


3! .04 


Clouds from S. W. 


servation, yard in 


16 


a 


a it 


10.C 


91.5 


300 


39.16 


3! .06 


Aurora last night. 


the rear of Franklin 


17 


c 


ti a 


" 11.5 


88.8 


300 


■64 .87 


34.82 




House, State street. 


18 


a 


tt ti 


" 12.1 


90.5 


300 


:V .89 


34.84 






Providence. Mean Time of 10 


Oscils. 


&c.by A, 38.080 in Arcs of 4° to 2°. Total No. of Vibs. 598. 


tt it 




C, 33.970 " 6° to 2°. " " 608. 


a (< 




No. 3, 51.510 " " " " 516. 


Springfield. " " 




A, 38.280 " 4° to 2°. " " 850. 


(C (( 




C, 34.180 " 6° to 2 a . " " 600. 


CC K 




No. 3, 52.000 " " " « 520. 


Albany. " " 




A, 39.053 " 4° to 2°. « " 856. 


IC It 




C, 34.830 " 6° to 2°. " " 600. 



OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM AT SEVERAL PLACES, ETC. 



457 



From these are deduced the horizontal intensities given below : the 
relative weights of the observations, considering them to be liable to 
the same mean error, and the mean horizontal intensities deduced from 
a comparison of the different results according to their weights, are as 
follows. 



Places. 


Relative Horizontal 
Intensities by Needle. 


Weights of Observa- 
tion by Needle. 


Mean Horizontal 
Intensities. 


A 


C 


No. 3 


A 


C 


No. 3 


Providence, R. I. 

Springfield, Mass. 
Albany, N. Y. 


.89637 
.88703 
.85226 


.89773 
.88673 
.85394 


.90492 

.88794 


508 
678 
682 


428 
424 
424 


254 
255 


.89869 
.88711 
.85290 



ON THE TOTAL MAGNETIC INTENSITY. 

We have already remarked, that we do not consider the dip to be 
sufficiently well known at any of the places at which we have de- 
duced the horizontal intensities, to admit of combining the results for 
the total intensity. For example, at Albany the difference of eleven 
minutes between our observations and those of professor Henry, cor- 
responds to a difference in intensity of 0.01177. The places at which 
the observations were made lie so nearly upon the line of equal inten- 
sity as to render so rude an approximation entirely inadmissible. The 
general direction thus pointed out for this line, accords with the gene- 
ral direction formerly assigned by captain Sabine.* 

* American Jour. Science, Vol. XXII. Letter to Professor Renwick. 



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Manual de platicas de todos los Sacramentos. Por Fr. A. de Saz, escrito en lengua 

Cakchiquel. MSS. 4to. 1664. 

Sermones en la misma lengua. 4to. Quatro Tomos. MSS. 

Calepino en lengua Cakchiquel. Por Fr. F. de Varea. MSS. Indio e Castellano. 4to. 

Guatemala. 



DONATIONS FOR THE LIBRARY. 463 

Guatemala — continued. 

Arte y Vocab. en Leng. Cholti, que quiere decir la lengua de Mil Pesos. MSS. 4to. 

Anonymo, 1635. 
Mensual de los Conocimientos Utiles. Periodico publicado, por orden de la Acad, de 

los Estudios de Guatemala. Ano 1. 1835-6. 4to. 1835. 
Haarlem. Bataafsche Maatschappy der Wetenschapen. Haar Verhandelingen. Vol. 11a 

20. 1803—1832. 8vo. 

Catalogus der Bibliothrek van Teyler Stickling. 1832. 8vo. 

Lisbon. Acad. Real das Scien. Hist, e Mem. da Acad. Vols 9, 10, 11. Fol. 1825—1835. 

Colleceao de Ineditos de Hist. Portug. Vol. 5. 1834. 

Colleceao de Noticias para a Hist, e Geog. das nacoes Ultramarinas nos Dominios 

Portug. Vol. 3, 4, p. 1. 1825, 1826. 4to. 

Estatutos da Acad. Aprobados. 1834. 4to. 

Dissert. Chron. e Criticas sobre a Hist, e Jurisp., Eccl. e Civ. de Portug. Por J. P. 

Ribeiro. Vol. 4, 5. 1829, 1835. 
Roteiro Geraldos Mares, Costas, &c, no Globo, por Almeida, por orden da Acad. 

R. das Sc. Vol. 1. 4to. 1835. 
Principios de Optica applicados a Construccion dos Instrum. Astronom. Por M. V. 

Do Conto. 4to. 1836. 
Consideraeoes Phys. Praticas Sobre a Medicina Cutanea, por A. A. O. Soares, R. A. 

1835. 4to. 

Tratado Pratico do Aparelho dos Navios. Por J. F. P. de Millo, por orden da Acad. 

1836. 4to. 

Ensayo sobre algunos synonimos da Lingoa Portug. Vol. 2. Por Don F. de S. Luis. 

4to. 1828. 

Gramm. Philos. da Lingoa Portug. Por J. S. B. Lisboa. 4to. 1822. 

London. Royal Society, their Trans., 1833, p. 2, 1834, 1835. 4to. 

Index to their Trans., 1781 to 1820. London. 4to. 1821. 

Proceedings of the Royal Society. No. 1 to 24. London. 8vo. 1831 — 1836. 

Astron. Obs. Roy. Obs. Greenwich. No. 5, for 1829 — 1831. 1833, Nos 3, 4, 5. 

1834, 1 to 4. 1835, No. 1. Made by J. Pond. 

. Address of Duke of Sussex, Ann. Meeting R. S., Nov. 1833. 

Report to Roy. Soc. on plan of Baron Humboldt, for establishing stations in different 

countries to make, at simultaneous periods, Obs. on Terrestrial Magnetism. 1836. 
Account of British Association for Advancement of Science, 4th Ann. Meet. Edinburgh, 

Nov. 1833. 
Lords Com. of the Adm. of Great Britain — a catalogue of 7385 stars, chiefly in Southern 

Hemisphere, Obs. 1822 — 1826, at Paramata, New South Wales, computed at 

Greenwich. By W. Richardson. London, 1835. 

Astronomical Soc, their Trans. Vol. 6, 7, 8. 4to. 1833 — 1835. 

Francis Bailey's acct. of John Flamstead, First Astron. Roy. with Brit. Catal. of Stars. 

4to. 1835. 

Pond's Obs. at Greenwich Observ. No. 5, 1829—1833, 1834, and No. 1, 1835. 

Horticult. Soc, their Trans., new series. Vol. 1. 4to. 1st ed. No. 1, 2. 

Soc. Arts, Man. and Com., their Trans. Vol. 49, p. 2, Vol. 50, 1833, 1834, 1835. 8vo. 

Geological Soc, their Trans., completion of 3d Vol. Vol. 4, p. 1, 1835. 4to. 

Their proceedings. Vol. 2, No. 33—46, 1833—1836. List of Memb. 
8vo. 1835. 
YOL. V. 5 T 



464 DONATIONS FOR THE LIBRARY. 

London — continued. 

Zoological Soc, their Trans. Vol. 1, 4 to, 1833 — 1835. Proceed. 8vo. 1830-34. 

Linnaean Soc, their Trans. Vol. 17, part 1, 2, 3, 1834 — 1836. 4to. List of Soc. 

1835. 

Antiquarian Soc. Trans. Vols 25, 26. 4to. 1834—1836. 

Royal Asiatic Soc. of Great Britain and Ireland, their Trans., 1, 2, 3, 4 to 1827 — 1831. 

Their Journal. 8vo. No. 1 to 3. 1834. 

London Institution, Catalogue of their Library. Vol.1. 8vo. 1835. 

Madrid. Real Acad, de la Hist. Discurso leido a la Acad., Nov. 1834. Por Don M. Fer- 
nandez, Director. 
Paris. Institut. Roy. de France. Mem. presentes par divers Savans de l'Acad. Roy. des Sc. 

Math, et Phys. Vol. 4. 4to. 1833. 
— — Memoires de l'lnstitut, Acad, des Inscript. et Belles Lettres. Vol. 10. 1833. 4to. 
Soc. Roy. des Anliquaires de France. Their Mem. Vol. 4, 5, 8, 10. 1804. 8vo. 

Paris. Vol. 11, 12, or 1, 2 new series, 1835, 1836. 

Soc. de Geographic Bulletin. Vol. 1, 3 a 20, 1822—1833. 

The same, second series. Vol. 1 a 5. 1834 — 1836. 8vo. 

Received through M. Roux de Rochelle. 
- Societe Asiatique, Nouv. Journal. Nos 49 a 53, 1832.— 61, 62, 65 a 70, 1833—1834. 

8vo. 
Pesth. Trans, of the Hungarian Acad, of Sc. Vol. 1, 2, 4to 1831—1835, with Laws and 

List of Members. (In the Hung. Lang.) 
Philadelphia. Catal. of the City Library Co. 2 Vols, 8vo. 1835. 

Acad. Nat. Sci., their Trans. Vol. 7, part 1, 1834. 8vo. 

Geological Soc of Pennsylvania, their Trans. Vol. 1, parts ], 2. 

Historical Soc of Pennsyl., their Memoirs. Vol. 3, 8vo. 1834 — 1836. 

University of Pennsylvania — Inaugural Address of Rev. W. Ludlow, Provost, to the 

Trustees. 8vo. Dec 1834. 
Providence, Rhode Island. Their Hist. Collections. Vols 1, 2, 3, for 1827 — 1835. 
Rotterdam. Nieuw Verhand, van het Balaafche Genootsch. der proefond. Wijsbegeerte. 

Vol. 8, p. 1. 1836. 4to. 
St Petersburg. Mem. Acad. Imper. Sc Math. Phys. et Nalur. Vols 2 & 3, parts 1 & 2. 

1835. 4to. 

Idem. Vol. 3, 2d part. Sc Natur. Vol. 1. 1835. 4to. 

Sc Pol. Hist, et Philol. Vol. 1, parts 4, 5, 6. Vol. 2 et 3, part 1. 1832—1835. 

4to. 

Mem. par Divers Savans, et lus dans ses Assemblies. Vol. 2. 1833 — 5. 4to. 

Recueil des Actes des seances publ. de l'Acad., teiuies 29 Dec. 1831 — 5. 4to. 

Stockholm. By Chev. Lorich, Charge d'aff. of Sweden and Norway. 

Kongl. Vetensk. Acad. Nya Handlingar. 1832 — 34. 8vo. Ber'attelser om Vetensk. 

Framsteg, afgivne af Acad. Embetsman. 1832 — 34. 8vo. 

Eulogy on A. T. Hagstromer, M. D. By Pontin Magnus, bef. the R. Acad. 1832. 8vo. 

Tal. om JeinliaiKlieringens tillsland inom Fa.denieslar.det, &c Stockh., 1836. 

Turin. Mem. Real Acad, delle Sci. di Torino. Vol. 37. 4lo. 1834. 

Memoire surle mouvement d'un Pendule dans un milieu resistant. Par M. Plana, As- 

tron. Roy. Turin, 1835. 



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FROM INDIVIDUALS. 

Abert (Col. J. T.) Opera omnia Aristotelis Graec. et Lat. Cura Duval. Fol. Vol. 1. 
Paris, 1629. 

Alexander (J. H.) J. T. Ducatel's Reports on new Map of Maryland. Baltimore, 1834 — 
1835, with J. T. Dncatel's Geol. Report. 1834. 8vo. 

The acts of Incorporation of the George's Creek Coal and Iron Mining Co. in Maryland, 

passed 1835-6; with Maps and Plans of the Coal Basin. 

Meteor. Report of a Committee to the Maryland Acad, of Sci. and Lit. 1836. 

Adams (J. Q.) His Oration on the Life and Character of Lafayette, bef. Congress, Dec. 1830. 

Eulogy of James Madison before city of Boston, Sept. 1836. 8vo. 

Bache (A. D.) Report of Experiment on the Navigation of the Delaware and Chesapeake 
Canal by Steam. 8vo. Philadelphia, 1834. 

On Diurnal Vibration of the Horiz. Needle. 4to. Philadelphia, 1834. 

Experiment on the Influence of Colour on the Radiation of Non Luminous Heat. Phila- 
delphia, 1835. 

Alarm to be applied to the Interior of Steam Boilers. Philadelphia, 1832. 

Hist. Notice of the Hypothesis to Explain the Greater Quantity of Rain which Falls 

near the Surface of the Ground than Above. 1836. 

On Facts stated by Prof. Olmstead relative to the Meteors of 13th November 1835. 

Diagrams for Illustrating Registers of the Direction of Winds. 1836. 

Hist. Notes on Dr Franklin's Theory of Storms : On the Discovery of the Non Con- 
ducting Power of Ice : Note Relative to Hardening of Lime under Water by Po- 
tassa, &c. 1835. 

Bache (F. — M.D.) Pharmacopeia of the United States. By Med. Convention held at Wash- 
ington, 1830, on the part of the Conv. 8vo. Phil., 1831. 

Elements of Chem. from E. Turner, including the recent Discoveries in that Science. 

5th American from the 5th London ed. 8vo. Philadelphia, 1835. 

Tournefort's Voyage into the Levant, by order of the French king. 2 vols, 4to. Paris, 

1718. 

Baily (Francis.) His Report on New Standard Scale of the Royal Astronomical Society of 
London. 4to. 1836. . 

Bakewell (Benjamin) Charier of the Sandy and Beaver Canal Co., to connect Pittsburgh 
with Oliio and Erie. 8vo. 1834. 

Baldwin (Henry) Maitland's Hist, of London, with Entick's continuation, from its founda- 
tion to 1772. 2 vols, fol. London, 1772. 

Barclay (J. J.) Reports of various Benev. Soc. in Philadelphia. 1835. 

Beaufoy (Henry) Naut. and Hydraulic Expts. with Numerous Scientific Miscellanies, chiefly 
to ascertain the Resistance of Solid Bodies moving through Water. By Mark 
Beaufoy. London. 1834. Vol. 1. 4to. A large edition distributed gratis by 
the publisher. 

Beck (C. — M. D.) Notice Hist, sur l'lnstruct. des Aveugles. Printed in raised characters. 
By M. Guillet, Direct, de l'lnstit. Roy, a. Paris. 4to. 1820. 

Beke (C. T.) His Origines Biblicae, or Researches in Primeval Hist. 8vo; Vol. 1. Lon- 
don, 1834. 



466 DONATIONS FOR THE LIBRARY. 

Biddle (N.) His Address before the Alumni Assoc, of Nassau Hal] on Commencement Day. 
Sep. 30, 1832. 8vo. Princeton. 

Biddle (C. C.) and J. Vaughan. Investigations of the Currents of the Atlantic and Indian 
Ocean, &c. By Ja. Rennel, with 4 large Charts. 1832. 

Bille (Steen) Introduction to the Hist, of Philos. By V. Cousin. Tr. from the French, by 
H. G. Linberg. 8vo. Boston, 1832. 

Binney (Horace) A variety of valuable public Documents whilst he was in Congress, at 
Washington. 1834, 1835. 

Bradford (Alden) His Hist, of Massachu. for 200 years, 1620 to 1820. 8vo. Bos., 1835. 

Bradford (T. G.) Catal. Harvard Univ. Cambridge, 1830. 8vo. 

Proceedings of Overseers of Harvard College, Aug. 1834. 

Celebration of 7th April 1835, of 4?th Anniversary of Settlement of Ohio. 

Breck (Sam.) 32 vols of well selected pamphlets relative to Education, Internal Improvements, 
Agriculture, Orations and Valuable Political Documents, 491 pamphlets. 

Port Folio (edited by Denny). 4 vols, 4to. Philad. 1801—1804. 

Packer's Report to the Penn. Legisl. on the Coal Trade. 1834. 

Brigham (Win) His address to the Inhabitants of Grafton, 1st Centenary Anniversary of that 
town, 29th April 1834. Boston. 

Bonaparte (Jos. Comte de Survilliers) Iconographia Fauna? Italics da Carlo Luciano Bona- 
parte, Principe di Canino. Fol. Fasciculi, 1 a 10. Roma, 1831 — 1834. 

Bowditch (Nath.) His Transl. of Vol. 3 of the Mecan. Celeste of la Place, with a Commen- 
tary. Boston, 1834. 4to. 

Carey (H. C.) His Essay on the Rate of Wages and Comparison of the Condition of the 
Labouring Population throughout the World. 8vo. Philad., 1835. 

Carey (M.) Varietes Litteraires, par M. Le Marquis D'Orbesson. 8vo, 2 Vols. Paris, 1781. 

Carey, Lea & Blanchard. Bridgwater Treatises on the Power, Goodness and Wisdom of 
God as manifested in the Creation. Philad. ed. 183G, published by them. 

Chalmers on the Adaptation of External Nature to the Moral and Intellectual Constitu- 
tion of Man. 

Kidd as applied to the Physical Condition of Man. 8vo. 

Whewell on Astronomy and General Physics. 8vo. 

— Bell on the Hand, its Mechanism and Vital Endowments, as evincing Design. 8vo. 

Roget's Anim. and Veget. Physiology. 2 vols, 8vo. 

Kirby on the History, Habits and Instincts of Animals. 8vo. 

Prout's Chemistry, Meteorology and the Function of Digestion. 

Arnott's Elements of Physic, or Nat. Phil. Gen. and Medical, &c. 2 Vols. 8vo. 

Philad. 1831—1835. 

Clay (Rev. J. C.) Annals of the Swedes on the Delaware. Philad. 1835. 

Cleaveland ( ) The 9th Report of Boston Prison Discipline Society. 1834. 

Coates' (B. H.) His Discourse before the Penns. Hist. Soc. on the Indian Population of 
America. Philadelphia, April 1834. 

His Biographical Sketch of the late Thomas Say, delivered before the Acad, of Nat. 

Sciences. Philad., 1835. 

Coleman (Edward) Hansard's British Parliament Debates, three series, 94 Vols, 8vo. 
London, 1803 — 1835. 

Conyngham (Red.) Reports of D. Ridgely, Maryl. State Lib. to the Gov. on the collection 
of Docum. ordered to be deposited in the Council Chamber. Annap. 1835 — 6. 



DONATIONS FOR THE LIBRARY. 467 

Conyngham (Red.) Scarbrough's acct. of an Expedition from Virginia, 1663 to the Eastern 

Shore of the same, by order of the Assembly, reported 1832. 
12 Views of the Churches, Schools, &c. erected by the Moravian Brethren in the 

United States. 

Pennsylvania MSS. Docum. 1759 to 1776, relative to Gen. Broadhead. 

Cooper (C. P.) Obs. on the Calendar of Chancery Proceedings, ed. by John Bayley, and on 

the Parliamentary Writs, ed. by F. Palgrave. 8vo. London, 1832. 
Refutation of the Calumnies against the Lord Chancellor Brougham in the Quarterly 

Review, 4th ed. London, 1834. 
Notes respecting Registration and the Extrinsic Formalities of Conveyances. 8vo. 

London, 1831. 
Lettres de Royer Collard sur la Cour de la Chancellerie d'Angl. et sur la Jurisp. An- 

glaise. 8vo. Paris, 1830. 

Proposals to erect a General Record Office, 1st and 2d ed. London, 1833 — 1835. 

1st and 2d Letters of Causidicus to C. P. Cooper, on a proposal to appoint a permanent 

Judge in the Court of Chancery. London, 1835. 
Courtenay (E. H.) His Transl. of Bouchalat's Elementary Treatise on Mechanics. New 

York, 1833. 8vo. 
Coxe (J. R.) His Inquiry into the claims of Dr William Harvey to the discovery of the Cir- 
culation of the Blood, with a Defence of Hippocrates. 8vo. Philad., 1834. 
Crawford (Wm) His Report on the Penitentiaries of the United States, Undertaken by his 

Majesty's Command. Fol. London, 1834. 
Castillo y Lanzas (J. de) Ocios Juveniles. 12mo. Philad., 1835. 
Da Costa. Descript. of Columbia, from the 6th ed. of the Encycl. Britannica. 

Resumen del Censo General de la Republ. de la Nueva Grenada. 1836. 

Dannery (S. A.) Psalterium Hel. Gr. Arab. Chald. cum tribus Latin. Interpr. et Glossis. 

Curante Aug. Justiniani Genevense. Fol. Geneva, 1516. 
Ulisse-Homere, ou du veritable Auteur de l'lliade et l'Odyssee. Par C. Koliades. Fol. 

Paris, 1829. 

Almanac Royal et National de France. 8vo. Paris, 1834. 

Principes Gen. de la Langue Danoise. 8vo. 1797. 

Nouv. Syst. de Colonisation de St Domingue precede de considerations generates 

sur le regime Colon, des Europeans, dans les deux Indes. Par De Boigne. 8vo. 

Paris, 1817. 
D'Avezac (N.) Ses Etudes Geogr. sur une paitie de l'Afrique Sept. avec une carte du N. 0. 

d'Afrique. 8vo. Paris, 1836. 
Desmond (D. J.) His Trans, of Folchetto Malaspina, an Italian novel. 2 Vols, 12mo. 

Philadelphia, 1834. 
Dickson (James) Annual Report of the Directors of the Union Gold Mining Co., Virginia. 

Philadelphia, 1835. 
Don (David) Attempt at a New Arrangement of the Erica?. Edinb., 1834. 
Ducatel (J. T.) On the Geology of Maryland, accompanied by a Report on the State Map 

of Maryland. (See Alexander.) Baltimore, 1833 — 35. 
Duhamel (J. M. C.) Memoire relatif au mouvement de la chaleur dans les corps solides 

plonges dans des milieux dont la temperature varie avec le tems. 4to. Paris. 

1830. 
Dunbar (J. R. W.— M.D.) A History of the Valley of Virginia. By S. Kercheval. 8vo. 

Winchester, 1833. 
VOL. V. 5 U 



468 DONATIONS FOR THE LIBRARY. 

Dunglison (R. — M.D.) On the Human Health; constituting the Elements of Hygiene. 
8vo. Philadelphia, 1835. 

Human Physiology, with engravings, 2d edition. 2 Vols, 8vo. Philad., 1836. 

General Therapeutics. 8vo. Philad., 1836. 

Duane (W. J.) Hist, et Comment. Acad. Electoralis Sci. et Elegant. Literarum. Theol. Pala- 

tinae. 4 Vols, 4to. Manheim, 1766 — 1778. 
Du Ponceau (P. S.) His MSS. Correspondence while Secretary of the Hist, and Lit. Com- 
mittee of this Society. 3 Vols, fol. 

His Brief View of the Constitution of the United States. 12mo. Philadelphia, 1834. 

His Transl. from the Swedish, of the Description of the Province of New Sweden, by 

Thomas Campanius Holm, with Notes by the Translator. Philadelphia, 1834. 

A Sketch of the Relations and Statistics of the West. World ; European Policy, and a 

proposal of a grand Am. Confed. 8vo. Philadelphia, 1827. 

Die Hallische Algemeine Literatur-Zeitung. 31 Vols, 4to. Leipsig, 1820 — 1831. 

Edinburg Encyclopedia, edited by D. Brewster; reprinted, with Additional Articles and 

Notes by the donor and other American men of Letters. 18 Vols, 4to. Philad., 
ed„ 1832. 
The Greek Lexicon of Schrevelius, tr. into English, with many additions. By John Pick- 
ering and — — Oliver. 8vo. Boston, 1826. 

Nouvel Essai sur les Hieroglyphes Egyptiens, apres la critique de M. Klaproth surles 

Travaux de M. Champollion le Jeune. Par M. l'Abbe Affre. Paris, 1834. 

21 Rapports ai'Assemblee Generale de laSoc. pour l'lnstruct. Elementaire. Paris, 1836. 

Saken Van Staet en Oorlogh, door L. Van Aitzema, met het vervolg door L. Sylvius. 

11 Vols, fol. Events 1621—1699. Hague and Amsterdam, 1669—1699. 

Ueber den Dualis, von Wilhelm von Humboldt. 4to. Berlin, 1828. 

Two Vols Amer. Pamphlets on Free Trade. 8vo. 1826—1832. 

Registro Trimestre o Collec. de Mem. Hist. Litt. y Ciencias. 4to, No. 1. Mexico. 

Notice sur Feu M. Charles dePougens par T. Lorin. 8vo. Valenciennes. 1836. 

A Treatise on Bees, tr. from the French of P. Ducouedic, by S. Dinsmore. Philad., 

1829. 

Liturgie des Theophilantropes. Par J. B. Paris, l'an 7. 

A Collection of Works on the Culture and Manuf. of Silk, to wit: 

Lardner, London, 1831. Cobb, Boston, 1833. Vernon, Boston, 1828. Roberts, Bal- 
timore, 1835. Leon de Teste, Avignon, 1830. Dandolo, Milan, 1818. Chev. 
von Heintl, Vien., 1829. Pascalis, 2 Vols, 8vo. New York, 1829. 

Radnal, View of Silk Trade in Great Britain. London, 1828. 

Recherches sur les Maladies des Vers a Soye, faites par ordre de Gouv. Par Nysten. 

Paris, 1808. 

Report of Franklin Inst, on Raw and Manuf. Amer. Silk, exhibited by the donor. Philad., 

1834. 

Manuale del Bigattiere, da L. Ripamonte. 12mo. Milan, 1828. 

Considerations sur le Mechanisme des Societes, par le Marquis de Casaux. 8vo. 1785. 

Lettres d'un Chartreux ecrites 1755, par Ch. Pougens. Paris, 1834. 

Spelling Book of the Chippeway language. York, Upper Canada, 1828. 

Vie de Gaspar Coligny Amir, de France, &c. 12mo. Cologne, 1686. 

Precis Element de Phys. Exp. par Biot. 2 Vols, 8vo. Paris, 1817. 

Notice Biog. sur M. Dupont de Nemours, par Silvestre de Sacy. Paris, 1818. 



DONATIONS FOR THE LIBRARY. 469 

Du Poncean (P. S.) — continued. 

- Documents communiques a la Chambre des Deputes sur le projet du Traite de 1831, 

entre la France et les Etats Unis, 2 parties. 4to. Paris, 1835. 

U. S. Liter. Gazette. 4 Vols, Bost., 1825, new series. 

Several Vols of Silliman's Journal, and a Collection of Pamphlets. 

L'Abeille Canadienne. 1 Vol., 8vo. Montreal, 1820. 

Additions and Amendments to the Civil Code of the State of Louisiana, proposed by 

order of the Legish, 14th March 1822, by the Jurists commiss. for that purpose. 

New Orleans. Fol. 1823. 
System of Penal Laws prepared for the state of Louisiana, by order of the Legisl., with 

Code of Procedure to enforce the System, by E. Livingston. New Orleans. 

Fol. 1824. 
Den iEldre Edda ved Saemand Sigfusson, kaldet Hin Trode ; Oversat og forklard ved 

Finn Magnussen. 4 Vols, 12mo. Kiobenh. 1821 — 4. 

Eloge Hist, de J. A. Chaptal prononce a l'lnstitut par Flourens. 4to. 1835. 

Oration on the necessity of Union in the United States, by T. P. Grimke. Charleston, 

1828. 
Praktische belehrungen, rathschlage fur Reisende, in Amerika, von E. Brauns. 1 Vol., 

8vo. Braunschweig, 1829. 
Everett (Edward) Eulogy on Gen. Lafayette before the Young Men of Boston. Sept. 

8vo. 1824. 
Everett (A. H.) Address delivered at Charlestown, Mass., 17th June 1836, to Commera. the 

Battle of Bunker's Hill. 8vo. Boston. 
Elwyn (A.) The Morbid Anatomy of the Human Uterus and its appendages, with illustra- 
tions of its Organic Diseases. By Robert Hooper. London. 4to. 1832. 
Erman (Adolph.) By the hands of Dr. Julius. 
Reise um die Erde durch Nord Asien und die beiden Oceane, with Atlas. 8vo. 

1828—9—30. Berlin, 1833. 

Wanderung der A. Gregori und D. Atanasow durch Asien. 1807. 

Featherstonhaugh (G. W.) Geolog. Report of an examination made in 1834 of the elevated 

Country between Red River and Missouri. By order of Congress. Wash., 1835. 
Fisher (J. Francis) A Collection of Catalogues of French Literature. 

Catal. of the Unique Collection of Medals of Marmaduke Truttle, sold in London, 1832. 

Catal. Univ. Havardianae. 8vo. Cambr. 1833. 

Facts and Observ. relative to the Peace of Amiens, chiefly from Wm Cobbett. Philad., 

1802. 8vo. 
J. Rumsey's Treatise on Steam, showing that it may be used to propel Boats and Ves- 
sels. Philad., 1788. 
On the Causes of the Insurrection of the Negroes in St Domingo, by Garran de Coulon. 

Philad., 1792. 

Essay on Slavery and Slave Trade ; prize Essay, Cambridge, G. B. Philad., 1787. 

La Constitution Francaise decretee par l'assembl. Constit., 1789 — 1792. 

Collection des arretes concernant la Marine Francaise. Par M. S. Andre. Brest, 

l'an 11. 

A Secret Method to give France an irrecoverable Shock. Lond., 1766. 

Considerations on the Present Dangerous Crisis. Lond., 1763. 

Lettres nouvelles du Japon touchant l'avancement de la Chretiente de 1579 a 1781. 

Paris, 1783. 



470 DONATIONS FOR THE LIBRARY. 

Fisher (J. Francis) — continued. 

Notizia della Santa Croce della Gran Madre di Dio Maria Vergine, adorata in Loretto. 

1763. 

A short Introd. to Nat. Phil., MSS., by J. Questebrone. Dublin, 1720. 

MSS. Correspondence of Thomas and Richard Penn, Proprietors and Governors of 

Perms, with James Hamilton, Esq. of Bush-hill, on the affairs of the Colony. 

1747 a 1771. 4to. 
— — MSS. Original and Unprinted Laws of Penns., 1693 — 1700, under Governors Markham 

and Fletcher. Fol. 

CEuvres de Diderot. 21 Vols, 8vo. Paris, 1821. 

Mem. Hist, and Philos. sur la vie et les CEuvres de Denis Diderot. Par Naigeon. 8vo. 

Paris, 1821. 
Mem. de la vie de Francois de Scepeaux, Mareschal de France. Par V. Cartoix. Paris, 

1757. 
D. Bentley's Dissert, on the Epistles of Phalaris and the Fables of Egypt., 4th edition. 

Lond., 1757. 
Garibaldi (late cons. -gen. of Sardinia) Mem. del Direttore del Reale Instituto di Genova, 

sulla instruzione ed il numero de' Sordo-muti. 8vo. Genova. 1834. 
Gibbes (Geo.) Catal. of Law Library of Harvard Univ. 1834. 8vo. 

Inaug. Disc, of Simon Greenleaf, Law Prof. Harv. Univ. 1834. 8vo. 

Goodwin (D. R.) Catal. of the Library of the College of Brunswick, Maine. 1821. 8vo. 

Catal. of the Library of the Theol. School of Andover, Mass. 8vo. 1819. 

Gordon (T. F.) His Hist, of New Jersey from its discovery by Europeans to the adoption 

of the Federal Const. 1789. 8vo. Trenton, 1834. 
Griscom (J.) Rep. to Mass. Legisl. recommending the Abolishing the Punishment of Death. 

Boston, 1835. 
Essay on learning to Read and Write English, with a plan of a new Alphabet, by W. 

R. Weeks. Boston, 1832. 
Rep. to Mass. Legisl. on the proper Employment of the School Fund, with a summary 

of the Prussian system, by Coussin. Boston, 1835. 

Obs. during a year in Europe. 2 Vols, 12mo. New York, 1824. 

Guerin (F. E.) Magazin de Zoologie adresse aux Zoologistes pour faciliter leurs publica- 
tions. Paris, 1835. 
Halphen (M.) Mem sur le Choi. Morbus et la Fievre Jaune a la Nouvelle Orleans en 1832. 

8vo. Paris, 1833—5. 
Hammer (J. Von) Geschichte des Osmanischen Reiches. Vol. 8, 9, 10, completing the 

work, with Index and Appendix. Pest. 1832 — 5. 

Jahrbucher der Literatur, 1832 a 1835. Wien. 8vo. 

Ueber die Landesverwaltung unter dem Califate. Berlin, 1835. 

Mem. of the Diplomatic Relations between the Courts of Delhi and Constantinople, in 

the 16th and 17th century, tr. Lond., 4to. 1830. 
Liber fundamentorum PharmacologiaB ; Epitome ex Persico Codice inedito in Biblioth. 

Caes. Vindob. Lat. edit, a R. Seligman. 8vo. 1830. 
His German Translation of Samachschare's Golden Necklace, with the Arabic Original. 

Vienna. 1835. 
Harding (J.) Aristides' Essays on the Spirit of Jacksonism v. The Bank of the United States. 

Philad., 1835. 



DONATIONS FOR THE LIBRARY. 471 

Harlan (Rich.— M.D.) His Essay on the Structure of the Teeth in the Edentata, and Criti- 
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Physiology, Anat. Philad., 1835. 8vo. 
Hassler (F. R.) Principal Docum. Relat. to the Survey of the Coast of the United States 

since 1816, which was conducted by him. 3 Vols, 8vo. New York, 1834 — 5. 
Second part of Documents, and also on the Weights and Measures adopted by the United 

States. 1835. 
Hays (Isaac — M.D.) Amer. Journal of Medical Science. Vol. 13 a 18. Philad., 8vo. 

Cyclopedia of Practical Medicine. Vol. 2, 8vo. Philad. 

Hearne (J. B.) B. G. Leonard's Introd. Disc, before Lyceum, Chilicothe. 1834. 

Journal of Med. Conven. Ohio, held at Columbus, Cincin. 1835. 

Hitchcock (Edw.) Report to the Gov. of Mass. on the Geol., Mineral., Bot. and Zool. of 

the State, surveyed by their order. 8vo. Amherst, 1833. 
Hitz (John) The following books in the language of the Grisons. 

Amprima Lectura pur la Giuventegna da Scola e 'gl Cantun Grischun. Cuera. 1834. 

Bibla o vero la Soinchia Scritiira del Velg Testamaint. Coira. 8vo. 1815. 

II nouf Testamaint da nos Segner Jesu Christo tradut in Rumanch d'Engadina Bassa. 

Basel, 1812. 
Hodgson (W. B.) Kav<rTa.vrivn AgfAivoTTHKn E%a.Gi£Kioy. The six Books of the Laws of the 

Greeks in Turkey, tr. into modern Greek, by Constantine Armenopoulos. 4to. 

Venice, 1820. 
Hopkinson (Jos.) Biog. Sketch of the Life of Joseph Bonaparte Comte de Survilliers. 8vo. 

Lond., 1834. 
Horner (W. E.) Observations on the Minerals in the S. W. part of Va. Philad., 1834. 
Hubbard (O. P.) Catal. of Yale College Library, New Haven, Conn. 8vo. 1823. 

Laws of Yale College, New Haven. 1829. 

Catal. of the Officers and Students of Dartmouth College, New Hamp. Sept. 1835. 

— — Continuations of the Narrative of the stale of the Indian Charity Schools at Lebanon, 

Conn., from 1762 to 1775, now incorporated with Dartmouth College, 1771. 

By E. Wheelock, pastor of a church in Lebanon. 
Hughes (T.) Introd. Disc, by Rev. William Turner, 1824—5, before Newcastle (G. B.) 

Lit. and Sc. Inst. ; 1829 before Soc. Nat. Hist, for North Durham and Newcastle. 
Jackson (Col. J. R.) Obs. on Lakes, attempting to explain the laws of Nature, of their for- 
mation and gradual diminution, and. of their Phenomena, made at St Petersburg. 

London. 4to. 1833. 
Aide Memoire aux Voyageurs, ou Questions relatives a la Geol., Phys., 1'Industrie et 

aux Beaux Arts. Paris, 1834. 8vo. With plates, 4to. Paris, 1834. 
Jackson (C.) His Treatise on the Pleadings and Practice in Real Actions. Bost., 1828. 
Ingersoll (J. R.) A number of important Congress Documents during his being a member 

of Congress. 1835-6. 
Johnson (Jos. — M.D.) Addresses to the Lit. and Philos. Soc. of Charleston, S. C. 4to. 

By S. Elliot, 1814— W. Johnson, 1815— T. Ford, 1818— J. Johnson, 1822. 
Johnston (W. R.) Mem. of the late L. D. Von Schweinitz, with a Sketch of his Labours. 

1825. 
Jomard (le Chev.) Rapport sur le concours relatif a la Geographie et aux antiquites de 

l'Amer. Centrale, fait a la Soc. de Geog. Paris, 1836. 
VOL. V. 5 V 



472 DONATIONS FOR THE LIBRARY. 

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anterieure. Rapp. fait a l'lnstitut. Paris, 1836. 
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. York, 1835. 
Jullien (M. A.) Poesies Politiques. 8vo. Paris, 1831. 

Prospectus d'une Encyclopedie pour remplacer la Revue Encyclop. 

Idee Gen. de la Methode d'Education de Pestalozzi. 

Julius (N. H.) First and Second Reports of Pruss. Prison Soc. for reforming Convicts. 

1830—3, in German. 

Notizen aus dem Gebiete der Natur und Heilkunde. Bresl., 1833. 4to. With Li- 

t h og. Autographs of the Members. 
Kane (J. K.) Notes on some of the Questions decided by the Board of Comm. upon the 

Conv. with France, 4th July 1831, by him as one of the Comm. Philad., 1836. 

Reports of the Commissioners to Congress. 1834 — 5 — 6. 

KershofT (J. R. L. de) Considerations sur la Nature et le Traitement du Cholera Morbus. 

Anvers, 1833. 
Koninch (L. de) Mem. sur les proprietes et 1' Analyse de la Phloridzine presente a la Soc. 

de Bruxelles. Londres, 1836. 
La Doucette (J. C. F.) Compte rendu de ses travaux a la Soc. Philotechn. Paris, 1832 — 

1835. 
Lieber (F. — M.D.) Remarks on the relation between Educat. and Crime, addressed to Wil- 
liam White, Pres. of Prison Soc. 1835. 
Inaugural Address before the Legislature of South Carolina at Columbia, on Hist, and 

Pol. Econ., Dec. 1835. Charleston. 
Lee (R. H.) MSS. Relative to the Revolutionary War, some of which original, and some 

relative to Lord Dunmore. 
Lorin (Theod.) Sur les avantages qu' on pourroit tirer de la Lecture des Anc. Ecriv. Fran- 

cais. 8vo. Paris, 1811. 

Epitre a un jeune litterateur, en vers. Paris, 1833. 

Notice Biogr. de Charles Pougens. Valencien., 1836. 

Lyman (Theo.) Commun. to the City Council of Boston, relative to introducing Water into 

the City. 1834. 
M'Carty & Davis. Mem. of Benjamin Franklin, written by himself, and arranged by his 

Grandson, 2d edition, with additions by W. Duane. 2 Vols, 8vo. Philad., 1834. 
M'Vickar (J. G.) His Inquiries concerning the medium of Light and form of its Molecules. 

Edinb., 1833. 
Macedo (J. J. Da Costa) Primeira Mem. para a Hist, das Navigacoes e descobrimentos dos 

Portug. Fol. Lisbon, 1836. 
Additamentos a primeira parte sobre as Epocas en que principiarao as nossas Navigacoes 

no Oceano Atlant. Fol. Lisbon, 1835. 
Marcel (J. J.) Supplement a toutes les Biogr. et Souvenirs de quelques Amis de l'lnstitut. 

d'Egypte. Paris, 1834. 3 
Pierre de Rosette, Extract from the Hist, of French Exped. to Egypt, by J. A. Denain, 

showing that Marcel and Raige preceded Champollion and Young in the explana- 
tion of part of the Inscript. on the Rosetta stone. Paris, 1833. 

Precis Hist, sur le Moristan, ou le Grand Hopital des fous du Caire. Paris, 1833. 

Martini (V. G.) Handleding ter bevordering van de Zijde teelt in Nederland. 8vo. 1833. 



DONATIONS FOR THE LIBRARY. 473 

Marguerin (L.) The Reformed Alphabet and Orthography applicable to combining all Lan- 
guages into one. St Louis, Missouri, 1834. 
May (Sam. J.) The Netherland Hist, of War between Great Britain, France and Holland, 

1671 — 4, by S. Swart. Amst., 1675. 

Institutio Logica etPhilosophicaet Epicuri Syntagma, auct. P. Gassendo. Lond., 1660. 

Hist. Mem. of J. Hopkins Relative to the Housaturmuk Indians, or account of the 

Mission of Rev. John Sergeant. 4to. Boston, 1753. 

J. Owens's Diatriba de Justitia Divina. 12mo. Oxon, 1653. 

Clavis Homerica. 12mo. Rotterdam, 1673. 

Theocriti Idyllia Graece et Lat. 8vo. 

Mease (Jas. — M.D.) Descrip. of some of the Medals struck on Important Events, before 

and since the Declaration of Independence. 
— :— Comm., Navig. and Tonnage of United States for year ending Sept. 1835. 

MSS. Military Corresp. of Gen. Weedon with Am. Officers, 1777 a 1786. Fol. 

A very large Collection of important pamphlets on various, chiefly Am. subjects. 

Mercer (C. F.) Rep. to H. of Rep. U. States on the Chesap. and Ohio Canal. Wash., 

1834. 
— > — M'Neil on the Resistance of Water to the passage of Boats upon Canals, &c. Lond. 

Reprinted in Washington. 
Merrick (S. V.) Report to the City Councils on the Gas Establishments of Great Britain, 

France and Belgium. Philad., 1834. 
London Police Report to the House of Com. of G. B. as existing in the Metropolis, with 

Minutes of Evidence. Appendix and Index. Lond., 1834. 
Mitchell (A. S.) Accompaniment to his Reference and Distance Map of the United States, 

containing Index of Towns, Counties, Rivers, Internal Improvements, &c. 

Philad., 1835. 
Mitchel (J. K.) Value of Practical Interrogation of Nature. Introd. Lect. on the Wisdom 

of God in the Formation of Water. Philad., 1833. 
Mondelet and Neilson. Comm. from Lower Canada to visit our Penitentiaries. Their 

Report. Quebec, 1835. 
Morelli (Chev.) Cons. Gen. of the king of the two Sicilies. Vocab. Univ. Italiano, com- 

pilato a cura della Soc. Tipogr., Vols 1, 2, 3, and Vol. 4 to letter O. Fol. Na- 

poli, 1829—1835. 
Atlante Geog. del Regno di Napoli per ordine de Ferdinando IV. Re delle due Sicilie, 

Da Gio. Ant. Rizzo. Atlas, Fol., 38 Maps. 1808. 
Principj di una Scienza Nuova, di Gio. Battista Vico, 1 Ediz. 1725, seguita da un som- 

merio della terza ed. del autore ; compilato dal Cav. C. C. di Cesare. 2 Vols, 

8vo. Naples, 1826. 
.Carta della Costa del Regno delle due Sicilie bagnato dal Adriatico, dal Fiume Tronto 

al Capo St Maria di Leuca, 13 Atlas sheets. Naples, 1834. 
Morgan (H.) Actuary of Equitable Ins. Offi., London, showing the number of persons In- 
sured in the office from commencement 1762 to January 1829, with Tables of 

Probabilities and Expectations of the Duration of Human Life. Fol. Lond., 1834. 
Morgan (Rev, G.) Report on Public Educa. in Penns. Philad., 1836. 
Morton (S, G.) Synopsis of the Organic Diseases of the Cretaceous Group in the United 

States. Philad., 1834. 
Chem. and Medical Researches on Kreosote, tr. by Wm Wetherill from the French of 

E. Miguet. Philad., 1835. 



474 DONATIONS FOR TfiE LIBRARY. 

Nagy (Chas.) Hist. Musulmana Turcorum de monnmentis ipsorum excerpta; opus Leun- 

clavii Chalcondylis. Frankfort. Fol. 1591. 

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Praecognita Juris ; Delineatio totius Jurisprudential fundamentorum. 

Commentarii Bellici Eaymundi de Montecuccoli. Com. Posonii. 1731. Vindob. 

Fol. 1718. 
Jus fisci et Populi, Dissert. Publ. auct. E. F. de Nagy Roller — Mayna. Vindob. Fol. 

1741. 

Catech. ex decreto SS. Concilii Tridentini ad Parochcs. Venet. 4to. 1727. 

Benignae Resolutiones Regiae normativae negotio Religionis Helvetica? Confessionis 

Hungariae. 4to. 1691. 

Demonstratio Idioma Ungarorum etLapponum idem esse, a. J. Sajgnovics. 4to. 1770. 

Jurisprud. Practica seu Commentarius novus in jus Hungaricum Auct. S. Huszty. 

4to. Tyrnaviae. 1766. 

Nuova Idea dell Ungheriada G. Ceschi di Santa Croce. 

Praeadamitae sive exercitatio super vers. 12, 13, 14, Epist. S. Pauli ad Romanos, c. v. 

quibus indicantur Primi Homines ante Adamum conditi. 4to. 1655. 

Extractus Juris Hungarici Summarius, auct. T. Csepesanyj. 8vo. Pest., 1829. 

Elementa Linguae Daco-Romanae sive Valachicae, auct. S. K. Szad. Vindob. 1784. 

8vo. 

Jus publicum Hungariae, auct. C. A. Beck, cum not. J. Benzru. Vindob. 1790. 8vo. 

Salmasii de Hellenistica, Commentarius de origine etDialectis Graecae Linguae. 12mo. 

Lug., Bat. 1630. Elzevir. 

Turcici Imperii Status. Lug. Bat. 1630. 18mo. 

De Imperio Magni Mogolis sive India Vera, auct. J. de Laet, Lug. Bat. 1631. 18mo. 

Elzevir. 

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Budae, 1746. 
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gariae. 1696. 

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List of Optical and other Philos. Inst. Manuf. by G. S. Ploss. Vienna, 1834. 

Introduct. ad cognit. status pub. Universalis quae totius orbis imperantis maxime vero 

S. Romani Germanic! Imperii statum Veteris et novi mundi, <fec, auct. P. C. 

Monath. Noribergae. 4 to. 1723. 
Abriss der Physikalishen, &c. der Oesterreichschen staaten, von B. F. Hermann. St 

Petersb. 8vo. 1782. 

Magyar Virgilius. (Eclogues of Virgil.) Pozonyban. 8vo. 1789. 

Hof und Staats Schematismus des Oesterreichischen Kaiserthums. Wien., 1832. 

Polit. Geog. und Hist, des Kaenigreichs Hungar. Presburg, 1772. 

Arithmetika Szamiras Kiiion 6s Jegyckkel Irta. Bees. 8vo. 1835. 

Naxera (Emanuel) De Lingua Othomitorum Dissertatio. 4to. Philad., 1835. 
Nicklin (P. H.) Report to Trustees of Penn. Univ. Relat. to Univ. of Oxford and Cam- 
bridge. 

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A pleasant Peregrination through a pleasant part of Pennsyl., by Peregrine Prolix. 

Philad., 1836. 



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Niemcewiez (J. H.) La Vieille Pologne. Fol. 800 to 1796. Album. Hist, et Poet. Le- 
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1833—4. 

Niles (H.) Weekly Register, 45 a 49. Baltimore. 8vo. 1833 — 5. 

O'Conway (M.) Agins de Soldanis, della Lingua Punica usata da' Maltesi. 12mo. Roma, 
1750. 

Ord (G.) Magazine of Natural Hist., by H. Loudon. Vol. 7 — 8, and part of 9th Lond. 
1834—6. 

Parish (Jos. — M.D.) Practical Obs. on Strangulated Hernia and some of the diseases of the 
Urinary Organs. 8vo. Philad., 1836. 

Pasley (C. W.) Obs. on the Pract. and Exped. of employing the Weights and Measures 
used in Great Britain, without materially altering those in use. London. 8vo. 
1834. 

Peale. Moleon's Collect, of Reports ofle Conseil de Salubrite de Paris. 1802 — 26. 

A few Particulars of Chung-En the united Siamese Twins. N. Y., 1836. 

Beobachtungen iiber die temperatur des Gesterns in verschiedenen tiefen in den Graber 

des S'achisischen Erzgebirges in der Jahren 1832, ed. by F. Reich. 8vo. Frei- 
burg, 1834. 

Perkins (H.) Flugel's 7th edit, of Merchant's Asst., tr. from German, by F. J. Grund, with 
additions from Kelly and others on Weights and Measures. Boston, 1834. 

Pickering (J.) A Lecture on the alleged uncertainty of the Law. Boston, 1834. 

Triumphant Death of Pious Children, in Choctaw Language. 1835. 

Gallaudet's Picture and Reading Book, with Scrip. Stories, in the O-jib-uc or Chippeway 

Lang. 12mo. Boston, 1836. 

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Sioux Spelling Book. Boston, 1835. Boston. 12mo. 1836. 

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their sufferings there. Boston, 1836. 

Plana (J.) Memoire sur le mouvement d'un Pendule dans un milieu resistant, by J. P., As- 
tron. Royal. Turin. 4to. 1835. 

Quetelet (A.) Recherches sur les degres successifs de force Magnetique qu'une aiguille d' Acier 
recoit pendant les frictions que servent a. l'aimanter. Bruxelles, 1833. 

Notes extraites d'un Voy. en Angleterre. 1833. 

Recherches sur le Poids de l'Homme aux diff. ages. 4to. Br. 1833. 

Rapp. a M. Le Minist. de l'lnter. sur les trav. de l'Acad. R. des Sc. et Bell. Lett, de 

Bruxelles depuis Juillet 1830. 4to. 

Sur l'Homme et le developpement de ses facultes, ou Essai de Physique Sociale. 2 

Vols, 8vo. Paris, 1835. 

Annuaire de l'Obs. de Bruxelles pour l'An 1836. 

Raguet (Condy) Late Charge d'Aff. from the United States to Brazil, from 1822 to 1827. 
24 Vols, fol., being a collection of the Public Documents and the Gazettes Offi- 
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Debates in Congress, 1st Session 23d Cong., Dec. 1834 to March 1835. 3 Vols, 8vo. 

reported for the U. S. Telegraph. 
VOL. V. — 5 w 



476 DONATIONS FOR THE LIBRARY. 

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Senate of the United States, Documents of the 2d Session 22d Congress. 2 Vols, 8vo. 

1832. 

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Randolph (L.) Memoirs, Correspondence and Miscellanies from the papers of Thomas 

Jefferson, published by his grandson T. M. Randolph. 4 Vols, 8vo. Charlotte- 

ville, Va., 1829. 
Rebello (J. S.) O auxiliador da Industria Nacional; Periodico. Rio de Janeiro, 1834 — 5. 
Redfield (W. C.) On the Gales and Hurricanes of the Western Atlantic, with a Chart. New 

York, 1835. 
Reynolds (J. N.) His Address to Congress, April 1830, on the subject of a Surveying and 

Exploring Exped. to the Pacific Ocean and South Seas, with Correspondence and 

Documents. New York. 8vo. 1836. 
Rich (0.) Biblioth. Am. Nova in various Lang., 1700 a 1800. Lond., 1835. 

A Catal. of Books chiefly relative to America, 1500 a 1750. Lond., 1832. 

Roberts (T. P.) MSS. Register of the Servants and Redemptioners indented by the Mayors 

of the city of Philadelphia, from Oct. 1771 to 1773, under John Gibson, Mayor. 
Rogers H. D.) A Guide to a Course of Lect. on Geol. in Univ. Penns. 1835. 
1 On the Falls of Niagara and reasoning of some Authors respecting them. 
Experimental Inq. with A. D. Bache into some of the Laws of the Elementary Vol- 
taic Battery. 1835. 

By the same, Analysis of some of the Coals of Penns. 1834. 

Rogers (R. E. — M.D.) Experiments on the Blood, with some new facts in regard to Animal 

and Vegetable Structures. Philad., 1836. 
Rumker (C.) Preliminary Catal. of fixed Stars or prospectus of a Catal. of Stars of South. 

Hemisphere. 4to. Hamburg. 
Sagra (R. de) Tablas Necrologicas del Colera Morbus en la Habanaysus arrabales. 1833. 

Mem. de la Institution Agronom. de la Habana. Nov., 1834. 

Sparks (Jared) Writings of Washington, with his Life, Notes and Illustrations. Vols 2, 3, 

4, 5, 6, 7. Grand 8vo. 1834—5. 

Library of American Biography. Vols 2, 3. 1834 — 5. 

Snider (J., Jun.) Gospel of St Mark, prepared by him with raised Letters, for the use of 

the Blind ; being the first book printed for their use, in America. 4to. 1834. 
Silliman (B.) The American Journal of Science, vols 25 to 50. New Haven. 1834 — 6. 
Short (Wm) Mercure de France, 1775 a. 1785—1789 a 1792 ; 88 vols, 12mo. Paris. 
Short (C. W.— M.D.) Trans. Journ. of Med. and Assoc. Sciences, 7 a 9. Lex. 1834 — 6. 

Biog. Mem. of H. Eaton, Prof. Chem. in Transyl. Univ., Lexington. 1833. 

Instructions for Coll. and Preserv. Plants for Herbariums. Lexington, 1834. 

Catal. of Students of Transylv. Univ. for 1834—5. 

Catal. of Nat. Phaenag. Plants in Kentucky. 1832. 

Report made to the Legisl. of Kentucky, on Med. Depart, of Transylv. Univ. 1836. 

Sketch of the Progress of Botany in Western America. Tex., 1836. 

» Thoughts on the impolicy of multiply. Schools of Medicine. By C. Caldwell. 1834. 

Story (Joseph) His Disc, on the Life, Character and Services of Chief Justice Marshall. 

Bost., 1835. 
Strickland (Wm) His Report on a Railroad proposed from Wilmington to Susquehanna. 

Philad., 1835. 
Sully (Thos.) Tales of the Deaf and Dumb, by Burnet, a deaf and dumb pupil. Newark, 
1835. 



DONATIONS FOR THE LIBRARY. 477 

Sully (Thos.) — continued. 

An Essay on Prints and Picturesque Beauty. 12mo. Lond., 1768. 

Lancolle's Essay on Poetry and Painting. 12mo. Lond., 1742. 

English Connoisseur ; Beauties of Noblemen's Seats. 2 Vols. 1776. 

Tanner (H. S.) His New Universal Atlas, containing Maps, &c. of the World, and special 
Maps of each of the United States. 117 Maps. Philad., 1836. 

The Amer. Traveller, or Guide through the United States, with Maps alphabetically 

arranged. Philad., 1834. 

Atlas Classica. 

Taylor (R. C.) Notice of two Sect, of Eleven Mineral Basins of South Wales, near Ponti- 
fract. 4to. Lond., 1830. 

Thompson (J. — M.D.) Laws of the State of Delaware to the year 1829, revised ed., by 
W. Hall, under auth. of General Assembly. 

Togno (J. — M.D.) His popular Essay on the Laws of Acoustics. Phil., 1834. 

Tiarks (J. L.) Results of Chron. Obs. made with Foster's Chronom. on board the Chan- 
ticleer, and reported to the Admiralty. London, 1836. 

Troost (G.) Third Geological Rep. to the Gen. Assembl. of state of Tennessee. Nash- 
ville, 1835. 

Tydiman (P. — M.D.) Wells's Observ. and Experiments on Vision. 4to. 1811. 

Letter to Lord Kenyon relative to the Conduct of the London College of Physicians, in 

the Case of D. Strong. London, 1799. 

Vassali Eandi's Descript. et Usage d'un Nouv. Barom. pour mesurer les hauteurs ; 

Obs. fails dans les arrondissemens de Turin. 1804. 

W. C. Wells's Obs. on the Contraction of the Muscles of Animals in his Galvanic Ex- 
periments. London, 1793. 

Tyson (J. R.) A Disc, before the Young Men's Colonization Society, with notice of first 
Expedition, for forming a settlement at Bassa Cove. Oct., 1834. 

Discourse on the surviving Remnant of the Indian Race in the United States ; before 

the Penn Society. 1836. 

Vaughan (Wm) Lithograph. Signat. of the Memb. of the British Assoc, for the advance- 
ment of Sci., and Report. Cambridge, 1833. 

Cooper's (E. J.) Remarks on Halley's Comet, 22d — 24th Oct. 1835, with a plate, 

showing its appearance in his telescope, used on 10th Nov. 

Vaughan (John) See C. C. Ciddle. 

Campanius Holm's Descript. of New Sweden, transl. by P. S. Duponceau. 8vo. 

Philad., 1834, with Notes by the translator. 

Tytler's Hist, of the progress of Discov. on the Northern Coast of America. — His 

Nat. Hist., J. Wilson's ed. 

Remarks on a late Memoir of Sebast. Cabot, and Vindication of Hackluyt. 

Basil Hall's Travels in North America in 1827—8. Vol. 2, 12mo. Philad., 1829. 

Extract from a Journal written on the Coast of Chili, in 1800 — 1 — 2. 2 Vols, 12mo. 

1824. 

Finch's Travels in the U. S. of America and Canada, and an Essay on the Boundary 

of Empires. 8vo. London, 1833. 

• Morton's ed. of Pond's Mem. of John Cotton, of Boston, N. E., and who gave the 

name. — -One of the original settlers of Boston, orginally called Shamut, by the 
Indians, and Tremont by the English. Lastly, Boston, from whence Cotton 
came. 



478 DONATIONS FOR THE LIBRARY. 

Vaughan (John) — continued. 

Borrellus De vipercussionis et motionibus naturalibus a gravitate pendentibus, de 

Motu Animalium. Ed. J. Broen. Lug. Batav., 1696. 

Henry Trumbull's Hist, of the Discovery of America, Landing at Plymouth, and In- 
dian Wars, &c. Boston, 1832. 

Strahlenberg's Description of the N. andE. parts of Europe and Asia, with a Polyglott 

Table, also a Vocab. Calmucko-Mungalium. Stockholm, 4to. 

Pennsylvania State Laws for 1803 — 4. Harrisburg. 

The French Law and Practice of Patents for Inventions and Improvements, and Imp. 

By A. Perpigna. Paris, 1832. 

Tuke's Description of a Retreat for the Insane of the Society of Friends, York (G. B.) 

4to. 1817. 

Baldwin's (L.) His Report to the Corporation, on the subject of introducing Pure Water 

into Boston. 1835. 

Landreth's Floral and Botanical Mag. Vol. 1, 4to. Philad., 1832 — 4. 

Bowring & Villers' first Report to Privy Council of G. B. on Commercial Relations be- 
tween France and G. B., and presented to Parliament. London, 1834. 

Lippert (P. D.) Dactyliothecae Univ., sign, exemplis nitides redditae Chilias, sive 

scrinium Milliarium Primum. Lips., 1755. 

A volume of Tracts relative to America, in the years 1774 — 5. 

Laws of the State of Delaware, 4 vols, 8vo., from 14th Oct. 1700, to March 1813. 

Wilming., Delaware. 8vo. 

Robert Lindsay's Hist, of Scotland, 1436 — 1565, continued, by another hand, to 1604, 

3d ed. 12mo. Edinb., 1778. 

William Sullivan's Familiar Letters on Public Characters and Events, from the peace 

of 1783 to the peace of 1815. Boston, 1834. 8vo. 

Y Bibl Cyssegr-lan sef yr Hen Destament ar Newydd. Rhydychain. Fol. 1690. 

(Welsb.) 

Biblia ; Dat is, De Gantsche heylighe Schriftuere, <fec. The Bible and New Testament 

in Low Dutch, tr. from the French Geneva transl., with Notes by P. H. Dienaer. 
Ley den, 1591. Fol. 

Biblia, das ist die gantze heilige Schrifft. ; Deudtscht von D. Mait. Luth. Luther's 

Transl. of the Scriptures, printed from his ed. of 1546. Fol. Wittemburg, 
1603. 

Piblia-Sacra, &c. The Bible and New Testament in the Polish Language. Magde- 
burg, 1726. This book once belonged to Anquetil Duperron, and has his au- 
tograph. 

The New Testament in Swedish, with a Comment., by Jo. Gezelius. Fol. 1711. 

(Titlepage wanting.) 

Leabhraichean, &c. The Old and New Test, in the Gaelic Lang. 12mo. Lond., 

1807. 

Neue Biihmische Grammatik, von J. W. Pohl. 8vo. Wien., 1783. 

Svenskt och Engelskt Lexicon ed. of G. Widegren. 4to. Stock., 1788. 

Nouv. Diet. Polonois, Allemand et Francois. Par M. A. Trotz. Leipzig, 1764. 

Woodfall's Parliamentary Reports of G. B., 1794 — 5. 8 Vols, 8vo. London. 

The Senator, or Clarendon's Parliamentary Chron. 7 vols, 8vo. 1790. 3d Lond. ed. 

Complete Hist. Pers. and Pol. of the Boroughs and the Cinque Ports of G. B. 3 Vols, 

8vo. London, 1792. 



DONATIONS FOR THE LIBRARY. 479 

Vaughan (John) — continued. 

Inquiry into the Rise, Progress, and Present State of the National Debt of Great Brit- 
ain, by R. Hamilton. Philad. ed., 1816. 
Mem. of the Protect. House of Cromwell, and its Connections, by M. Noble. 2 Vols, 

8vo. Birmingh., 1784. 
Vaux (Geo.) Calculat. of a remarkable Eclipse of the Sun, 24th June 1778, for the Merid. 

Philad., by Don Freehauff. MS. 
Walker (C. S.) A Hist, of the Brit. Animals, arranged according to their Gen. and Spec. 

8vo. Edinb., 1728. 
Wallich (N. — M.D.) Descript. of some rare and curious Plants, Calcutta, 1834. 8vo. 

Discovery of the genuine Tea Plant in Upper Assam, with a plate. 1835. 

Walsh (Rob.) A large collection of Pamph. on various subjects, and interesting Docum. 

Kent's Comment, on Amer. Law. Vols 2, 3, 4. 8vo. New York, 1827—30. 

Gray's Elements of Botany. 12mo. N. York, 1836. 

Warden (D. B.) L'Art de verifier les Dates depuis 1770, suite de la Chronol. d'Amerique. 

Vol. 15, sur la Guiane Francaise, &c, dirige par Le Marq. de Fortia. Paris, 

1834. 
Etudes sur l'Archseolog., sur un Monum. Biblique trouve a Thebes, et sur les M6thodes 

de Young et de Champollion, J. ; Essai sur quelq. Zodiaques des Indes, par M. 

de Paravey. 1833. 

Hazard sur l'Education des Vers a Soye, dans le Nord et Centre de la France. 

Notices sur les Puits artesiens d'Essone, Corbeil, &c, Depart, de Seine et Oise, par 

Vt. Hericart de Thury. Paris, 1835. 

Nouvelles des Chaines de Tassu, par C. M. de Parrochet. Paris, 1832. 

A Collection of Catalog, of Modern Lit. and Science ; also a number of Pamphlets on 

various branches of Sci. and Lit. Proceedings of learned Societies, &c. 
Wetherill (J. P.) H. Binney's Eulogy on the Life and Charact. of John Marshall, Chief 

Justice of the United States, delivered at the request of the Councils of the City 

of Philad., 1835. 
Wharton (T. I.) Reports of the Pennsylv. Committee for revising the Laws, No. 4, 5, 6, 

7, 8. Harrisb., 1834—6. 

His Disc, before the Alumni of the Univ. of Pennsylvania, July 1836. 

Select Works of William Penn, to which is prefixed a Journal of his Life. Fol. Lon- 
don, 1711. 
Williamson (J. G.) A MS. Catalogue of Annual Plants, &c. of Mexico, 1794, by desire 

of the governor. By M. de Tessi. 
Williams (Rev. D. C.) Steph. Charwin's Lexic. Philos. Fol. Leovardiae, 1719. 
White (R. R. Bp.) Mem. of the Protest. Episc. Church of the U. S. of America, 2d edit., 

8vo. N. Y., 1836. 
White (G. S.) Mem. of S. Slater, the Father of Amer. Manuf., with the Hist, of the Rise 

and Progress of the Cotton Manuf. in G. B. and Am. Philad., 1836. 
White (D. A.) Upham's Disc, at the Funeral of the Rev. John Prince, 9th June 1836. 

Salem. 
Worcester (J. E.) The American Almanac for 1835 — 6 — 7. 
Zeiky (Count Paul) Neueste und Vollst'andigste Ungarische Sprachlehre fur Deutsche. 8vo. 

Pesth., 1834. 
VOL. v. — 5 X 



480 DONATIONS FOR THE CABINET. 



Works deposited by Mr John P. Brown with the American Philosophical Society. 

Elemens de LaLangue Turque, par Viguier. Constantinople, 1790. 4to. 

The Bible, in the Turkish Language. Paris, 1827. Fol. 

Anglo-Arabic Primer and Vocabulary. Malta, 1832. 12rao. 

The Anglo-Greek Primer, by S. S. Wilson. Malta, 1819. 18mo. 

Turjeman Nameh, The Dragoman's Book. (Turkish.) 4to., MS. 

Emtsali Soleiman, Solomon's Proverbs, in Persian. 12mo. London, 1831. 

Irashai Merghoub, The Delectable Letters. (A Turkish Letter Writer.) MS., 4to. 

An Arabic and Turkish Dictionary. Constantinople, A. H., 1242. Fol. 

An Arabic Grammar for the use of the Turks, printed by order of the Sultan Mahmoud II. 
4to. Const. (No date.) 

Feriad ul Fuwaid, &c, Pearls of advantage in the Exposition of Doctrine. Constant., A. H., 
1232. 4to. 

The Imperial Firman of Sultan Abd-ul-Hamid, dated at Constantinople, A. H., 1193, appoint- 
ing Seid Othman, one of the Ulemas, to succeed his deceased father to the Ima- 
mate of the mosque Selatin Oghlou, at Smyrna (original). 

A file of Turkish Newspapers. 



DONATIONS FOR THE CABINET 

A Marble Bust of Peter S. Du Ponceau, President of the Society. By Fiorelli. 
Presented by Members of the Society. 

The Administrators and Professors of the Museum of Natural History, Paris, trans- 
mitted to Richard Harlan, M.D., to be presented to the American Philosophical 
Society, a highly interesting Collection of Models, in plaster, of Fossil Bones, 
sixty-eight in number, comprising : 

Two Heads, Lower Jaw, and left hind Foot, of the Palagotherium Crassum. 

Also Models of Parts of the Pal. Magnum, Pal. Medium, and Pal. Indeterminatum. 

Also of Parts of the Anoplotherium Commune, and of the Lophoidon or Tapiroide. 

Also of Two Heads and one perfect Skeleton of the Icthyosaurus. 

Also of the Head and many other Parts of the Saurien ; Also head of a Tortoise. 

Also of forty plaster Models of Parts of the Crocodile of Caen. 

Also of a portion of the Lower Jaw, &c. of the Anthracotherium, and an entire Jaw. 

Also of several Parts of the Rhinoceros (from Chevilly). 

Also a Lower Grinder of the Tapir. 

Also a Lower Grinder of the Gigantic Tapir. 

Also of a Head of a Bear, found in a Cavern of Westphalia. 
Burrough (M.) A portion of the Seed of the Prangass Plant, from the Territory of Muha- 
rajah Ranjeet Sing, a grass of singular fertility and value, which grows in the 



DONATIONS FOR THE CABINET. 481 

Burro ugh (M.) — continued. 

mountains of Thibet, and which, from the jealousy of the natives, was procured 
with difficulty. 

Also a Collection of Copper Coins, chiefly from Thibet. 

Bache (H.) His Survey of Charleston Harbour, S. C, and the contiguous Coast and 
Country. By H. Bache, Captain of Top. Engin. of U. S., and his Assistants. 
1823—4—5. 

Bonaparte (Joseph Count Survilliers) An Antique Etruscan Cup, found on the estate of Lu- 
cien Bonaparte, Prince of Canino, in the researches made in 1828—9, in that 
district, where the ancient Capitol of the kingdom of Etruria, called Vitulonia, 
once stood. Accompanied by the "Museum Etrusque of Lucien Bonaparte," con- 
taining a description of nearly two thousand articles, found in the same locality, 
and the 1st and 2nd parts of the plates, in fol. 

Carrera (Mad.) Specimen of the Lace Tree of Cuba, being a Branch, showing it in its na- 
tural state and also when developed, called Daguila (Lagetta Lintearia). 

Fletcher (Thos.) A proof engraved Print of John Dalton. 

Fisher (I. F.) Four Roman Coins, of which three are silver ; and five American Copper 
Coins, struck during the confederation. 

A Collection of Coins, forty seven silver, and one hundred and four copper, of which 

four are Roman, and seven American, struck before the revolution ; the remain- 
der are European, of different countries. 

Geisinger (Capt. David, U. S. Navy) A collection of silver and copper coins, made in his 
Cruise in U. S. ship Peacock. 

Godon (S., of U. S. Navy) A War Club, and some native Cloth from the Sandwich Islands, 
and a Neck Ornament from the Fejee islands, and a Hatchet from the Society 
Islands. 

Hodgson (W. B.) Coins collected in Turkey and the Mediterranean. 

Huntington (Wm Henry) Specimens of Fossil remains from the neighbourhood of Natchez. 

Hopkinson (Jos.) Franklin's Original Electric Battery, with which he made his early 
experiments, which had become the property of his late son, D. Hopkinson. 

Ingersoll (J. R.) Plan of a Ship Channel proposed round the Falls of Niagara, to connect 
the waters of Erie and Ontario, with seven Plans made in U. S. Topog. Bureau, 
under the direction of Capt. W. G. Williams, and reported to House of Rep. of 
United States April 1836; — also a Map showing the lands assigned to the emi- 
grant Indians, west of Arkansas and Missouri, prepared at the Topog. Bureau of 
the United States, 1836. 

Hassler (F. R.) Specimens of Zinc extracted from Picton copper and lead Mine, Perkioming, 
prepared by him, to form, with copper, brass for Weights and Measures of the 
United States, made under his directions. 

Hitz (John) A collection of Minerals from Switzerland. 

Kane (J. K.) A Circular Metallic Thermometer, made by Montandor, Washington City, 
1835. 

Mitchell (A. S.) Reference and Distance Map of the United States, published by Mitchell 
and Hinman. Philad., 1835. (See Donations for the Library.) 

Naxara (M.) Three Medals, struck when Iturbide was declared emperor of Mexico. Mex- 
ico, 1822. 

Nagy (C.) A valuable Collection of Minerals from Hungary and Germany. 

Nuttal (T.) A Hat of grass, and bark Cordage, a Mat resembling those of the Sandwich 



482 DONATIONS FOR THE CABINET. 

Nuttal (T.) continued. 

Islands, a Bag of the Helonias Tenax, and bark Cordage from the Chinhook 
Indians, on Columbia river. 

A War Club, from the Fejee Islands. 

A common Marine Idol, for the head or stern of a canoe in the Sandwich Islands. 

Parmentier (M.) Two English Coins of James I. 

Roberts (E.) An engraved portrait of Joseph Roberts, a late member. 

Rivinus (Florens, M.D.) Popple's large Map of Brit. Empire in N. America, with French 
and Spanish adjoining Settlements. London, 1733. 

Sagra (R. de) A large Collection of Specimens of the different Woods of Cuba. 

Short (Wm) Three large Book Cases. 

Short (C. W.) An Herbarium of Kentucky and the Western country (in addition to a pre- 
vious donation of specimens especially of Hexandria and Triandria), containing 
Five hundred and thirty-five Specimens, two hundred and ninety-five Species, 
two hundred and ten Genera. 

Taylor (R. C.) Specimens of Copper, Lead and Zinc Ores, from Picton Mines, Perkio- 
ming, Pennsylvania. 

Watmough (Col.) Chart of Narraganset Bay, surveyed by order of the Government of the 
United States. 

Walter (T. U.) Lithog. Plan of Girard College, now building, of which he is architect. 

Wallich (N.) An interesting Collection of Seeds from the Botanical Garden of Calcutta. 

Other additions were made to our Minerals by Dr James Mease, John Roe, B. Nelson, 
Henry Blight, of Bristol (G. B.), John Vaughan and James Pedder, and to our 
shells by John Vaughan. 



THE END. 



Pi. I Vol.5. 





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